Annotated bibliography of mirages, green flashes, atmospheric refraction, etc.

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Meteorologica, with an English translation by H. D. P. Lee
(Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1962).

* Of course, it all begins with ARISTOTLE, who was quoted by Maltézos
* (1912). The oldest account of mirages seems to be Aristotle's brief
* mention in the "Meteorologica" (c. 340 or 350 BC) at 373 b in Book III
* (p.253 of the Loeb Library edition):
* "Distant and dense air does of course normally act as a mirror . . . ,
* which is why when there is an east wind promontories on the sea appear
* to be elevated above it and everything appears abnormally large;. . . "
* but unfortunately he then drags in the Moon illusion.
* So both MIRAGE and LOOMING were known to him.
* As Lee notes there, a similar (but much briefer) mention occurs in
* "Problems" XXVI. 53: "Why, when the east wind blows, do all the things
* seem larger?" Here are the Loeb Library editions:

Problems II, with an English translation by W. S. Hett
(Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1965).

Enquiry into Plants, and minor works on Odours and Weather Signs, vol. 2
(Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1949), p. 411.

* THEOPHRASTUS was Aristotle's successor; he's cited by A. von Humboldt.
* The fragment given in the footnote suggests he was familiar with
* superior mirages as well: "si mons versus aquilonem extenditur . . . ",
* though the translator obviously is not ("with what meaning I cannot
* see.")
* However, it is the inferior-mirage passage that Humboldt refers to:
* "If promontories seem to stand high out of the sea, or a single island
* looks like several . . . ."
* This is the Loeb Library edition; the "weather signs" section is
* apparently just tacked on, after "on odours". The subtitle is
* "with an English translation by Sir Arthur Hort, Bart., . . . ."

Agatharchides of Cnidus
On the Erythrean Sea; translated, and edited, by S.M.Burstein
(Hakluyt Society, London, 1989).

* AGATHARCHIDES (2nd Century BC) is known only from fragments of his
* historical work on the areas around the Arabian peninsula quoted or
* paraphrased by the later writers (Diodorus, Strabo, and Photius) who
* cite him as a source. The book cited here is an attempt to collect what
* remains of his work.
* Let's start with a mangled account of mirages in the desert. On p. 116
* (Book 5, Chapter 66 of Agatharchides) we have:
*      "At the furthest reaches of Egypt and Trogodytice, . . .  because of
* the extreme heat produced by the sun at noon people standing next to
* one another are unable to see each other because of the density of the
* air resulting from its condensation." [Evidently the original story was
* "people standing *near* each other" -- meaning, perhaps, "within hailing
* distance" as opposed to "far away". This is a correct observation of the
* shrinking of the apparent horizon by the inferior mirage, and the hiding
* of objects a few hundred meters away by the mirage. The distortion of the
* sense of the passage in re-copying is quite typical of what copy editors
* do today; it is particularly common in re-told accounts of mirages and
* other refraction phenomena by someone who has not personally seen them.]
*      The next passage appears in both Photius and Diodorus, though in
* quite different forms. Here's Burstein's version of Photius; after
* commenting on the supposed lack of twilight at low latitudes: "Second,
* the sun appears to rise from the middle of the sea." [cf. Le Gentil's
* "whale" remark.] "Third, when it does rise, it is like a blazing coal,
* scattering great sparks, some into the disc of light and some beyond."
* [cf. the GF observers who speak of "flames" shooting out of the Sun.]
* "Fourth, people also say that the shape of the sun is not like a disc
* but most closely resembles a thick column which appears fatter at the
* end as if it had a head." [Ch. 107, p. 171] Here Burstein cites Salt,
* (1814) p. 93, for a similar description (q.v., below).

Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus of Sicily: The Library of History, Books II.35 - IV.58, with an English translation by C. H. Oldfather
(Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1933), pp. 241–245.

* DIODORUS SICULUS has the next earliest (c. 30 BC) known description of
* mirages. Oldfather's translation makes good sense, but he seems not to
* have appreciated the significance of this passage:
* "And both in this land and in Libya which lies beyond the Syrtis there
* takes place a marvellous thing. For at certain times, and especially when
* there is no wind, shapes are seen gathering in the sky which assume the
* forms of animals of every kind; and some of these remain fixed, but
* others begin to move, sometimes retreating before a man and at other times
* pursuing him, and in every case, since they are of monstrous size, they
* strike such as have never experienced them with wondrous dismay and
* terror. . . . although the natives, who have often met with such things,
* pay no attention to the phenomenon."
* "As for the movements which these shapes make in both directions, these
* . . . indicate no volition on their part, since it is impossible that
* voluntary flight or pursuit should reside in a soulless thing. And yet
* the living creatures are, unknown to themselves, responsible for this
* movement through the air; for, if they advance, they push by their violent
* motion the air which lies beneath them, and this is the reason why the
* image which has formed retreats before them and gives the impression of
* fleeing; whereas if the living creatures withdraw, they follow in the
* opposite direction, the cause having been reversed . . . . Consequently it
* has the appearance of pursuing men who withdraw before it, for the image
* is drawn to the empty space and rushes forward in a mass under the
* influence of the backward motion of the living creature. . . ."
* (from Book III.50 and .51)
* The need for calm air is repeated three times.

J. C. Rolfe
Quintus Curtius, Vol.II
(Harvard Univ.Press, Cambridge, 1956), pp. 162–165.

* QUINTUS CURTIUS RUFUS (History of Alexander, Book VII; c. 40 A.D.)
* The reference here is Curt. 7.5.4:
* "Then too a mist [caligo], aroused by the excessive warmth of the ground,
* obscures the light, and the aspect of the plain is not unlike that of a
* vast and deep sea."
* Many thanks to Prof. J.C.Yardley of the University of Ottawa for finding
* this passage!

H. Rackham
Pliny, Natural History
(Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1938).

* PLINY in the Loeb Library edition
* This passage from the "Natural History" is obviously not what Kircher
* had in mind: (from Book II, section LVIII)
* "In the third consulship of Marius the inhabitants of Ameria and Tuder
* saw the spectacle of heavenly armies advancing from the East and the West
* to meet in battle, those from the West being routed." (Vol. I, p. 285)

F. Josephus
The Works of Flavius Josephus
(William P. Nimmo, London, 1865).

* William Whiston's translation of FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS (c. 78 A.D.)
* This translation has been widely reprinted, up to the present day.
* It is also available on the Perseus website at
* and at
* The passage suggestive of a mirage is in Book VI, Chapter V, section 3
* of the "Wars of the Jews" (near paragraph 289). He enumerates several
* omens around the time of the feast of unleavened bread, almost a week
* before Passover:
* "Besides these, a few days after that feast, on the one-and-twentieth
* day of the month Artemisius, [Jyar,] a certain prodigious and incredible
* phenomenon appeared; I suppose the account of it would seem to be a fable,
* were it not related by those that saw it, and were not the events that
* followed it of so considerable a nature as to deserve such signals; for,
* before sun-setting, chariots and troops of soldiers in their armour were
* seen running about among the clouds, and surrounding of cities."
* This does indeed sound much like a superior mirage or Fata Morgana.
* Cf. l'Astronomie 7, 392-393 (1888).

A. de Ferrariis
Liber de Situ Iapygiae
(per Petrum Pernam, Basileae, 1558).

* Very EARLY MIRAGE descriptions (1558) by Antonius de Ferrariis (1444-1517)
* or Antonio de Ferarri, also known as Antonio Galateo, Galateus Antonus, etc.
* after his place of birth (Galatone).
*      Supposedly written in 1507-1509, but only published in 1558.
* Japygia is the old name; it became Apulia, and then Puglia.
* This passage is translated from the recent (2005) Latin/Italian version
* "La Iapygia" edited by Domenico Defilippis (Mario Congedo, Galatina):
* [18 10] (pp. 92/93): "In these swamps [near Nardò, on the Gulf of
* Taranto], as also in the fields of Manduria and Baleso and Copertino,
* certain apparitions are seen, which are called Mutationes or Mutata .
* The common people tell tales of I don't know what, vampires or witches or,
* as they say in Naples, janare [fairies], or as the Greeks say, nereids.
* It's amazing: this nonsense takes possession of the whole region and
* misleads the poor people. With no reliable authority, no reason, no
* demonstration, everyone believes in things they have not seen and are
* not true. And we oppose the testimony of the most ignorant people; we
* believe they are childish fantasies and old wives' tales, giving more
* trust to the ear than the eye. No one is an eye-witness, all accept
* what they have heard from others." (He then goes off to condemn popular
* beliefs in magic potions that can turn women into various animal forms
* at night; vampires; and other superstitions.) Then: "But let us return
* to those apparitions."
* [18 18] (pp. 96/97) "And sometimes you will see cities and castles and
* towers, and sheep and different colored cattle and images or specters of
* other things, where there is no city, no sheep, not even a thorn bush.
* I myself have sometimes had the pleasure of seeing these plays, this
* lusus naturae .
*      "They do not last long, but change as the vapors in which they appear,
* from one place to another, from one form to another, whence perhaps they
* are called Mutata , or because the sky is changed from sunny to rain
* by these apparitions.
*      "This happens in the morning, with calm air, beginning with a light
* breath of air (customarily) from the south. For as the strong south
* wind ceases, so at first it is gentlest and, as it is warm, it raises
* tenuous mists, which reflect images of cities, flocks, and other things
* like a mirror.
*      "And like the vapors, those images are moved, as things are seen
* moving in mirrors that are moved and shaken. And because the things
* directly face the vapors, they are seen directly, just like a shadow
* which falls opposite a luminous body; those that are oblique and turned
* produce images, which we also see turned, as also in water we see the
* tops of mountains and roofs at the bottom. For when some things are
* closer to the surface of the water, such as a foundation, to our vision
* they would appear far off; the images of rooftops, which are farther
* from the water, come nearer to us, and therefore are seen below.
*      "And so we find that in a closed building, with a little light coming
* through the slits, everything is seen reversed, such as the head of a man
* downward, feet above. For the lines of shadows do not proceed directly,
* but are transposed and intersect in the middle. This same thing happens
* in a concave mirror, so that the upper part of the mirror reflects the
* lower part of the thing seen, and the lower the upper.
*      "These apparitions that I have mentioned often deceive the gaze of
* travelers, who, when they suppose they are near a city, are very far away.
* And there have been seen in this region images in the air of men riding
* horses and marching on foot. And so writers have recorded that armed
* troops arrayed for battle have been seen in the sky, and these (as I
* think) images were of those far away from that place in which the images
* were seen, and could not be seen [directly].
*      "And thus we don't see a coin in the bottom of a vessel, but if the
* same vessel is filled with water, we see not the coin, but its image at
* the surface of the water, which is touching the air. For the surface
* of the water is analogous to the surface of a mirror, but whether these
* images may belong to the mirror, or the outer surface of the air, is
* another question."      And he cites Aristotle.      [18 24] (pp. 98/99)
*      "And as these figures are of mists, they give likenesses of ships
* and sails, where there is no fleet. These apparitions deceive not only
* the inexperienced. It is not long since the whole coast, from Hydrunto
* [Otranto] to Monte Gargano, at one and the same hour before sunrise,
* saw a fleet sailing from the east. It was thought to have been that
* of the Turks, and before that specter or delusion was revealed by
* the lightening dawn, various letters were composed here and there and
* messengers were sent concerning the approach of this imposing fleet."
* [NOTE: a Turkish fleet had just sacked Otranto in 1480, a few years
* before this was written; he assisted in its liberation.] He continues:
* "Perhaps in this way or another of which we shall speak, as I believe,
* someone (I don't know who) from Lilibeo [Marsala] saw a fleet leaving
* the port of Carthage."
*      The 1558 edition was recently republished by Forni.

T. Facellus
De Rebus Siculis decades duae
(Joannes Matthaeus Mayda et Francesco Caracca, Panormi, 1558).

* Thomas Facellus (Tommaso Fazello) briefly mentions mirages
* Cited by Minasi; and, following him, P&E (p.170). They give the citation
* as Dec. 1, lib. II, cap. 1.
* The title page is imaged at
* The passage appears on p. 42 of the edition at the HathiTrust website:
* "Sed & alia in hoc freto res mira frequenter apparet. Nam mitigato
* turbine, quietoq; aere, circa diei exortum illucescente aurora, variæ
* animantium, hominumq; formæ in aere crebrò cernuntur. Quarum aliæ
* penitus immotæ sunt, pleræq; vel in aere discurtunt,vel inter se
* dimicant, quousq; Sole incalescente, è conspectu eripiantur:Harum
* Polycletus lib. de Reb.sicul.& Aristoteles mirab.aud. memi-
* nerunt, quarum etiam haec à Philosophis redditur ratio : quod cùm in
* ijs regionibus,eo præsertim tempore,quo haec cernuntur,ventos, aut
* omnino non spirare,aut exiles admodum,& aerem quietum esse constet,
* in ipso aere denso atq; obtuso diuersæ animantium effigiantur species,
* quibus formam aer, quem tenues & leues quandoq; mouent auræ, variam
* præbet (quemadmodum æstate in nubibus fieri videmus) qua tandem sol
* incalescens in ventos resoluit."
*      (Panormi = Palermo)

Marc'Antonio Politi
Cronica della nobil' e fedelissima città di Reggio
(Appresso Pietro Brea, Messina, 1617), pp. 18–19.

* MARC'ANTONIO POLITI -- the first to use the term "Fata Morgana"
* Briefly quoted by Costanzo (1903), p. 106.

A. Kircher
Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae
(Sumptibus Hermanni Scheus ex typographia Ludovici Grignani, Romae, 1646).

* This is the work cited by Castberg. The discussion of mirages and other
* meteorological phenomena is in Liber decimus, Pars secunda, pp. 800-804.
* "Liber decimus. Magia Lucis & Vmbrae . . . Pars Secunda. Magia
* Parastatica, siue de repræsentationibus rerum prodigiosis; per Lucem &
* Vmbram . . . Caput 1 De Repræsentationibus aeris: mentions "in libris
* Machabeorum" (p. 800)
* "Parastatis I Naturae, siue de Morgana Rheginorum in Freto Mamertino,
* siue Siculo" -- here, on p. 801, we have "Vocant autem Rhegini hoc
* spectaculum Morganam," followed by Ignatio Angelucci's letter to Leone
* Sanzio, describing a Fata Morgana display on Aug. 15, 1643. [Angelucci's
* letter is also quoted by Capozzo (1840).] Note that Angelucci says he
* saw his F.M. "La mattina dell' Assontione della Beatissima Vergine,"
* and does not give a calendar date. This led to some confusion later.
* [His letter is "Di Reggio", dated the 22. of August.]
*      p.802 mentions "Scipio Mazzellus, Regni Neapolitani; fol. 117".
* p. 803: "Refert Pomponius Mela, in Mauritania retro Atlantem regiones
* esse, in quibus circa meridiem inter montes varia spectra comparere
* soleant, quae gestus hominu' in omnibus æmulentur: videas ibi choreas,
* audias tubarum, tympanorumque strepitus. Refert quoque Plinius, intra
* Imaum in Scythia regionem esse, in qua quot-annis in vasta planitie
* appareant varia spectacula rerum sub figura hominum animaliumque, &
* instar exercitus; quibus viatores non rarò in auia, & deuia
* præcipitia ac denique in manifestam perniciem deducantur. Ad
* flumen Oby refert Haithon Armenus regionem esse, ad quam nullus adhuc
* penetrauerit, ob formidabilium, spectrorum, quae ex illa fluminis parte
* comparent, multitudinem."
* The reference to Pomponius Mela seems to be nonsense; there is nothing
* like this in his book. I have not found the Pliny passage, either.
* (For more evidence of Kircher's unreliability, see Lohne's 1959 paper
* on Harriot.)
*      NOTE: a revised edition of this was printed in Amsterdam in 1671.
* Due to the removal of some material, Angelucci's letter appears in
* it on pp. 704-705 rather than p. 801. Many later commentators have
* referred to that edition instead of the original; see the entries for
* Giardina (1758), Minasi (1773), Boccara (1902), etc.

P. Reina
Delle Notizie Istoriche Della Città Di Messina
(Pietro Brea, Messina, 1658).

* Placido Reina quotes Politi, Facellus, etc.
* The Fata Morgana begins on p. 64, and "similar things" on p. 65.
* Politi is cited on pp. 65 and 67. See Costanzo's (1903) discussion
* at his p. 107; esp. the footnotes there.
* Available at Google Books.

[E. ] Mariotte
Traitté du nivellement
(Jean Cusson, Paris, 1672).

* EDME MARIOTTE's short monograph on the optical level and its use
*      Mainly of historical interest; first, because of Forel's use of his
* technique for the easy measurement of absolute altitudes; and second,
* for his discussion of temporal VARIATIONS in TERRESTRIAL REFRACTION.
* That discussion is mainly on pp.19-20; but it arises from the calculations
* on p. 18, where the diameter of the Earth is taken to be 40 million feet.
* His concern there is that the height of a distant object on the tangent
* plane at the observer is above the observer's height. But, he says,
* "Il est encore necessaire de sçavoir que dans les grandes distances
* un mesme objet paroist de differentes hauteurs par les refractions,&
* change presq'uà toutes les heures du jour,c'est à dire que s'il est le
* matin au lever du Soleil en une mesme ligne droite avec un objet prochain,
* il paroistra plus bas une heure aprés le Soleil levé, & encore plus bas
* quand l'air sera plus échauffé,& plus les matinées seront fraisches &
* l'air serain, plus les objets éloignez paroistront élevez, & quelques
* fois les objets qui sont à une distance d'environ 500 pas paroistront
* s'élever, & en mesme tems ceux qui sont beaucoup éloignez s'abaisser,
* principalement lors que le Soleil luit, comme on a reconnu par plusieurs
* observations faites en divers lieux & diverses saisons,mesme à l'égard
* des objets moins élevez que observateur,ou d'égale hauteur ; & on a
* remarqué quelquefois, qu'un objet qui avoir paru à midy plus bas que
* le plan de niveau, paroissoit le lendemain matin plus de 20 pieds plus
* haut que ce plan, en une distance d'environ 2 lieuës, d'où il s'ensuit
* que le plus seur moien pour bien niveller de grandes distances, est
* de le faire à plusieurs fois: . . . " whereupon he gives an example,
* referring to Figs. 12 and 13 at the end of the volume. This discussion
* of refraction continues on to p. 22.
*      He mentions refraction again on p. 27 and p. 31, where he remarks that
* the refractions are "irregular" when the Sun shines; on the next page,
* he says that reliable measurements can be made when the sky is covered
* with clouds. So, although he give no systematic measurements, it's clear
* from the numerous examples that he was familiar with the variations and
* regularities in terrestrial refraction.
*      A good PDF of this work is available at
* which scrupulously puts "[sic]" after Mariotte's odd title spelling.
* However, BNF's OCR frequently renders the long-s as "f".

“A certain Phenomenon, seen by Monsieur Havelius (sic), Feb. 5. 1674. St. No. not far from Marienburg in Boroussia - about the Sun a little before his setting . . .,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 9, 26–27 (1674).

* HEVELIUS (1674)
* "Under the Sun, towards the Horizon, there hung a somewhat dilute small
* Cloud, beneath which there appear'd a Mock-Sun, of the same bigness (to
* sense) with the true Sun, and under the same Vertical, of a somewhat red
* colour. Soon after, the true Sun more and more descending to the Horizon,
* towards the said Cloud (as may be seen Fig. 4) the spurious Sun beneath it
* grew clearer and clearer, so as that the reddish colour in that apparent
* Solar disk vanish'd, and put on the genuine Solar light, and that the more,
* the less the genuine disk of the Sun was distant from the false Sun: Till
* at length the upper true Sun passed into the lower counterfeit one, and so
* remained alone; as appears Fig. 5.
* "Which Appearance being unusual, and having never been seen by me, I took
* the freedom of imparting it unto you, especially since here the Mock-Sun
* was not found at the side of the true Sun, as 'tis wont to be in all
* Parhelia's seen by me, but perpendicularly under it; not to mention the
* Colour, so different from that which is usual in Mock-Suns; nor the great
* length of the Tayl, cast up by the genuine Sun, and of a far more vivid and
* splendid light, than Parhelia's use to exhibit. Upon this appearance there
* soon follow'd here an exceedingly intense and bitter Frost, whereby the
* whole Sinus Puzensis was frozen up from this Town of Dantzick, as far as
* Hela in the Baltick Sea, which lasted unto the 25th of March; and the Bay
* was frozen so hard, that with great safety people run out into it with Sleds
* and Horses, for several of our Miles. Whether the recited Phaenomenon have
* had any influence for this extream Cold, I know not, but leave it for
* Astrologers to examine. Whether the like Appearance have ever been
* observ'd in England, I should be glad to be informed of."

P. Perrault
On the origin of springs, translated by Aurele LaRocque
(Hafner, New York, 1967).

* Translation of Pierre Perrault's "De l'origine des fontaines" (1674)
* and so filed here instead of at 1967. Orig. pub. by Pierre le Petit,
* Paris (1674).
* "Moreover the astronomers are certain that humid vapors either of the
* Sea, or of the Earth, cause much refraction, and cause many things to be
* seen otherwise than they really are: as when the Sun or the Moon
* sometimes appear to be oval, when they rise or set; . . . ." He then
* mentions their appearance "on the horizon before they have risen up to
* it," and offers the coin in a basin filled with water as an illustrative
* demonstration. In section (111): "I have made another more elaborate
* experiment, which shows that the vapors of the earth, according to their
* arrangement, can make distant objects appear now higher now lower, as if
* these objects were really raised or lowered. . . . I took as an object a
* pavilion about thirty-two feet in height half a league away, which I
* observed with a spyglass attached to and rendered motionless on a window
* sill in a large wall; and having aimed it at the top of this pavilion,
* which was on the thread of my spyglass, and level with it; I found that
* from two o'clock in the afternoon, when I began my observation, until
* night, the top of this roof had seemed to rise by eight feet, so that
* more than half this roof was above the thread of my spyglass." [He goes
* on to relate several days' observations, during which the building rose
* and fell by more than its full height.] "I have repeated the same
* experiment at another time when there was a great drought, which had
* lasted more than six weeks without respite, and I have always seen the
* same thing . . . the rising of my object happened regularly from noon to
* evening, and the lowering from morning to noon. . . ." (pp. 58-60)
* The translator suggests (p.182) that "this may be the earliest study"
* of such DIURNAL VARIATIONS in atmospheric refraction. N.B.: "half a
* league" is about 2 km; the building was about 10 m high; so the variations
* cover a range of about 1/200 radian or some 16' of arc.
*      Note that the book is dedicated to Christiaan Huygens, who picked up
* the refraction variations in his "Traité de la Lumière" (1690).

J. Picard
Voyage d'Uranibourg
(Imp.Royale, Paris, 1680), p. 8.

* Jean Picard's inferior mirage seen at Tycho's old observatory
* "Je mets à part les changemens qui arrivent à cause des Réfractions,
* & je diray seulement une chose que nous remarquasimes en faisant
* les Observations que nous venons de rapporter. Il y a proche de
* Copenhague une Isle appellée Amac, dont le terrain qui est assez bas
* nous estoit caché par la rondeur de la mer, en sorte néanmoins que nous
* y découvrions les sommets de quelque arbres. Or venant à pointer le
* quart de cercle vers l'endroit où ces arbres me paroissoient tranchez,
* j'estois asseûré que mon Rayon visuel recontroit l'extrémité visible
* de la surface de la mer, & néanmoins on auroit dit que ces arbres
* estoient dans le Ciel, & que la mer estoit terminée bien au dec,à de
* l'endroit où nous sçavions qu'il falloit pointer. La raison de cette
* apparence, est que la mer estoit fort unie, faisoit à nostre égard si
* exactement l'effet du miroir, que nous la confondions avec le Ciel."
* (Probably this is the island of Amager, where Copenhagen's airport is
* today -- about 30 km south of Hven.)
*      This memoir contains much else of interest: an eyewitness account of
* Tycho's original records, and his celestial globe: "nonobstant toutes
* les fortunes qu'il a couruës, ayant esté premiérment transporté de
* Dannemarck en Boheme, puis en Silesie, & enfin rapporté in Dannemarck,
* il est en dans son entier comme s'il venoit d'estre fait : son diametre
* est précisément de quatre pieds, sept pouces & une ligne, mesure de
* Paris." (p. 4)
*      Picard also enjoyed the collaboration of Erasmus Bartholin, who
* accompanied him to Uraniburg, as well as "un jeune Danois nommé
* Olaüs Romer, que M. Bartholin m'avoit fait connoitre, & qui estant
* ensuite venu en France avec moy, fut de l'Académie des Sciences, où
* il a donné plusieurs marques de son rare génie & se son esprit." (p.5)
*      He found Tycho's observatory completely destroyed, and the remains
* scattered. Placing his instruments on the surviving foundations of
* Tycho's observatory, he determined its location: the ground was about
* 27 toises [52.6 m] above the sea (p. 7); a latitude of 55° 54' 15''
* (p. 25); and a longitude 42m 10s or 10° 32' 30'' E of Paris. (p.28)
*      His stay in November 1671 was so difficult that "enfin le travail des
* veilles durant un froid auquel je n'estois pas accoustumé, & l'air de
* la Mer Baltique me causerent une langueur qui renoit un peu de scorbut,
* & qui me fit à la fin résoudre à quitter cette solitude, pour me
* retirer dans un lieu de secours avant que les glaces me fermassent
* le passage." (p.12) (He notes on the next page that scurvy was common
* "aux personnes sedentaires".) But he sent Romer back in the spring,
* to finish the observations.
*       Then, on p. 18, we find he has noticed (but not understood) the
* effects of annual aberration, "que j'observe depuis dix ans." Not bad!
*      Thanks to Sharron Huling for providing a photocopy!


[John Winthrop]
in Winthrop's Journal, ``History of New England'', Volume II , James Kendall Hosmer LL. D. , ed.
(Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1908).

* Earliest mention seems to be in JOHN WINTHROP's Journal
* In the entries for 1648, we find on p. 346:
*      ``There appeared over the harbor at New Haven, in the evening, the
* form of the keel of a ship with three masts, to which were suddenly
* added all the tackling and sails, and presently after, upon the top of
* the poop, a man standing with one hand akimbo under his left side, and
* in his right hand a sword stretched out toward the sea. Then from the
* side of the ship which was toward the town arose a great smoke, which
* covered all the ship, and in that smoke she vanished away; but some saw
* her keel sink into the water. This was seen by many, men and women, and
* it continued about a quarter of an hour.''
* [cf. the FOG FILE for the "smoke".]
* A footnote says: "The spectral ship of New Haven, the tradition of
* which was taken up and characteristically developed by Cotton Mather, is
* one of the most weird of New England legends, and has become familiar to
* the later generations."

L. Bacon
Thirteen Historical Discourses, on the Completion of Two Hundred Years, from the Beginning of the First church in New Haven, with an Appendix
(Durrie and Peck, New Haven, 1839), p. 107.

* Leonard Bacon's account, largely taken from Winthrop's
* Here, after describing the loss of the ship sent out in January, 1646,
* he says: ``Two years and five months from the sailing of that ship, in
* an afternoon in June, after a thunder storm, not far from sunset, there
* appeared over the harbor of New Haven, the form of the keel of a ship
* with three masts, to which were suddenly added all the tackling and
* sails; and presently after, upon the highest point of the deck, a man
* standing with one hand leaning against his left side, and in his right
* hand a sword pointing towards the sea. The phenomenon continued about a
* quarter of an hour, and was seen by a crowd of wondering witnesses, --
* till at last, from the farther side of the ship, there arose a great
* smoke, which covered all the ship; and in that smoke she vanished
* away.''
* A footnote calls it an "atmospheric phenomenon"; mirages were well known
* by 1839, when this was published.

C. Mather
Magnalia Christi Americana, Books I and II, Edited by K.B.Murdock
(Belknap Press, Cambridge, 1977), pp. 169–170.

* COTTON MATHER's belated third-hand account
* This quotes a secondary source -- a letter from James Pierpont, who
* was pastor of the First Congregational Church of New Haven from 1685 to
* 1714, and therefore could not himself have been a witness. His
* second-hand account, reported to Mather in a letter, has the year of the
* original sailing wrong; and the details are by now vastly exaggerated by
* the fading memories of the (unnamed) witnesses:
*      "In Compliance with your Desires, I now give you the Relation of
* that Apparition of a Ship in the Air , which I have received from the
* most Credible, Judicious and Curious Surviving Observers of it.
*      "In the Year 1647, besides much other Lading, a far more Rich
* Treasure of Passengers, (Five or Six of which were Persons of chief Note
* and Worth in New-Haven ) put themselves on Board a New Ship , built at
* Rhode-Island , of about 150 Tuns; but so walty, that the Master,
* (Lamberton ) often said she would prove their Grave. In the Month of
* January , cutting their way thro' much Ice, . . . they set Sail. Mr.
* Davenport in Prayer with an observable Emphasis used these Words,
* Lord, if it be thy pleasure to bury these our Friends in the bottom
* of the Sea, they are thine; save them!      The Spring following no
* Tidings of these Friends arrived with the Ships from England:
* New-Haven's Heart began to fail her: This put the Godly People on
* much Prayer , both Publick and Private, That the Lord would (if it was
* his Pleasure) let them hear what he had done with their dear Friends,
* and prepare them with a suitable Submission to his Holy Will.      In
* June next ensuing, a great Thunder-storm arose out of the
* North-West : after which, (the Hemisphere being serene) about an Hour
* before Sunset a SHIP of like dimensions with the aforesaid, with her
* Canvas and Colours abroad (tho' the Wind Northernly) appeared in the Air
* coming up from our Harbour's Mouth, which lyes Southward from the Town,
* seemingly with her Sails filled under a fresh Gale, holding her Course
* North, and continuing under Observation, Sailing against the Wind for
* the space of half an Hour. Many were drawn to behold this great Work
* of God; yea, the very Children  cry'd out, There's a Brave Ship!      At
* length, crouding up as far as there is usually Water sufficient for
* such a Vessel, and so near some of the Spectators, as that they imagined
* a Man might hurl a Stone on Board her, her Maintop seem'd to be blown
* off, but left hanging in the Shrouds; then her Missen-top ; then all
* her Masting seemed blown away by the Board: Quickly after the Hull
* brought unto a Careen , she overset, and so vanished into a smoaky
* Cloud, which in some time dissipated, leaving, as everywhere else, a
* clear Air."
* To which, Mather adds: "Reader, There being yet living so many
* Credible Gentlemen, that were Eye-Witnesses of this Wonderful thing, I
* venture to Publish it for a thing as undoubted , as 'tis wonderful ."
* (Mather's book originally appeared in 1702.)

H. W. Longfellow
“The Phantom Ship,” in Outre-Mer: a pilgrimage beyond the sea
(George Routledge & Co., London, 1851).

* Mather's account enshrined by the poet Longfellow
* (Thanks to Penny Porter for pointing this out!)

I. MacBeath Calder
The New Haven Colony
(Yale University Press, New Haven, 1934), pp. 160–161.

* A brief modern mention by Isabel MacBeath Calder
* On pp. 160-161 there is a description of "the attempt to build
* transatlantic vessels on Long Island Sound." The launch of the first
* ship, ``ill built and very `walt-sided,' '' in January, 1646, is
* described. On p. 161: ``After the lapse of many months a mirage of
* the ship was said to have appeared over the harbor at New Haven, but the
* vessel itself neither reached its destination nor returned to its port
* of departure.''
* Numerous citations are offered: New Haven Colonial Records,
* 1638-1649 , pp. 147, 283, 329-333, and ``Roxbury Land and Church
* Records,'' Record Commissioners of the City of Boston, Sixth Report ,
* p. 190 are not available to me; the others are cited here.


N. Desroches
Dictionnaire des Termes propres de Marine
(Amable Auroy, Paris, 1687), p. 352.

*       (see also "Crocker Land" and "W.H.Lehn" files)
* ORIGIN of the word "MIRAGE":
* The 1687 French dictionary that defines "La terre se mire":
*      "Cela se dit lors que les vapeurs font paroître les terres comme si
* elles étoient élevées sur de basses nuées." (p. 352)
* by Nicolas Desroches
*      At
* we read that "Nicolas Desroches fut lieutenant de vaisseau en 1671 et
* capitaine en 1693."
*      Thanks to Eric Frappa for finding this reference!
* available at Google Books;

N. Aubin
Dictionaire de Marine
(Pierre Brunel, Amsterdam, 1702), p. 565.

* ORIGIN of the word "MIRAGE":
*      The old French/Dutch dictionary by Nicolas Aubin
* Defines "La terre se mire" on p. 565. The wording given there is almost
* identical to that used by Le Gentil (1789), who says he got it from the
* 1736 edition; there was also a 1742 (3rd) edition. The first edition was
* this one, in 1702. Its definition seems taken from the 1687 dictionary by
* Desroches, with minor changes.
*      Thanks to Eric Frappa for finding this reference!
* available at Google Books

J. Gronier
“Milton and the mirage,”
New Scientist 10, No. 239, 669–670 (15 June, 1961).

* Modern comments on the origin of "mirage"
* Jacques Gronier, Attaché to the French Consulate at Malta, responds to
* Richard Beck's article (16 March), supplying good English translations:
*      "In the report of Monge, entitled `On the optical phenomenon known
* under the name of mirage', and published in the Reports of the
* Institute of Cairo, one reads textually the following: 'It [the
* phenomenon] is well known to sailors, who frequently observe it at sea
* and who have given it the name of mirage. In truth, the cause which
* produces the mirage at sea may well be different from that which produces
* it on land; but the effect being absolutely the same in the two cases,
* I did not believe it necessary to employ a new word.'
*      "It is plainly apparent from this that the term had not been
* invented by Monge and that it was in previous use. Some years later,
* the physicist Biot, also a member of the Academy of Sciences, gave the
* theory of the phenomenon. His report, read on 8 August, 1808, began thus:
*      "'Physicists and astronomers have for a long time observed that
* objects which are seen very near to the horizon sometimes transmit to
* the observer two images, one upright, the other inverted. No one is
* better placed than sailors to observe this phenomenon and it is well
* known to them: they designate it by a very expressive name in calling
* it the mirage, because indeed it then seems that objects are reflected
* as in a mirror.
*      'In the volume of the History of the Royal Academy of Sciences, for the
* year 1753, printed in 1757, one finds on page 253, in the account made to
* the Academy by M. de Chabert, Lieutenant-Commander, of the voyage which he
* made by order of the King, in 1750 and 1751, to rectify the maps of Acadia
* and of Newfoundland, the following paragraph:
*      'While M. de Chabert was occupied in drawing up the plans of which we
* spoke above, he was often stopped by a singular phenomenon, that is called
* a mirage: it is an apparent change in the aspect of the shores a little
* way away, which the inhabitants attribute to the reflection of the sky
* which, mirrored in the water, makes the shore appear lifted in the air
* and which M. de Chabert believes, with great probability, is caused by
* the irregularities of refraction often undergone by terrestrial objects.'
*      "These extracts open the way to new researches.  In effect,
* this phenomenon of refraction, although it has often given place to
* interpretations scientifically incorrect, seems to have been observed,
* from very distant times, by the navigators who have certainly not omitted
* to report it.
*      "It is probable that in the archives of the Musee de la Marine in
* Paris and, in particular, in the old 'log books' which are preserved
* there, the oldest references to the word mirage may be discovered."

[J. P. ] Maraldi
“Détermination géographique de l’Isle de Corse,”
Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. 1722, 348–355 (1724).

* EARLIEST LOOMING? (Maraldi, cited by de Chabert, 1755); and indirectly
* referred to by Biot (1805).
* Giacomo Filippo Maraldi -- by now, Jacques Philippe Maraldi -- was
* the nephew of Giovanni Domenico (or Jean Dominique) Cassini.
*      This is indeed mostly about determining the coordinates of several
* places on and near Corsica; but our interest is in the introductory
* remarks:
*      "On voit des Côtes de Genes & de Provence les Montagnes de l’Isle de
* Corse, qui paroissent quelquefois élevées au-dessus de l'horison
* sensible , comme si elles sortoient de l’eau , & qui disparoissent
* en d'autre temps par un Ciel également pur & serein , comme si elles
* s’étoient plongées dans la Mer.
*      "Il y a des saisons plus propres pour découvrir cette Isle des
* côtes de Genes, qui sont le Printemps & l’Automne. On la voit aussi
* quelquefois l‘Hiver; & les heures du jour qu’elle paroît , sont le
* matin au lever du Soleil , & un peu avant , ou bien le soir , un peu après
* son coucher. On la voit aussi quelquefois dans le même jour le matin &
* le soir , & elle se perd entierement de vûe le reste de la journée.
*      "Toutes ces apparences se font sur les Côtes de Genes, par rapport
* à un Observateur qui esi toujours dans la même situation & à la même
* hauteur sur la surface de la Mer.
*      "On pourroit attribuer cette diverfité d’apparence à la variation
* qui arrive à la hauteur des eaux de la Mer , qui sont entre Genes &
* la Corse; car quoique , suivant l’opinion commune des Philofophes , la
* surface de la Mer soit sphérique, il faut avouer que cette figure est
* sujette à des variations qui lui arrivent par des causes extérieures ,
* dont les principales font les courants, aussi-bien que le flux &
* le reflux, & qui font varier confiderablement la hauteur de l’eau
* dans le même lieu.
*      "Suivant cette idée, on pourroit dire que l’Isle se découvre
* lorsque la mer est basse : au contraire la Corse se doit perdre de vûe
* du même lieu , lorsque la Mer s’éleve & se place entre deux.
*      "Mais cette explication n’est pas la plus naturelle , & il est
* plus vrai-semblable d‘attribuer ces apparences aux réfractions ,
* & de supposer que les rayons visuels qui viennent de cette Isle à
* l‘Observateur qui est sur les Côtes opposées, se rompent diversement
* dans les vapeurs qui sont entre deux; ainsi, lorsque les vapeurs sont
* plus denses ou en plus grande quantité, les réfractions des rayons
* sont plus grandes, & font paroître l'Isle au-dessus de la Mer, &
* lorsque les vapeurs sont moins denses , ou qu’il y en a une moindre
* quantité répandue dans l’air , les réfractions des rayons étant
* plus petites , l’Isle reste cachée par la Mer.
*      "Cette explication paroît d’autant plus vrai-femblable , qu’elle
* est également propre à rendre raison des apparences semblables qui
* arrivent au milieu des Terres ; car on a remarqué depuis longtemps à
* l’Observatoire, des maisons éloignées de fept ou huit lieues ves [sic]
* le Nord , qui étant cachées pendant le jour par d’autres maisons qui
* sont plus proches, & placées seulement à une demi-lieue de distance,
* paroissent souvent le matin au lever du Soleil, élevées au-dessus de
* celles qui sont proches. Ces maisons éloignées s’abaissent ensuite
* peu à peu , jusqu'à ce qu’elles se cachent entierement pendant le
* jour par les Maisons qui sont proches. Cette apparence est donc une
* preuve évidente , que les rayons se courbent dans l’air différemment ,
* suivant les différentes densités de l’air, ou suivant la différente
* quantité de vapeurs par où ces rayons passent. Cela prouve aussi que
* le matin les vapeurs sont plus denses , ou bien qu’il y en a dans
* l’air une plus grande quantité que le reste du jour. L’apparence
* que fait la Corse , vûe de Genes , étant semblable à celle que nous
* venons de rapporter , on en peut rendre raison de la même maniere.
*      "M. le Marquis Saluago a observé très souvent ces apparences que
* fait l’Isle de Corse , d’une Maison qu’il a proche de Genes vers
* le Nord . . . ." -- and here he takes up the details of the surveying,
* remarking that the height of that observatory was 50 toises (about
* 97 meters) above sea level.
*      On p. 351, he says that this height, together with the size of the
* Earth's radius determined by the Academy, predicts a geometrical dip
* of the horizon of 18 minutes; but the observed dip is only 16' 0" to
* 17' 30", which is smaller. This difference should be attributed to the
* refraction of the rays between the horizon and the quadrant.
*      The first paragraph describes an appearance corresponding to inferior
* mirages. Subsequent descriptions of variations in terrestrial refraction
* correspond to looming and sinking; and the diurnal variations are a more
* detailed description of those reported in Perrault's "De l'origine des
* fontaines" (1674).
*      The best visibility of the distant mountains (over 260 km from Genoa)
* just before sunrise and just after sunset is due to the illumination
* of the intervening lower atmosphere by the Sun, when it is above the
* observer's horizon. When the Sun is just below the horizon, the distant
* peaks are silhouetted against the brightly illuminated upper troposphere.
*      The apparent motion of distant houses relative to nearer ones that are
* visible at daybreak and sink out of sight in the middle of the day, is
* direct observation of changes in the apparent curvature of the Earth's
* surface, due to changes in lapse rate in the boundary layer.
*      In short, lots of good observations of DIURNAL VARIATIONS in refraction
* that are understandable today, but were remarkably mysterious four
* centuries ago.
*      Cited by de Chabert (1753), and mentioned by Le Gentil (1789).
* [cf. Perrault (1674); Delambre (1814); Williams, Mudge, and Dalby (1795);
* Atkinson (1826); etc.]
* Dated 28. Mars, 1722.
*      Available at BHL., and at Gallica:

T. Shaw
Travels, or Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary and the Levant
(Theatre, Oxford, 1738), p. 362.

* EARLIEST LOOMING? (THOMAS SHAW, D.D.; cited by T.Jefferson, 1787)
*      On the title page, Shaw is merely "Fellow of Queen's-College in
* Oxford, and F.R.S."; but on the title page of the 1746 Supplement
* (bound together with the original in the copy I managed to borrow), he
* is also "Principal of St. Edmund Hall, and Regius Professor of Greek,
* in the University of OXFORD."
* In Chap. III, p. 358, "Physical Observations &c. or an Essay towards
* the Natural History of Syria, Phœnice, and the Holy Land," we find
* the passage cited by Jefferson:
*      "We are likewise to observe further with Regard to these strong
* Easterly Winds, that Vessels or any Objects which are seen, at a
* Distance, appear to be vastly magnified, or loom , according to the
* Mariners expression." [N.B.: p. 362 -- not 302!]
*      But more surprising is the passage in Chap. IV, "Physical Observations
* &c. or an Essay towards the Natural History of Arabia Petræa" (p.377):
*      "Where any Part of these Deserts is sandy and level, the Horizon
* is as fit for astronomical Observations as the Sea, and appears,
* at a small Distance, to be no less a Collection of Water1. It was
* likewise equally surprizing, to observe, in what an extraordinary Manner
* every Object appeared to be magnifyed within it; insomuch that a Shrub
* seemed as big as a Tree, and a Flock of Achbobbas might be mistaken
* for a Caravan of Camels. This seeming Collection of Water, always
* advances, about a Quarter of a Mile before us, whilst the intermediate
* Space appears to be in one continued Glow, occasioned by the quivering
* undulating Motion of that quick Succession of Vapours and Exhalations,
* which are extracted by the powerful Influence of the Sun." [pp.378-379]
*      P.378 footnote at "Water":  "The like Observation is taken notice of
* by Diodorus Siculus in his Account of Africa, l. 3, p. 128" -- and the
* passage is quoted in the original Greek.
*      This theme is continued in the Supplement, which is dated 1746;
* pp. vi and vii of its Preface contain a Note to p. 378:
*      "To Note  1. add this  learned Remark, and corroborating Proof,
* from Dr. Hyde ; who in his Annotations on Peritsol's Itinerary,
* p. 15 deduces the Name of Barca and Libya , from this Phænomenon .
* [Quotation italicized in the original:] Et quidem (ut denominationis
* causam & rationem exquiramus) dictum nomen [Arabic transcription]
* [Hebrew transcription] splendorem seu splendentem regionem notat,
* cum ea regio radiis solaribus tam copiose collustretur, ut reflexum
* ab arenis lumen adeo intense fulgens, a longinquo spectantibus (ad
* instar Corporis Solaris) aquarum speciem referat; & hicce arenarum
* splendor & radiatio Arabibus dicitur [Arabic] serâb i.e. aquæ
* superficies , seu superficialis aquarum species . --- Hinc etiam
* nominis [Greek] ratio peti potest - cum [Hebrew] contractum sit pro
* [more Hebrew], a [Hebrew] flamma - a fulvescentibus arenis ardore
* pene inflammatis."
*      The full title of the Supplement is:  A Supplement to a Book Entituled
* Travels, or Observations, &c. wherein Some Objections, lately made
* against it, are fully considered and answered: with several additional
* Remarks and Dissertations."
*      The long s is used throughout; curious spellings such as "antient"
* are regularly used. Note the capitalized Nouns as well. . . .
* Note that Jefferson's editor (William Peden) appears to have mis-read
* the page reference from TJ's MS note: it is 362, not 302.

J. G. Gmelin
D. Johann Georg Gmelins Reise durch Sibirien . . . , Dritter Theil
(Abraham Vandenhoeks seel., witwe, Goettingen, 1752), p. 129.

* EARLY LOOMING (cited by Cranz)
* "Fuer einen gewissen Vorboten eines bevorstehenden großen Sturmes in
* der See, oder auch in den unteren Gegenden des Jenisei wird dieses
* gehalten, wenn Inseln oder jaehe Felsen, die bey stillem Wetter niedrig
* aussehen, groeßer als gewoehnlich zu seyn scheinen."
* NOTE: the umlauts are written as a small letter e over each vowel.

[J.-B. ] de Chabert
Voyage fait par ordre du Roi en 1750 et 1751 . . .
(Imprimerie Royale, Paris, 1753), p. 136.

* FIRST appearance of "MIRAGE" in print? (1753)
* Chabert's full account: the 'mirage' explanation is on p. 136.
* It is taken from his journal entry for 23 Juin 1751, when he was
* observing:near Cape Sable (the southern tip of Nova Scotia).
*      "Je m'occupai pendant trois jours à la suite des opérations de la
* carte, commencées le 23 à la pointe du cap, & dans lesquelles je fus
* souvent arrêté par l'effet du mirage . C'est ainsi que plusieurs
* marins appellent un changement qui, quelquefois se fait en apparence
* dans l'aspect des côtes un peu éloignées, parce qu'ils l'attribuent
* à la réflexion du ciel, qui se peignant dans la mer au dessous de la
* côte, fait paroitre cette côte comme élevée dans le ciel. Ce même
* phénomène semble bien plûtôt venir de la grande réfraction à
* laquelle sont sujets les objets vûs à travers des vapeurs fort denses :
* cette densité n'étant point égale dans toute l'étendue d'une côte,
* les rayons diversement brisés la rendent méconnoissable. C'est la
* raison qu'en a donné feu M. Maraldi, dans les Mémoires de l'Académie
* de l'année 1722."
*      The remark about the mirage stopping his surveying operation is
* very similar to the report by Boscovich & Maire (1755). Notice that in
* this version, the word comes from "several sailors"; in the abstract in
* "Hist.", the word is attributed to "the inhabitants" of the coast.
*      This page is cited in the Index as a peculiar entry: "Mirage. Idée
* de cette illusion d'optique, 136."
*      Note that Bouguer was one of the referees who approved this work for
* publication (pp.i and iv).
*      The first page has a nice woodcut showing the surveyors with all their
* equipment, observing the Moon with their quadrant to determine the time.
*      This was reprinted in 1966; copies of the original sell for over $1000.
* Available at Google Books. The example digitized by Google bears the
* stamps of the National Library of Naples.

R. J. Boscovich and C. Maire
De Litteraria Expeditione per Pontificiam Ditionem . . .
(Typographio Palladis, Rome, 1755), pp. 94–96.

* The mirage observations are in paragraphs 173 and 174.
* These seem to be the first circumstantial descriptions of mirages.
*      To understand para.173, some explanation is required:
* They were starting the triangulation at the mouth of the Ausa river
* (near Rimini) in July, 1752, using a baseline measured along the shore
* some months previously. The "sign" used at each end of the baseline
* was three posts stuck in the ground, with a whitewashed sheet wrapped
* around their upper ends as a target to sight on. The angles were
* measured with a portable quadrant. Now read on:
*      "As soon as the signs were erected, we went there to take angles, and
* at least at the Ausa's mouth everything went quite well. But as soon as
* we reached the other end, a quite wonderful phenomenon appeared to us.
* The second sign is separated from the first by only eight thousand
* paces [about 12 km in modern units], and more than 20 spans [1.5m] high;
* we had seen it quite plainly first thing in the morning. But when we
* arrived at this second end a little after noon, allowing for the
* curvature of the sea (for a straight line about eight miles long joining
* the two heads would pass well above the sea) could only hide much less
* of its height in this interval, for it was raised 20 spans; yet now with
* the telescope pointed to a place we knew very well, corresponding to
* a place at the port of Rimini next to the building where those who are
* accustomed to be cared for are liberated to health from a fear of
* pestilence [i.e., the quarantine hospital], nothing appeared at all.
* Really only the highest part of the buildings was seen, and even that
* wonderfully contracted, as also the sails of ships in the harbor, many
* of which were spread and appeared completely distorted. Struck by the
* novelty of the thing, I brought a ladder to the post of the sign, and
* having climbed up a few steps, with the telescope pointed to the place,
* I saw the webbing of the sign at Ausa, not emerging from the waters
* gradually, though it was broad, but all at once, at first as through a
* haze, then much clearer, and at first the thinnest line, then as I
* climbed higher it enlarged more, until it returned to its own form,
* as did that building I have mentioned, and the sails of the ships. Both
* Maire and I have watched this phenomenon quite astonished, again and
* again, now raised up higher by the steps, now lowering the eye; but toward
* sunset we had to return to our angles, which we could take even at this
* sign, by moving a wagon, which fortunately was there, to the very place of
* observation, and raising up the quadrant in it, we saw the sign quite
* plainly, and we completed our observations."
* [This is a fine description of an inferior mirage; the "all at once"
* business being a particularly nice touch; cf. Hardcastle (1905).]
* In para.174, he remarks that he has often seen "the ends of
* promontories, or the points of islands, as if raised in the air," and
* that this is a phenomenon of the same kind. He has noticed that this
* occurs only when the line of sight grazes the surface of the sea, and
* that it vanishes if viewed more obliquely from a higher location.
* In section 175, he mentions an instance of variable looming, which he
* correctly attributes to an "inequality" of the horizontal refraction.
* Thanks to Classics Prof. James Smith for assistance with the translation!
* According to the E.B., Christopher Maire was an English Jesuit.
* O'C #9

[J.-B. ] de Chabert
“Voyage fait par ordre du Roi en 1750 et 1751 . . . ,”
Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. 1753, 242–256 (1757).

* Early use of the word "MIRAGE" by Joseph-Bernard de Chabert
* "Cette année M. de Chabert, Lieutenant des vaisseaux du Roi, Chevalier
* de l'Ordre de Saint-Louis, Membre de l'Académie de Marine, de celle de
* Berlin & de celle de l'Institut de Bologne, présenta à l'Académie la
* Relation du voyage qu'il a fait par ordre du Roi en 1750 & 1751 dans
* l'Amérique septentrionale, pour rectifier les cartes des côtes de
* l'Acadie, de l'isle Royale & de celle de Terre-Neuve, & pour en fixer
* les principaux points par des observations astronomiques." (pp.242-243)
*      "Pendant que M. de Chabert étoit occupé à lever les plans dont nous
* venons de parler, il fut souvent arrêté par un phénomène singulier,
* qu'on appelle mirage : c'est un changement apparent de l'aspect des
* côtes un peu éloignées, que les habitans attribuent à la réflexion du
* ciel, qui, se mirant dans l'eau, fait paroître la côte comme élevée
* en l'air, & que M. de Chabert croit, avec plus d'apparence, causé
* par l'irrégularité de la réfraction qu'ont souvent à souffrir les
* objets terrestres." (p. 253)
* (See Gronier, 1961, for a good translation.)
*      From the collected tables of contents, it appears that this text is
* on p.358 of the reprinted edition of Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci.
* This account in the Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. is just an extended abstract
* of the book published in 1753.
*      Many thanks to Éric Frappa for discovering this at Gallica:

D. Giardina
“Discorso sopra la Fata Morgana di Messina,” in Opuscoli di Autori Siciliani, Tomo Primo , Gioachimo Pulejo, ed.
(G.Pulejo, Catania, 1758), pp. 117–148.

* DOMENICO GIARDINA explains the Fata Morgana of Aug. 1643
* The day here (the 14th) is the day before Angelucci's FM observation
* quoted by Kircher (1646); but the two accounts are substantially
* identical, as noted by Consolo; Allegranza seems to be the only source
* for the 14th as the date.
* [Cf. Boccara's (1902) denunciation of Kircher, Giardina, and Allegranza.]
* The motivation for publishing all this nonsense seems to have been the
* ambition of the publisher, Gioachimo Pulejo, a printer in Catania who
* published several works promoting the reputations of local cities and
* their inhabitants -- e.g., "L'ardenza e tenacità dell'impegno di
* Palermo, nel contendere a Catania la gloria di aver dato alla luce la
* regina delle vergini, e martiri siciliane Sant'Agata" (1747). The
* present case is another example: in the dedication, and on the prefatory
* pages I and II, "from the publisher to the reader", we see how he
* is concerned with promoting Sicilian works.
*      The full title preceding Giardina's text is:
*                   D  I  S  C  O  R  S  O
*                         S O P R A
*                                L A
*                   F A T A      M O R G A N A
*                    DI MESSINA, COMPARSA
*                                DEL
*            P.  DOMENICO       GIARDINA
*                   CON  ALCUNE  NOTE
*              DELL'  ERUDITISSIMO
*                  SIG. ANDREA GALLO
*                        MESSINESE.
* (which takes up all of p. 117.)
* Giardina and Gallo are briefly described in pp. II and III of the preface.
* As Giardina died in 1747, in his 50th year, he could not have observed
* the 1643 display he tries to interpret here; Marina Warner is confused.
* Unfortunately, her confusion has become a "viral" sensation on the Web.
* This falsehood continued to be spread by other readers who believed the
* fabrications added to the story by Capozzo (1840), such as Consolo
* (1993) and Séstito (2011).
* The numerous informative footnotes were inserted by Gallo; they refer to
* "the author" (Giardina) in the third person.
*      In particular, note [c] (p. 121) criticizes the author for not being
* "concordant with modern Philosophy" which distinguishes the real ascent
* of sulfurous and bituminous material in the air from the "apparent,
* formed by the refraction of the solar rays."
* Giardina's essay ends on p. 143, where a letter from Giuseppe Allegranza
* begins. Allegranza attempts to derive "Morgana" from the German "Morgen".
* Strangely, he has the page wrong in "Ars Magna", and calls Angelucci
* "Andreucci". In fact, the page number given (704) corresponds to the
* 1671 edition published in Amsterdam in; but that one still has
* "Angelucci" correctly. Apart from minor editorial changes in spelling
* and punctuation, Allegranza's text here is exactly the same as a text
* published without attribution in "Giornale de' Letterati" for the year
* 1755, dated "Messina 15. Feb. 1751", pp. 46 - 55. In particular, both
* that version and this one have the "Andreucci" error. So Allegranza's
* 1751 text appears to be the origin of both the "Andreucci" error and the
* dubious date: he says the observation was made "in una Vigilia dell'
* Assunzione" -- i.e., the 14th. (p. 144) Boccara (1902) dismisses all
* of them: Kircher, Giardina, and Allegranza.
* The attribution of the Fata Morgana to reflections by "polyhedral
* crystals" seems to be inspired by Mariotte's explanations of halos
* by refraction and reflection in ice crystals, in 1679.
* Available in two copies from Google Books. One, from Oxford:
* is lower quality; the other, from U.Michigan:
* has had the name "Dunning" unaccountably appended to the title, and is
* also available at the HathiTrust site. Note that Vol. 2 is bound
* together (and scanned) with Vol. 1.
*      This is the work Brydone (1773) mentions but was unable to find.
* Cited by P&E in a footnote on p.186.

M. Warner
Phantasmagoria: Spirit Visions, Metaphors, and Media Into the Twenty-first Century
(Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006).

* MARINA WARNER's garbled account (placed here for her citation of Giardina)
* Chapter 7 is devoted to "Fata Morgana ; or, Castles in the Air".
* Her Fig. 9b on p. 94 was the best reproduction of Fortuyn's engraving for
* Minasi that I had seen in print, until Séstito's (2011). But she failed
* to get the facts right:
*      "Kircher described one instance in his book . . . , in response to a
* fellow Jesuit who had written to him [sic!] . . . about a . . . fata morgana
* he had witnessed himself in Sicily [sic!]." (p. 95)
* So she confuses Giardina with Angelucci, and Kircher with Sanzio.
*      "Giardina . . .  goes on to describe how he saw [sic] `a city all floating
* in the air . . .'" (p. 96)
*      Note 2 on p. 96 links to p. 391; the note there cites both Giardina
* and Minasi -- who explained that Giardina was referring to Angelucci.
*       She also parrots much common nonsense about mirages: "Technically
* now known as a `superior' or `looming mirage', fata morgana appears
* above the horizon, often rising to great heights among the clouds." (p. 97)
* Then follows: "Layers of the atmosphere at different temperatures develop
* [sic] different densities, and the sun's rays, hitting the surface
* of the sea and the layers of air at a certain angle (45 degrees) turn
* them into an infinite recession of mirrors, multiplying and inverting
* reflections, diffracting [sic] and refracting the light so as to project
* images of far distant scenes and objects onto the clouds; these images,
* turned upside down and superimposed [sic] on one another, then mingle
* and change rapidly as the layers move up and down from the observer's
* vantage point." Well, this is all nonsense! She has thrown some words
* together without understanding their meaning, and produced gibberish.
*      On top of this, she cites as references on fata-morgana mirages some
* so-so websites, rather than the standard references on these topics
* (e.g., P&E; Humphreys; not even Minnaert or Greenler are cited.)
* A pretty sorry showing.
*       (snippet view on Google Books)
* Much of this is taken from her Tanner lecture in 1999; see
*      [all reprinted in Raritan 21, No.4, pp. 264-301 (Spring, 2002)]
* where she cites both Giardina and Minasi in note 3 on p. 67. There,
* she explicitly refers to Angelucci's letter in Kircher's book, and even
* says that Giardina's "Discorso" came "More than a hundred years later".
* So how did she later arrive at the wrong chronology?
*      Note that her Tanner lecture contains more errors of its own; e.g.,
* her mistranslating of the phrase "delle sustruttioni di Salomone" as
* "the somersaults of Salome" instead of "the constructions of Solomon."
* This "Salome" appears as a typo in the text of the 1671 Amsterdam
* edition of "Ars Magna"; apparently she got it from that:
* -- and she gave 1646 as the date of Kircher's book, but cited the page
* (701) where this error appears in the 1671 edition. Evidently, she
* only consulted the later edition, citing the earlier one without
* actually reading it.
*      Furthermore, she attributes Minasi's term "l'iride fregiata" (1773)
* to Giardina, who died in 1747, when Minasi (born in 1736) was still a
* schoolboy. (Giardina used "iride", but only in the phrase "iride
* marina".) And she mis-translates Minasi's phrase as "the festooned
* rainbow." Some historian!
*      [And in the introductory Acknowledgments in the book, she gives the date
* of her 1999 lecture as 1992.]

A. Leanti
Lo stato presente della Sicilia o sia breve, e distinta descrizione di essa
(Francesco Valenza, Palermo, 1761).

* ARCHANGIOLO LEANTI's mention of Fata Morgana, based on Giardina
*      This is the source of Brydone's (1773) exaggerated account.
* Although modern references to Leanti spell his given name "Archangelo",
* his historical monograph uses "Archangiolo" consistently. The title
* page describes him as "sig. Abate Arcangiolo Leanti da Palermo".
*      The reference to the Fata Morgana is on pp. 3 and 4; he cites mainly
* the Giardina/Gallo/Allegranza work, but mentions Kircher, Fazello,
* Pliny, and Pomponius Mela as earlier sources.

Maire & Boscovich
Voyage Astronomique et Geographique, dans l'État de l'Eglise . . .
(Tilliard, Paris, 1770), pp. 94–96.

* BOSCOVICH translated into French
* The same section numbering is used as in the original. There is a
* detailed map included, showing the region surveyed.
*      NOTE on UNITS:  There is a handy Table for converting between
* Roman feet and palms and Paris toises and feet on p. viii.
*      Typographical note:      The use of the accented "E" is extremely
* haphazard. On the title page, it only occurs in "État". In the
* preface and table of contents, no uppercase E is accented; but the
* lowercase é is abundant. The heading on p.1 of the main text says
*                  V O Y A G E
* and the body type all has accents where you'd expect them.
* See

J. Byron
in Byron's Journal of his Circumnavigation, 1764-1766; , R. E. Gallagher, ed.
(Cambridge Univ.Press, Cambridge, 1964), pp. 29–30.

* John Byron's probable superior mirage
* Nov. 12, 1764: "At 4 PM it thunder'd & Lightened very much, & looked
* very black almost round the Horizon, I was then walking the Quarter Deck
* when all the People upon the Forecastle called out at once Land right a
* head, I looked under the Foresail & upon the Lee Bow, & saw it to all
* appearance as plain as ever I saw Land in my life, It made at first like
* an Island with two very scraggy Hammocks upon it, but looking to Leeward
* we saw the Land joining it & running along way to the SE, we were then
* steering SW. I sent Officers to the Mast head to look out upon the
* weather Beam & they called out immediately they saw the Land a great way
* to Windward. I brought too & sounded & had 52 fm -- I now thought I was
* embay'd & as it looked very wild all round I wished myself out before
* night. We made Sail & steered ESE. All this time the appearance of the
* Land did not alter in the least, the Hills looked very Blue as they
* generally do at some little distance in dark rainy weather, & many of the
* People said they saw the Sea break upon the Sandy Beaches. After steering
* for about an hour, what we took for Land all at once disappeared to our
* great astonishment, & certainly must have been nothing but a Fog Bank.
* Tho' I have been at sea now 27 years & never saw such a Deception before,
* & I question much if the oldest Seaman breathing ever did, except it was
* some in that Ship when the Master made Oath of seeing an Island between
* the West End of Ireland & Newfoundland, & even distinguishing the Trees
* upon it, & which since has never been heard of tho' Ships have been sent
* out on purpose to look for it. And had the weather come on very thick
* after the sight we had for some time of this Imaginary Land so that we
* could not have seen it disappear as we did, I dare say there is not a Man
* on board but would have freely made Oath of the certainty of it's being
* Land. Course So 47° Wt. Dist 108 Ms Latt in 43° 46' So.
* Longde made 19° 47' Wt."
*      Note the reference to (evidently) "St. Brendan's island".
* [mentioned in Beauford's 1802 review of mirages.]

D. Cranz
Historie von Groenland
(Heinrich Detlef Ebers, Barby, 1765), pp. 64–65.

* "Aber nichts hat mich mehr surprenirt und artiger anzusehen geduenkt,
* als wenn bey heiteren, warmen und stillen Sommer-Tagen die Kookoernen,
* oder die zwey Meilen von Godhaab gen Westen gelegenen Inseln, eine ganz
* andere Gestalt, als sie natuerlich haben, vorstellen. Nicht nur sieht man
* sie, wie durch einen Tubum , weit groesser, und alle Steine und die mit
* Eis angefuellten Ritzen so deutlich, als ob man nahe dabey stuende;
* sondern wenn dieses eine Weile gewaerht hat, so sehen sie alle wie ein
* einiges Land aus, und stellen einen Wald, oder eine geschorne Baum-Wand
* vor. Darauf sieht man sie allerley seltsame Figuren, als Schiffe mit
* Segeln, Wimpeln und Flaggen, alte Berg-Schloesser mit ruinierten Thuermen,
* Storch-Nestern und hundert dergleichen Dingen, vorstellen, welche sich in
* die Hoehe oder Weite ziehen und sodann verschwinden. Die Luft is alsdann
* zwar ganz still und klar, aber doch, wie bey sehr heissem Wetter, mit
* subtilen Duensten angefuellt, durch welche sich, nach meinen Gedanken,
* wenn sie zwischen dem Auge und den Inseln in einem gehoerigen Abstand
* sich befinden, die Objecte, wie durch ein convexes Glas, weit groesser
* vorstellen; und gemeiniglich folgt ein paar Stunden darauf ein sanfter
* West-Wind mit einem sichtbaren Nebel, da dann dieser Lusus naturae
* gleich ein Ende hat.(*)"
* FOOTNOTE: "(*) Etwas dergleichen habe ich bey Bern und Neufchatel von
* denen gegen Sueden gelegenen Gletschern observirt. Wenn sich dieselben
* naeher, deutlicher und groesser als gewoehnlich vorstellen, so rechnet
* der Landmann auf einen baldigen Regen, der sich auch gemeiniglich den
* folgenden Tag einstellt. Und die Tartern an der Muendung des
* Jenisei-Flusses in Sibirien haltens fuer einen Vorboten des Sturms, wenn
* die Inseln groesser scheinen. Gmelins Reise Th. III S. 129."
* Orthographic note: All double-s's are simply spelled out, using the long
* s for both. Umlauts are written as a raised e over the vowel.

H. Hamilton
Philosophical Essays. II. An Essay on the Ascent of Vapours, the Formation of Clouds, Rain, and Dew, and on several other Phænomena of Air and Water
(W.Sleater, Dublin, 1766), pp. 31–88.

* Early mirage publication (mentioned by Huddart.)
* Footnote, pp.43-44: "This Fleece of vapourous Air that some times hangs
* over Water, is very discernable when we stand by the Sea-side in a hot
* calm Day, and is the Cause of some odd Appearances. For the lower Part
* of the Air, which is then much impregnated with Water, refracts the Rays
* of the Light more strongly than at other Times, and by this unusual Degree
* of Refraction, Houses on the Shore at a Distance from us appear almost as
* high as Steeples, remote Ships and Islands and the extreme Parts of
* Head-lands or Promontories appear to be raised quite out of the Water, and
* to hang in the Air above its Surface."

W. Wales
“Journal of a Voyage, Made by Order of the Royal Society, to Churchill River, on the North West Coast of Hudson's Bay; Of Thirteen Months Residence in That Country; and of the Voyage Back to England; In the Years 1768 and 1769,”
Philosophical Transactions Roy. Soc. 60, 100–136 (1770).

* WILLIAM WALES reports looming in "haze" (i.e., "FOG") at Hudson's Bay
* Observations of LOOMING, CONCAVE surface, NEGATIVE DIP, etc.:
*      pp. 115-116: "August 7th.  About 5 saw the low land of Cape Churchill,
* bearing from the S to S. W. b. S. but the haziness of the horizon made
* the land put on a different appearance every 4' or 5'. I cannot help
* taking notice of one circumstance, as it appears to me a very remarkable
* one. Though we saw the land extreamly plain from off the quarter deck,
* and, as it were, lifted up in the haze, in the same manner as the ice
* had always done; yet the man at the mast head declared he could see
* nothing of it. This appeared so extraordinary to me, that I went to the
* main-top-mast-head myself to be satisfied of the truth thereof; and though
* I could see it very plain both before I went up, and after I came down,
* yet could I see nothing like the appearance of land when I was there.
* I had often admired the singular appearance of the ice in these parts,
* which I have seen lifted up 2° or 3° at a distance of 8 or 10 miles,
* although when we have come to it, we have found it scarcely higher than
* the surface of the water."
*      P. 131: "The prodigious difference between the latitude of Churchill
* factory, as laid down from observations made by Hadley's quadrant, and
* that deduced from the observations made with our astronomical quadrant on
* shore, has often employed my most serious attention; but I cannot think on
* any probable cause for such difference, unless it lie in the very great
* refractive power of the air in these parts. I have mentioned how the
* ice and land appear to be lifted up, when we stand on the ship's deck:
* and if the visible horizon be lifted up in like manner, it must make its
* apparent distance from the sun, or, which is the same thing, the sun's
* apparent altitude less than it otherwise would be; and consequently,
* the latitude greater than the truth; and also greater than it will be
* shewn by a land quadrant, which depends not on the horizon, agreeable
* to what we find it in the case before us*."
*      The footnote (*) continues onto p. 132:
*      "*Having mentioned this circumstance to the reverend Mr.
* Maskelyne, it immediately occurred to him, that the longitude
* deduced from observations of the moon’s distance from the sun or a
* star, would be considerably affected by this cause, as not only
* the altitudes of the sun, from whence the time at the ship is
* found ; but also the latitude of the ship, found by an observa-
* tion of the sun’s meridional altitude, or otherwise, will conspire
* to encrease the sun’s distance from the meridian, or angle at the
* pole.
*       "I have therefore recomputed the longitude from my observa-
* tion of the moon's distance from the sun, taken August the 5th,
* 1768, on a supposition that the mean error in any altitude taken
* by Hadley's quadrant, arising from this cause, is 10 minutes;
* and find that, on such a supposition, which it must be allowed
* appear to be extremely well founded, the longitude will be 11'¼
* less than what I found it at the time when I made the observa-
* tion, and therefore the longitude of Churchill will in this case be
* only be 94° 30'¾ W. And by making a similar correction of 15' to
* Mr. Dymond’s observation of the 6th, it will give the longi-
* tude of Churchill 95° 18' W." [Modern long. = 94° 13'.]
* [This may be the EARLIEST mention of this problem.]
*      William Wales later made similar observations in the Antarctic, as
* one of the astronomers on Captain James Cook's second voyage. A good
* biography is at
* and a complete bibliography of his publications is at
* Available from JSTOR; but their OCR is worse than tesseract's.
* Their URL is

J. de Viera y Clavijo
“La famosa cuestión de San Borodón,” in Noticias de la Historia de Canarias, Tomo I , Dr. A. Cioranescu, ed.
(Cuspa Editorial, Madrid, 1978).

* JOSEPH VIERA Y CLAVIJO (1772) -- Early mirage observations in CANARIES
* After recounting the legend of the mythical island, and quoting some
* first-hand observations, he concludes it is all due to atmospheric
* refraction.
* The mirage section is unusually long and detailed. It is Chapter 28 of
* Book 1.
* (Originally published by La Imprenta de Blas Roman, Madrid, 1772-1783)
* Thanks to Guy Vincent for calling this to my attention!

P. Brydone
A Tour through Sicily and Malta. In a series of letters to William Beckford, Esq. of Somerly in Suffolk; from P. Brydone, F.R.S. In two volumes
(W.Strahan and T.Cadell, London, 1773).

* PATRICK BRYDONE's account of the Sicilian mirages
* Though this is clearly a description of the Fata Morgana, that name
* never appears; instead, the apparitions are attributed to Old Nick
* [Note: "this place" is Messina]:
* "Do you know, the most extraordinary phœnomenon in the world is often
* observed near to this place? -- I laugh'd at it, at first, as you will do;
* but I am now thoroughly convinced of its reality; and am persuaded too,
* that if ever it had been thoroughly examined by a philosophical eye,
* the natural cause must long ago have been assigned.
*      "It has often been remarked, both by the antients and moderns, that
* in the heat of summer, after the sea and air have been greatly agitated
* by winds, and a perfect calm succeeds, there appears, about the time of
* dawn, in that part of the heavens over the Straits, a vast variety of
* singular forms, some at rest and some moving about with great velocity.
* These forms, in proportion as the light increases, seem to become more
* aerial; till at last, some time before sun-rise, they entirely disappear.
*      "Some of the Sicilian authors represent this as the most beautiful
* sight in nature; Leanti, one of their latest and best writers, came here
* on purpose to see it: He says, the heavens appear crowded with a variety
* of beautiful objects: He mentions palaces, woods, gardens, &c. besides
* the figures of men, and other animals, that appear in motion amongst
* these objects. -- No doubt the imagination must be greatly aiding, in
* forming this aerial creation; but as most of their authors, both antient
* and modern, agree in the fact, and many give an account of it from their
* own observation, there certainly must be some considerable foundation
* for the story. There is a Jesuit, one Giardina, that has lately writ
* a treatise on this phœnomenon, but I have not been able to find it:
* The celebrated Messinese Gallo has likewise published something on this
* singular subject; if I can procure them in the island, you shall have
* a more perfect account of it. The common people, according to custom,
* give the whole merit of it to the devil; and indeed it is by much the
* shortest and easiest way of accounting for it: Those who pretend to
* be philosophers, and refuse him this honor, are greatly puzzled what
* to make of it. They think it may be owing to some uncommon refraction,
* or reflection of the rays, from the water of the Straits; which, as it
* is at that time carried about in a variety of eddies and vortexes, must
* of consequence, say they, make a variety of appearances on any medium
* where it is reflected. -- This, I think, is nonsense; or at least very
* near it; and till they can say more to the purpose, I think they had
* much better have left it in the hands of the old gentleman. I suspect
* it is something in the nature of our Aurora Borealis; and, like many of
* the great phœnomena of nature, depends upon electrical causes; which,
* in future ages, I have little doubt, will be found to be as powerful an
* agent in regulating the universe, as gravity is in this age, or as the
* subtile fluid was in the last." (Vol. I, pp. 86-89)
* (Brydone's scientific specialty was electrical phenomena.)
*      NOTE: Brydone's comments on Leanti are off the mark: Leanti was born
* in Sicily, and spent his whole life there; so the ". . . came here on
* purpose to see it" part is bogus [he probably confused Leanti with
* Kircher in this case]. Likewise, "the heavens appear crowded with"
* the images is Brydone's invention; Leanti merely says "in the air".
*      [Brydone's references to Giardina and Gallo correspond to Gallo's
* notes added to Giardina's useless rediscussion of Angelucci's letter.]
*      This went through dozens of editions, in English and several other
* languages. In the "new edition" of T. Cadell and W. Davies (1806), the
* text has been tidied up a bit by minor editing, and changes in punctuation
* and spelling (making "ancients" and "phænomenon" instead of the variants
* above, for example); and the passage then falls on pp. 50-52.
*      I read somewhere that this originally appeared in the Gentleman's Magazine
* in 1773, but find no reference to it.
* Copies of the 1773 London (1st) and 1806 editions are on Google Books.

A. Minasi
Dissertazioni sopra diversi fatti meno ovvi della Storia Naturale, Dissertazione prima sopra un fenomeno volgarmente detto Fata Morgana, o sia apparizione di varie, successive, bizzarre immagini, che per lungo tempo ha sedotti i popoli, e dato a pensare ai dotti. A Sua Eminenza il Signor Cardinale di Zelada
(per Benedetto Francesi, Roma, 1773).

* ANTONIO MINASI's account of the Fata Morgana
*      There are many interesting details here that were omitted by Nicholson
* in his translation. This 102-page monograph is more informative than
* some later reviews (Nicholson; Reinecke; Büsch; Gilbert; P&E) suggest.
* The last 4 all depend on German translations of Nicholson's English.
*      In the footnote on p. 18, he says "I have observed a little Fata
* Morgana near Rome. . . " at 11:30 on April 21, in the lake of Castel
* Gandolfo.
*      In the discussion, he reviews all earlier accounts, including de
* Ferrariis, Angelucci, Kircher, etc. -- even including the Maccabees.
* He reprints (with some minor changes) almost all of Angelucci's letter,
* from the 1671 (Amsterdam) edition of Kircher.
*      Notice his extensive discussion of Giardina's paper (§4, pp. 21 ff.)
* Minasi makes plain his disbelief of the Giardina discussion in Cap. IV;
* see the additional discussion in his footnotes 2 and 7 to this chapter.
* See his footnotes on p. 35, and the derivation of the "45°" on p.41.
*      Minasi buried much valuable information in his footnotes.  For
* example, the note on p.17 in Cap. III mentions the "spring, and the
* first months of summer" as the time when the images are reflected;
* and these are exactly the classical superior-mirage season (cf. Forel!)
* And on the next page, he cites the months of April through August as
* most favorable for these reflections.
*      Note that Minasi's footnotes are numbered consecutively on each page .
* This leads to some confusion in their cross-references: the note at the
* foot of p. 17, where § 8 begins, is actually referenced in § 7, and
* numbered 1. The "nota 1" of § 8 that is referenced in the notes in
* later chapters is the note numbered 1 on p. 18, but continued on p. 19.
* The next note, cited as "§8. nota 2" in later chapters, is numbered 1 on
* p. 19, but continues on p. 20.
*      Note on UNITS: the "Italian palms" used by Minasi are probably the same
* as the "Roman palms" that are converted to Paris measures in the Table on
* p. viii of the 1770 French translation of Maire & Boscovich.
* This is available at Google Books:
* but unfortunately the text of the PDF file they provide is badly
* garbled. Apparently, because of the mixture of Italian, Latin, Greek,
* and Hebrew in the text, everything available in UTF-8 encoding turns up.
* There are snatches of Chinese and Japanese characters, as well as
* Cyrillic. This makes any kind of machine translation impractical.
*      A more practical re-publication of Minasi's text is in Consolo's
* 1993 book "Vedute dello Stretto di Messina"; but that is marred by
* his credulous acceptance of Capozzo's (1840) fallacious inventions.
* (Evidently, Consolo never bothered to read Minasi.) Yet another
* republication of Minasi's text is in Séstito's book (2011); it copies
* errors from Consolo, and appears to be copied from his version rather
* than from Minasi's original.
*      A high-resolution scan of Fortuyn's engraving is available at
* [click on the "IIP" icon in the header to see the full resolution.]
* The engraving is discussed in Maria Toscano's thesis:
* and in her article:
*      "Lo strano caso di Guglielmo Fortuyn. Un tentativo di attribuzione"
* Neoclassico, No. 23/24, pp. 39-68 (2003)
* Finally, a biography of Minasi written by Enrico Pescatore was published
* in the "Scilla News" on 20 April, 2020, and archived on the publisher's
* website:

J. Marra
Journal of the Resolution's Voyage in 1771-1775
(N.Israel, Amsterdam, 1967).

* Possible mirages in the Antarctic in JOHN MARRA's Journal (1775)
*      [Dec. 15, 1773:] "Here the ice islands presented a most romantic
* prospect of ruined castles, churches, arches, steeples, wrecks of ships,
* and a thousand wild and grotesque forms of monsters, dragons, and all the
* hideous shapes that the most fertile imagination can possibly conceive."
* (p. 111)
*      [Jan. 26, 1774:] "At nine in the morning every body on deck imagined
* they saw land; and accordingly preparations were made for getting all
* things in readiness to cast anchor. At eleven crossed the antarctic
* circle to the southward for the 2d time, and hauled up S. E. by E. where
* they were persuaded land was. But to their great disappointment, the
* farther they sailed, the farther the land seemed to bear from them;
* and at length it wholly vanished." (p. 123)
* [Jan. 30, 1774:] "Came in sight of a fog bank, which had a great
* appearance of land, and many who were thought the best judges asserted
* that it was land; however it proved upon trial a deception, as well as the
* former. . . . Taking a view from the mast-head nothing was to be seen but
* a dreary prospect of ice and sea. Of the former might be seen a whole
* country as far as the eye could carry one, diversified with hills and
* dales, and fields and imaginary plantations, that had all the appearance
* of cultivation; yet was nothing more than the sports of chance in the
* formation of those immense bodies of congregated ice." (p. 125)
* This is a heavily-edited account, nowadays attributed to the journal of
* John Marra, a gunner's mate on the Resolution . Supposedly his editor
* was David Henry, of the Gentleman's Magazine . No author appeared
* on the title page of this when it was originally published, 18 months
* before Cook's official account (which does not mention these appearances,
* but only ice fields). The original title was:
*                                      J O U R N A L
*                                            of the
*                                RESOLUTION's VOYAGE,
*                        In 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775.
*                                                 on
*                  DISCOVERY to the SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE,
*                                           by which
*       The Non-Existence of an undiscovered Continent,
* between the Equator and the 50th Degree of Southern
* Latitude, is demonstratively proved.
* Sources on the Web indicate that a French translation was published
* in Amsterdam in 1777, and it is evidently that which Biot had read.
*      This modern edition is Bibliotheca Australiana #15.

W. Wales and W. Bayly
The original astronomical observations made in the course of a voyage towards the South Pole, and round the world, in His Majesty’s ships the Resolution and Adventure, in the years MDCCLXXII, MDCCLXXIII, MDCCLXXIV, and MDCCLXXV
(J. Nourse: J. Mount & T. Page: W & A Strahan, London, 1777).

* WALES & BAYLY (astronomers with James Cook's second voyage)
* William Wales was the editor of this volume, which contains various
* sections written by himself and by William Bayly; Wales was aboard
* the Resolution (James Cook's flagship); Bayly, on the Adventure.
*      Our interest is in Wales's "Meteorological Journal", pp. 335-366.
* The excerpt reprinted by Sir Napier Shaw in 1930/1942 was from
* p. 351; cf. Pernter (1902).
*      The publication details are complex: the volume was printed by
* W. & A. Strahan, and sold by J. Nourse, in the Strand, and J. Mount
* and T. Page, on Tower-Hill, Booksellers to the Board of Longitude,
* which paid for the observations:
* "Published by order of the Board of Longitude, at the Expence of which
* the Observations were made."
*      See
* for the Introduction and Contents.

Le Gentil
Voyage dans les Mers de l'Inde, Tome premier
(Imp.Royale, Paris, 1779).

* LE GENTIL's observations in India
*      There are several sections of interest here, all in the Seconde Partie
* of Vol. 1:
* Ch. I, Art. III. Observations sur les Réfractions horizontales (p. 393)
* Remarques sur l'Observation des Hollandois dans la nouvelle Zemble en
*                                                                  1596 & 1597  (p. 416)
* Ch. I, Art. IV. Observations sur les Réfractions, à différens
*                                                        degrés de hauteur  (p. 426)
* Then, after the Supplément:
*                                    Observations sur les Réfractions terrestres  (p. 701)
* Full title:
*                                                 VOYAGE
*                                                  dans
*                                     LES MERS DE L'INDE,
*                                FAIT PAR ORDRE DU ROI ,
*                         A l'occasion du Passage de Vénus,
*                   sur le Disque du Soleil, le 6 Juin 1761,
*                        & le 3 du même mois 1769.

T. Gruber
Herrn Tobias Grubers Briefe hydrographischen und physikalischen Inhalts aus Krain, an Ignaz Edlen von Born
(bey Johann Paul Krauß, Wien, 1781), pp. 54–57.

* TOBIAS GRUBER's letter
* An amazingly perceptive summary of the salient points: flat, smooth
* ground; the hiding of objects below a limiting ray; the dependence
* on season, height of the eye and distance to the object --
* all here in just a few pages. P. 55 has a nice ray diagram, too.
*      "Ein merkwürdiges Phänomen, welches ich auf meinen Reisen im
* Temeswarer Bannate so oft gesehen, und hier auf dem ebenen Seeboden
* samt meinen Gefährten wieder zu bemerken Gelegenheit hatte, kann ich
* unmöglich ganz vorbeylassen. Blos in sehr flachen, und auf viele
* Meilen weit sich erstreckenden Gegenden, besondere, wenn sich der
* ebene Horizonte in dem Himmel hinaus verliert, habe ich den über die
* Erde etwa 6 Schuh hoch liegenden Theil der Atmosphäre also verdicket
* gefunden, daß die unter einem sehr spitzigen Winkel darauf einfallenden
* Lichtstrahlen nicht durchgelassen, sondern abgeprellet werden; welches zu
* vielen optischen Blendungen Anlaß giebt. Also habe ich in einer Ferne
* von 1000 bis 2000 Klaftern blos die Dächer von Dorfgebäuden gesehen,
* welche mir wie ein durchsichtiges Wäldchen vorkamen. Also erschienen
* die hie und da auf der Ebene stehenden Warthügel ohne Grundlage.
* Also wurden die etwas höher emporragenden Objecte, als Bäume, Gebäude,
* Thürme, u. s. w. doppelt so hoch gezeigt, weil sie nämlich wie auf
* einer Wasserebene gespiegelt wurden. Also sah ich in der weiten Ferne
* zerstreute große Seen, die bis an den Horizont hinaus wie Meere wurden.
* Nach Maaß der Annäherung verschwanden sie, und entfernten sich immer.
* Ja so gar, wenn ich von meinem Sitze im Kalesche, wo ich sie noch sah,
* aufstund, und mich etwa 3 Schuhe in die Höhe richtete, so nahmen sie
* ab, oder erschienen nicht mehr. Als ich die Ursache dieses Spielwerkes
* der Lichtstrahlen noch nicht kannte, ward ich überdiemaßen durch diese
* Seltsamkeiten gerührt. Die öftere Ansicht in verschiedenen Umständen,
* das Erscheinen und Verschwinden nach Verhältniß der Erhöhung und
* Erniedrigung, und die Analogie aus optischen Experimenten entdeckten
* mir endlich das ganze Geheimniß." He explains it, with the use of the
* ray diagram. "Es ist eine ganz natürliche Sache, daß, wenn ein
* Lichtstrahl sehr schief in ein Mittelding einfällt, dessen Verdickung
* verhältnißmässig anwächst, derselbe den Grund des Mitteldings
* nicht erreiche, sondern in einer Entfernung vom Grunde, unter eben
* dem Winkel, unter welchem er einfiel, abgeprellet werde. Newton hat
* diese Eigenschaft bey allen spiegelnden Flächen aus der Theorie der
* abstossenden Kräfte erwiesen. Kommt nun die Direction ch vom Himmel,
* oder aus einer lichtgrauen Ferne, (wie es beym Zirknitzer See geschah,)
* so sieht man nichts von den Objecten, die unter der Linie ch stehen,
* und die reflektirte wird dem Wasser ähnlich seyn. . . .
*      "Auf diese Art erklärte ich mir alle ähnliche Erscheinungen.
* Die Sache fordert aber eine nähere Bestimmung, zu welcher ich zu
* wenig Zeit für diesmal habe. Ueberhaupt scheine ich mir mit Grunde
* schließen zu können, daß die durch gröbere Dünste nahe an der Erde
* verdickte Luft (welches ich meistens im Frühjahr bemerkte) bloß auf
* einer gewissen Höhe über den weiten Flächen (vielleicht auf 6 bis 7
* Schuhe) diese optischen Betrügereyen hervorbringen könne."
*      [The line ch  mentioned is not Minnaert's "vanishing line," but the
* lowest ray of an erect image. Thus Gruber failed to appreciate that
* there are in fact bits along the way that lie above Biot's caustic but
* below this ray, and so are visible. He neglects the general curvature
* of the rays, as well as that of the Earth.]
*      This is actually a Postscript (Nachschrift ) to the Fifth Letter,
* beginning on p. 40, and dated 20 April 1779, from Zirknitz.
*      The "Kalesche" was an open horse-drawn carriage with a folding top,
* usually rendered as "calash" or "caleche" in English.
*      Typographical note: this is all set in Fraktur, with little e's over
* the vowels as umlauts. There are numerous ligatures: ch, ck, ff, fi, fl,
* si, ss, st, sz, tz. ["Krausz" is actually set with the tz ligature,
* which differs from the ß used in "durchgelaßen" and "abstoßenden".]
* Proper names are set in a slightly broader and less angular font than
* the Fraktur body text.
* Full title page reads:
*                               Herrn Tobias Grubers,
* Weltpriesters und k. k. Bau- und Navigationsdirektors
*                               im Temeswarer Banat,
*                                B  r  i  e  f  e
*                                hydrographischen
*                                            und
*                          physikalischen Inhalts
*                               a u s      K r a i n
*                                           an
*                          Ignaz Edlen von Born,
*                         k. k. wirklichen Hofrath
* Available today at
* [Pogg. says "eigentlich Grüber."] See also Acta Carsologica 33,
* 277-298 (2004), available at
* for more information about Gruber and his book.
*      Ignaz von Born is profiled in European History Quarterly 36, 61 (2006);
* see
* Despite the name on the title page, this was often cited as written by
* Johann Gruber. There are also obscure references to a "patriotic"
* commentary on Gruber's letters, published the same year in Laibach.

J. G. Büsch
Tractatus duo optici argumenti
(apud Carolum Ernestum Bohnium, Hamburgi, 1783).

* Only the first 78 pages deal with mirages; the second "argument"
* of the tract is devoted to myopia -- which is how I discovered that
* the Becker Medical Library of Washington University (St. Louis) has
* a copy (see their website).
*      The preface explains that he was inspired to write by the problem
* posed by the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences ("Societas Hafniensis")
* in 1781. He also says he has translated his observations into Latin to
* make them available to the learned societies.
*      Here the "miles" are specifically German ones; and the barometric
* readings are explicitly in Paris inches and lines. Unfortunately,
* he scrupulously gives barometric readings, but no temperatures!
*      On pp. 9 and 10, he discusses Fig. 1, which shows the difference
* between the apparently calm reflecting surface in the distance, and the
* surface roughened by the wind in the foreground. This effect is also
* shown in Figs. 3, 4, and 6 (discussed on pp. 16, 17, and 36).
*      On p. 12, he notes that this mirage is more likely to be seen in the
* morning, with a clear sky, and warm air. And he does discuss the effect
* of changing the height of the eye.
*      On p. 20 is the original "chamberpot" quotation in the original
* English: "Indeed, it looks like a Chamberpot turn'd upside down."
*      The first 38 pages are observations; then comes his theory: he
* thinks it has to do with electricity, and lightning. . . . He also
* supposes that (because only distant objects are miraged) the curvature
* of the ray depends on distance. . . .
*      Still, on p. 39 he says ". . .  refractionem, quae indubia causa est,
* . . . "
*      Interestingly, he does invoke total internal reflection (p. 53).
* But (p. 59) "there must be something by which the light is reflected."
* On p. 61, he quotes from Gruber's 1781 letter, translated from German
* to Latin. (For a while we have "Gruner" for "Gruber"; but the given
* name "Tobias" certainly identifies him, as well as the reference to
* Carniola; apparently Büsch confused Gruber with the Swiss naturalist
* and geologist G. S. Gruner, who also worked about that time.) Büsch
* discusses Gruber's letter extensively, saying at the outset that
* "hunc virum primum omnium praeter me phaenomenon integrum observasse."
*      Büsch adds notes to Gruber's text -- perhaps his dissent from some
* of Gruber's remarks explains Gruber's later hostility toward Büsch.
*      Notably, "Non in vaporibus causa est sita."  (p. 68)  But he thinks
* the air is always denser at the ground than higher up (p.70), and
* argues that that the denser air cannot separate from the lighter to form
* a visible surface, "like two immiscible liquors, such as terebinth oil
* [turpentine] and spirit of wine".
*      He ends by offering advice to those who would investigate further:
* make observations in all seasons from a fixed place; use an instrument
* capable of measuring small angles; an achromatic telescope "for avoiding
* all confusion of the image that deceives the naked eye"; a level to
* observe "how much objects are raised and lowered for various conditions
* of the air". And it would also be useful, if convenient, to observe
* from the same place the Moon rising and setting over the sea. (pp.76-77)
*      There is a table of Corrigenda on p. 132.
* Title page reads:
*            Ioannis Georgii Büsch
*        Math. Prof. Hamburgensis
*                  Tractatus duo
*              optici Argumenti
*                   cum figuris.
* The internal title page of the first essay reads:
*                               I.
*                   Observata nova
*                              in
*        refractione horizontali
*                    et inde nata
*       mira imaginum reflexione.
* [Extracts were translated into German by Gilbert in 1800.]
*      Special thanks to the ILL people for this one at last!
* This is now available at
* It contains the figures, placed on the 94th page of the PDF, after
* the title page of the second "argument".

H. Swinburne
Travels in the two Sicilies, by Henry Swinburne, esq., in the years 1777, 1778, 1779, and 1780
(P. Elmsly, London, 1783-1785).

* HENRY SWINBURNE's description of the FATA MORGANA
* Our interest is in pp. 263-266 of Vol. 2 of the 1790 Second Edition;
* presumably this first appeared in 1785. Here is what he says:
* . . . "Messina rises out of the waves like a grand amphitheatre; and
* the Faro, lined with villages and towns, seems a noble river, winding
* between two bold shores.
*      "Sometimes, but rarely, it exhibits a very curious phænomenon,
* vulgarly called La Fata Morgana *. The philosophical reader will find
* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
* [the footnote on p. 263 says: "The name is probably derived from an
* opinion, that the whole spectacle is produced by a Fairy or a Magician.
* The populace are delighted whenever the vision appears, and run about
* the streets, shouting for joy, -- calling every body out to partake of
* the glorious sight."]
* -------------------------------------------------------------------------
* its causes and operations learnedly accounted for in Kircher, Minasi,
* and other authors. I shall only give a description of its appearance
* from one that was an eye-witness. Father Angelucci is the first that
* mentions it with any degree of accuracy, in the following terms:
*      ``On the fifteenth of August, 1643, as I stood at my window, I was
* ``surprised with a most wonderful, delectable vision. The sea that
* ``washes the Sicilian shore swelled up, and became, for ten miles in
* ``length, like a chain of dark mountains; while the waters near our
* ``Calabrian coast grew quite smooth, and in an instant appeared as
* ``one clear polished mirror, reclining against the aforesaid ridge.
* ``On this glass was depicted, in chiaro scuro , a string of several
* ``thousands of pilasters, all equal in altitude, distance, and degree
* ``of light and shade. In a moment they lost half their height, and
* ``bent into arcades, like Roman aqueducts. A long cornice was next
* ``formed on the top, and above it rose castles innumerable, all perfectly
* ``alike. These soon split into towers, which were shortly after lost
* ``in colonnades, then windows, and at last ended in pines, cypresses,
* ``and other trees, even and similar. This is the Fata Morgana , which,
* ``for twenty-six years, I had thought a mere fable.''
*      "To produce this pleasing deception, many circumstances must concur,
* which are not known to exist in any other situation. The spectator must
* stand with his back to the east, in some elevated place behind the city,
* that he may command a view of the whole bay; beyond which the mountains
* of Messina rise like a wall, and darken the back-ground of the picture.
* The winds must be hushed; the surface quite smoothed; the tide at its
* height; and the waters pressed up by currents to great elevation in the
* middle of the channel. All these events coinciding, as soon as the sun
* surmounts the eastern hills behind Reggio, and rises high enough to form
* an angle of forty-five degrees on the water before the city, -- every
* object existing or moving at Reggio will be repeated a thousand fold upon
* this marine looking glass; which, by its tremulous motion, is, as it were,
* cut into facets. Each image will pass rapidly off in succession, as the
* day advances, and the stream carries down the wave on which it appeared.
*      "Thus the parts of this moving picture will vanish in the twinkling
* of an eye. Sometimes the air is at that moment so impregnated with
* vapours, and undisturbed by winds, as to reflect objects in a kind of
* aërial screen, rising about thirty feet above the level of the sea.
* In cloudy, heavy weather, they are drawn on the surface of the water,
* bordered with fine prismatical colours."
*      Evidently, Swinburne's account (largely translated from his mentioned
* sources) was the inspiration for a burst of interest in these mirages
* in the English journals. For the next 20 years, refraction phenomena
* were often compared to Swinburne's account, until Wollaston's (1803)
* introduction of the French term "mirage" (and Nicholson's longer
* translation from Minasi) superseded it.
*      Google Books has the Second Edition (1790, 4 vols.) on-line.
* Apparently the passage above is on p. 365 of the first volume of the
* two-volume (first?) edition.

T. Jefferson
Notes on the State of Virginia
(Norton, New York, 1982).

* THOMAS JEFFERSON's observations: notes the importance of DISTANCE
* " Having had occasion to mention the particular situation of Monticello
* for other purposes, I will just take notice that its elevation affords
* an opportunity of seeing a phænomenon which is rare at land, though
* frequent at sea. The seamen call it looming . Philosophy is as yet in
* the rear of the seamen, for so far from having accounted for it, she has
* not given it a name. Its principal effect is to make distant objects
* appear larger, in opposition to the general law of vision, by which they
* are diminished. I knew an instance, at York town, from whence the water
* prospect eastwardly is without termination, wherein a canoe with three
* men, at a great distance, was taken for a ship with its three masts.
* I am little acquainted with the phænomenon as it shews itself at sea;
* but at Monticello it is familiar. There is a solitary mountain about
* 40 miles off, in the South, whose natural shape, as presented to view
* there, is a regular cone; but, by the effect of looming, it sometimes
* subsides almost totally into the horizon; sometimes it rises more
* acute and more elevated; sometimes it is hemispherical; and sometimes
* its sides are perpendicular, its top flat, and as broad as its base.
* In short it assumes at times the most whimsical shapes, and all these
* perhaps successively in the same morning. The Blue ridge of mountains
* comes into view, in the North East, at about 100 miles distance, and,
* approaching in a direct line, passes by within 20 miles, and goes off
* to the South-west. This phænomenon begins to shew itself on these
* mountains, at about 50 miles distance, and continues beyond that as far
* as they are seen. I remark no particular state, either in the weight,
* moisture, or heat of the atmosphere, necessary to produce this. The only
* constant circumstances are, its appearance in the morning only, and on
* objects at least 40 or 50 miles distant. In this latter circumstance,
* if not in both, it differs from the looming on the water. Refraction will
* not account for this metamorphosis. That only changes the proportions of
* length and breadth, base and altitude, preserving the general outlines.
* Thus it may make a circle appear elliptical, raise or depress a cone,
* but by none of its laws, as yet developed, will it make a circle appear
* a square, or a cone a sphere."
*      At the word "diminished", there is a note, which is apparently due
* to the editor, William Peden; it says: "MS note by TJ . Dr. Shaw in
* his Physical observations on Syria, speaking of the Easterly winds,
* called by Seamen Levanters, says `we are likewise to observe further
* with regard to these strong Easterly winds, that vessels, or any other
* objects, which are seen at a distance, appear to be vastly magnified,
* or loom , according to the mariners expression.' Shaw's travels, 302.
* Ed. note. Thomas Shaw (1674-1751), English traveller and educator,
* author of Travels or Observations Relating to Several Parts of Barbary
* and the Levant (Oxford, 1738)." [p. 280]
*      N.B.: The page (302) that Peden attributes to TJ in this note is
* incorrect. The correct page number is 362. [Cf. Shaw, 1738.]
*      This was written in 1781 and revised in 1782.  Jefferson had a small
* edition privately printed in 1784 in Paris. A French translation
* appeared in 1786; the original English was published in 1787.
* The passage on "looming" appears on pp. 80-81 of the 1982 Norton
* paperback in our library, at the end of Chapter 7.
* Cited by Talman in his 1932 article in Yachting .

T. Gruber
“Physikalische Abhandlung über die Stralenbrechung und Abprellung auf erwärmten Flächen,”
Abhandlungen der Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 2, 298–330 (1786).

* Early mirages: Claims to have written to Abbe v. Herbert in 1776;
* cites his letter in 1781, published before Büsch's
* "Tractatus duo argumenti optici" of 1783.
* N.B.: "Klafter" = "die Länge des Menschens" (approx. 1.9 m)
* according to Grimm; Brockhaus says "6 Fuß; 10 Fuß; 1.7 m im Mittel"
* See also:
*        Hercule Cavalli
*        Tableaux comparatifs des mesures, poids et monnaies, modernes et anciens
*        (Dupont, Paris, 1874)
* (available at Google Books) for such obsolete units.
* First observations published in letters from Krain = Carniola, on the
* bed of seasonally-varying Zirknitzer See = Cirknisko Jezero = Lago
* Periodico near Zirknitz = Cerknica = Cirkonico, south of Laibach =
* Ljubljana. This southern former crownland of Austria, later titular
* duchy, was annexed by the Hapsburgs in 1335. Note the use of Viennese
* measures. This area is currently Slovenia.
* Both field measurements and indoor experiments with air heated by an
* iron strip. He repudiates his earlier error (of thinking that the
* surface air was thickened) in the Nachschrift , and now states that the
* heated air is thinned, as shown by the rising air over a candle flame,
* etc. He also notes the wavy appearance of the heated air as it rises.
* Detailed explanations of double images and image elongation at the
* fold line, with good ray diagrams.
* Abbé Tobias Gruber, K.K.Kameral-Baudirektor
*      note obsolete spelling: "Stralenbrechung"!
* The umlauts are tiny e's printed over the vowels.
* N.B.: Brechmonat = June; Wintermonat = Nov.|Jan.; Christmonat = Dec.
*      Pernter gives 1786 for the year, and in the bottom margin at the end
* of every signature my photocopy says "Abh. d. B.Ges. 1786".
* The text (but, of course, NOT the Plates!) is available at Google Books.

N. J. Wetterling
“Von zwo an den schwedischen Küsten bemerkten Erscheinungen, Erhebung und Seegesicht,”
Neue Abh. Kongl. Schwed. Akad. Wiss. 9, 3–24 (1788).

* more "FOG" (p.16)
* ". . . hier wähle ich zum Beyspiele meiner Beschreibung die bekannten
* Gunnilas Felsen, (Gunnilas Oerar) 3/4 schwedische Meilen ostwärts in der
* See von den Svenska Högar.
*      "Vermutlich sind diese Gunnilas Felsen auf gewisse Art vor mehr als
* zwei Jahrhunderten bekannt gewesen. . . ."

Le Gentil
“Extrait d'un mémoire sur des observations astronomiques faites sur les réfractions, en 1786, 1787 et 1788,”
Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. , 224–236 (1789).

* GUILLAUME JOSEPH HYACINTHE LE GENTIL's posthumous work on refraction
* Notable not only for an early OMEGA description, but also for the early
* use of the term se mirer and descriptions of mirages (pp. 233 ff.).
*      A comment on the RARITY of clear sunsets: ". . .  sur quatre mois
* entiers je n'ai vu qu'une seule fois le soleil se coucher complètement
* à l'horizon de la mer . . . ." (p. 227)
*      He also notes that Bouguer found a smaller horizontal refraction at
* sea in the tropics (25' to 27') (p. 227)
*      His own VARIATIONS in horizontal refraction were 5' at Pondicherry;
* but "il semble . . . que la réfraction à 10'' [sic; he means degrees]
* soit assez bien constatée . . . ." (p. 228)
*      The OMEGA descriptions are on pp. 229-232.  ". . .  c'étoit comme si deux
* soleils se fussent détachés l'un de l'autre, l'un avoit monté pendant
* que l'autre descendoit." (p. 230)
*      The etymology is on p. 233: "Les habitans des bords des côtes de
* Basse-Normandie, presque tous marins, appelent ces apparences se mirer .
* Ils disent qu'une isle se mire , qu'un rocher se mire ." He then
* disputes the French translation of a Dutch sailors' dictionary that
* invokes clouds in explaining this term, as "Cela n'arrive que dans un
* très-beau temps, et lorsqu'il n'y a pas la moindre apparence de nuages."
* (p. 234) -- Later on the same page is a classical description: "Je
* vis à la place comme des ruines d'une ancienne ville ou d'une ancienne
* colonnade, qui paroissoit au-dessus de l'horizon, et comme en l'air,
* sans distinguer ni voir de nuages quelconques."
* NOTE: The dictionary was Aubin's 1736 edition; see Aubin (1702) here.
*      Finally, he quotes from Maraldi's descriptions of mirages and looming
* of Corsica as seen from Gênes and Provence. (p. 235)
*      A footnote says Le Gentil died 22 Oct. 1792, just as the memoir was
* being printed.

G. M. Giovene
“Discorso meteorologico-campestre su l'anno 1790 del Sig. Don Giuseppe Giovene, Canonico della Cattedrale di Molfetta,”
Opuscoli Scelti sulle Scienze e sulle Arti, Parte I, vol. 14, 3–21 (1791).

* GIUSEPPE MARIA GIOVENE's original account -- very good!
* The mirage observations are on pp. 15-21: "It remains for me to speak
* of a phenomenon seen by me on the evening of 9 February, and of other
* similar phenomena, which are observed in these regions. For greater
* accuracy I shall copy almost literally from my journals for those which
* I have observed, and the reports of my friends, for those I have not
* seen with my eyes. The previous days were fine and clear, with rather
* strong winds from N. to W., and I found myself in a small country house
* which I prefer just because, enjoying a wide horizon there, I have the
* convenience of better observing the meteorological phenomena. It was
* one of those beautiful evenings that can happen in winter, and close
* to half past 5 in the evening I was stopped at a window that had a view
* directly to the SSW. I was enjoying the clear air, which was calm, as
* shown by the smoke from the chimneys of the nearby towns of Terlizzi,
* Ruvo, and Corato, which lay beneath my view; it had not any movement,
* but covered those towns motionlessly like an umbrella. Looking around,
* I thought I saw some clouds rising in the western part just along the
* horizon, which occupied about 20 degrees of the same. I determined to
* try to observe their path, with only the idea of being able to predict
* which way the wind would blow the next day, and consequently what could
* be the state of the air, which, as I found myself in the countryside,
* interested me. In fact, I observed that the supposed clouds rose more
* and more above the horizon until they had ascended about two degrees.
* But suddenly they began to take various shapes, so that finally I
* realized they were quite different from clouds. I therefore invited
* Dr. Andrea Tripaldi, a young man well versed in good physics, and who
* had had the courtesy to join me for some days in tranquil solitude,
* to observe with me. We placed ourselves to observe more attentively.
* The originally supposed clouds were always changing shape. They first
* gave us the impression of a city standing along the horizon. We saw the
* shapes of buildings, of towers, of campaniles. At that moment, we came
* to suspect that the landscape of Cerignola, reflected to be situated in
* the direction of the phenomenon, but thirty-four Italian miles distant
* from the place of observation, was presented to our eyes by a powerful
* refraction of light in the atmosphere. But we saw the scene gradually
* change, and two little hills appeared, one facing the other, and these
* later were raised up, and squared off into magnificent towers with great
* apertures like windows, which let the light of the twilight pass through.
* I would hardly be able to describe the diverse shapes and the varied forms
* that were presented to our eyes. But later on our surprise increased.
* The twilight was very bright, and I noticed that waves of more vivid
* light were rising from time to time from the edge of the horizon up to
* an altitude of six or seven degrees. I first believed it could be an
* illusion of my eyes, and informed Sig. Tripaldi, who affirmed that he too
* saw what I said I saw. To assure ourselves, we agreed to inform each
* other when one of us perceived these waves of light. We always found
* ourselves in agreement. We went to another window, which faced directly
* to the WNW, and the thing appeared the same. The waves of light extended
* as far as the twilight extended, and were more vivid where it was more
* vivid, and less vivid where it ended. Five or six waves would come, and
* then a pause for one or two minutes, then they would recommence again.
* Meanwhile, the most capricious shapes were appearing on the line of the
* horizon. The spectacle lasted, charming and pleasant, near half an hour.
* As the twilight grew darker, so the striking appearance decreased in
* beauty, and ended completely after three quarters of an hour. The calm
* lasted all night. In the morning of the following day, 10 February, some
* mists rose, and cloudlets, from the W. At 10 1/2 in the morning the wind
* came from the W rather strong, but near evening the air clouded up, and
* the wind shifted to the N.W. with strong force; on the following day (the
* 11th), the thermometer suddenly fell by many degrees, there was a shower
* of snow, which even froze in some places more exposed to the cold wind.
*      "This phenomenon, although peculiar in its circumstances, is
* nevertheless not new in Puglia, as it is not even new in Iapigia, today
* called the Province of the Land of Otranto, and I shall expand a little
* on this article so much more willingly as this class of phenomena is
* either completely unmentioned by the writers, or reported confusedly,
* or even with changes engendered by the ignorance and superstition of the
* populace. The one who has mentioned them with the greatest vivacity and
* accuracy is the celebrated Antonio Ferrari, called Galateo after his
* birthplace, a writer of the last years of the fifteenth, and the first
* of the sixteenth Century. in his elegant little book, reprinted so many
* times, De Situ Iapygiæ :" -- and here he quotes from Ferrari's Latin
* account (1558) in extenso .
*      "The reader will forgive the long quotation.  But it is not only in
* the places named by the Galateo that the mutate are seen. I find
* from the reports, it is also seen at Galatone, Soleto, and many other
* towns and villages of the cape of Lecce, that is, Cape Japigio.
* The mutate (as is written to me from there) consist of seeing in a
* great plain, now a sea, now a woods, now a town. These apparitions are
* observed only at the rising and setting of the sun.
*      "In Puglia Peucezia, similar phenomena are also seen, and are called
* lavandaja [washerwoman], for what reason, I cannot say. They have
* taken it as a sign of change of weather. In fact, when after the wind
* has blown for a long time from a point on the horizon, the atmosphere
* calms to give place to an opposite flow, then is precisely the time when
* the lavandaja shows itself most beautifully. So too the season in
* which it most frequently appears is the autumn, and the winter too,
* although it is not rare in summer, and not extremely rare in spring.
* Indeed in summer there takes place almost daily a sort of little
* lavandaja , after midday, while the time of the phenomenon is properly
* around sunrise and sunset.
*      "The ordinary appearance of the lavandaja  from Molfetta is on
* Mt. Gargano. This mountain, about 50 miles distant from that city,
* appears like a cloud of a fairly deep blue color resting upon the
* horizon from the W.N.W. to the N.N.W. Of course, I shall not say
* that this mountain is the barometer of the Puglian sailors, and that
* visible or invisible, high or low, covered either completely by clouds,
* or as if by an umbrella of clouds, lets them predict the wind and the
* state of the Puglian atmosphere; I shall speak only of the lavandaja .
* The first time I saw this meteor, knowing nothing of the thing,
* I confess to have been distressed by it in the first moments. I was
* seeing the whole mountain shake, and undulate, as if an extremely violent
* earthquake shook its foundations, and made it totter. So I was seeing
* one part of the mountain collapse, forming a great valley; and then
* this, little by little, rose to form a new peak superimposed on the
* mountain. Beside this peak rose a second, a third; and these, little
* by little, were squared off into high towers; then they too collapsed
* and became valleys again. In sum, I was seeing that mountain in the
* most terrible convulsions. Afterwards, accustomed to observing such
* phenomena, I have very many times seen with the greatest pleasure the
* varied scenes that the view of this mountain offers. It assumes the
* most varied and the most capricious forms, and a warped or slightly
* heated imagination, comparing these figures to well-known objects,
* believes it sees horses, and armies, castles, ships, towers, and towns.
*      "And too, a partial lavandaja  is seen from the Town of Molfetta,
* especially when a soft wind blows from the east after sunset. That
* peak, of which Lucan sang,
*              Apulian Garganus extends into the Adriatic waves
* continually takes on new forms and figures, now seeming extremely
* long, now shrinking and then dividing into many pieces, which look like
* islands in the open sea. It also happens that sometimes one portion of
* the sea appears notably higher than another, and some other time the sea
* in the distance looks as if in the greatest storm, when in reality it
* was completely calm. But to finish the little story of these phenomena,
* I shall describe another charming display that presented itself to me
* one morning in October, 1789, at the appearance of the sun on the horizon.
*      "I found myself in my customary countryside retreat, and as it was
* a beautiful morning with little, or indeed no wind, I hastened to enjoy
* it at a window that looked directly to the N.E., and to observe the
* thermometer and the hygrometer, which hung there. I was really
* surprised to see the most delightful and certainly moving scene.
* The town of Biseglie, which was in my view, in the N.W. part, although
* it was seven miles away, appeared so near that I would have believed
* it only two miles off. I was seeing the pavement of a wide square,
* which is there before the walls of the town, was almost counting the
* houses, and the vision was made not only with the greatest distinctness,
* but also with a certain vividness, which absolutely touched the soul.
* It was observable that the houses seemed more elongated than widened,
* as it was most observable that the bell towers were in their natural
* state. That is to say that at a certain height of the land, the view
* was the normal one. In the part to the W., all the little hovels and
* the houses scattered through the countryside appeared as high pyramids
* or spacious towers. I enjoyed this display, which later became more
* delightful, for almost an hour, in the company of my inseparable friend,
* the aforesaid Dr. Andrea Tripaldi. The town of Trani, placed a little
* more to the W. at a distance of perhaps more than eleven miles, and
* which, in the ordinary state of the air, cannot be seen, except for
* just one cathedral with its high campanile, began to be seen entirely,
* and with the greatest distinctness, so that it seemed to have approached
* by at least six miles. At the start of the next hour, while Biseglie
* was slowly going away, Barletta began to be seen. It is even more to
* the west than Trani, and about eighteen miles distant, and completely
* invisible in the ordinary state of the atmosphere. And this town seemed
* no more remote than seven or eight miles. My colleague and I distinctly
* saw the coast between Barletta and Trani, and were counting all the little
* boats that were fishing along there. Near nine in the morning, that is,
* after more than three hours since we had begun to observe the phenomenon,
* everything seemed to return to normal. But I wanted to go onto the
* terrace, which was higher than the window by about twenty Paris feet.
* I was more surprised to find that from that height the phenomenon
* could still be seen in all its beauty, and Barletta and Trani seemed a
* few miles away. I informed Sig. Tripaldi of it as he stood at the window
* while I was on the terrace. We assured ourselves that the phenomenon was
* now invisible at the height of about 40 Paris feet, extremely visible from
* about 60 feet from the ground. In the whole duration of the phenomenon
* the thermometer was between 12 and 15 degrees Reaumur, and the hygrometer
* between 21 and 25 degrees absolute, which means in temperate heat,
* and moderate dryness; or at least, certainly not in great humidity.
*      "By comparing my observations with the little left written of it by
* Antonio Galateo , it is easy to see that the mutate of Japigia and
* the lavandaja of Peucezia are the very same thing, although I will admit
* that the fuochi fatui [will-o'-the wisps] and the capre saltanti ,
* which are not seen by us at all in Peucezia, are extremely frequent
* in Nardò, and in Copertino. The complex of these meteors, and of
* the phenomena described above, gives credence to the tales of witches
* and magicians among the people of Nardò and Copertino; fables that
* nevertheless have begun to lose credit today even among those low people.
*      "Meanwhile, everyone sees that the mutate  and the lavandaja
* are nothing but the play of variable refraction of visual rays in the
* atmosphere, as from variable refraction comes the increase and decrease of
* our visual horizon by twenty or thirty miles. But a conversation on the
* phenomenon I had seen on the evening of 9 February with the celebrated
* Sig. Thouvenel (whose coming to Molfetta expressly to visit the famous
* natural nitrate deposit of this City gave me the honor of accomodating
* him in my house, and the pleasure of hearing him, . . . ) made my ideas
* go a little farther, and formed conjectures, which will be appraised
* by the Physicists for what they are. Why does this lavandaja always
* have to appear on the western side and never to the east of Molfetta?
* Why must it always be seen along the line going from the famous Apulian
* [Mt.] Vulture, an extinct volcano, as everyone knows, and entering the sea
* at the farthest promontory Gargano, passing by the island of Pelagosa,
* recognized as volcanic by the celebrated Sig. Ab. Fortis, and going
* directly to the N.E. to join the volcanos of Morlachia? Why are the
* mutate of Lecce seen along the line of Galatona, Nardò, Copertino,
* and adjacent towns, put on land where there is some rising heat, and
* where pyrites and coal are found? Why is the famous fata morgana of
* Reggio in Calabria, which nevertheless is very similar to the lavandaja
* of Puglia, and to the mutate of Salento, is found just on the line
* of coal, which passed directly under the Faro of Sicily in Calabria,
* and is also seen in the open air behind Messina, and at Briatico on the
* opposite side? This phenomenon of the lavandaja , that is, of the
* mutate , is certainly, as I have said, a play of refraction, and to
* make such a play it is necessary that a certain quantity of vapors and of
* exhalations change the state of the atmosphere. Even this is not enough.
* Because the striking appearance, despite the calm, means that the wind is
* in continuous movement, the very air is like an uprising, and agitated.
* Those waves of light that I saw the evening of 9 February must be the
* effect of a shaking given to the air. So it seems that either electrical
* fluid or other emanations of some gas rise from the regions above which
* are seen the described phenomena, and force the incumbent atmosphere to
* be disturbed or to undulate. The violent agitations and convulsions,
* to which the same atmosphere is accustomed, occur after the appearance of
* such meteors, which indicate the same. I have not thought it necessary
* to give a complete history of this kind of phenomenon in our regions in
* this memoir. For me, it is enough to have given a small sample of it.
* Meanwhile, one must confess that meteorology is still, at most, in its
* early adolescence, and that there would never be as many careful observers
* of meteorological instruments as observers in the open countryside,
* and with a free horizon."
*      This was mostly translated into German by Zimmermann later, and then
* reprinted by Gilbert in 1802. (See the entry for Zimmermann's version.)
*      Thanks to Maria Toscano for supplying the citation to this, and
* helping with the translation!
*      Available at Google Books:

A. Ellicott
“Extract of a letter from Andrew Ellicott, to David Rittenhouse, Esq. dated at Pittsburg, November 5th 1787, containing observations made at Lake-Erie,”
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. 3, 62–63 (1793).

* Early looming and mirage observation (apparently a 3-image mirage)
* "On the thirteenth of last month [i.e., October], while we lay on
* the banks of Lake-Erie, we had an opportunity of viewing that singular
* phenomenon, by Seamen termed looming. . . . the 13th was cloudy; but
* without rain: about ten o'clock in the morning, as I was walking on the
* beach, I discovered something that had the appearance of land, in the
* direction of Presque-Isle; about noon it became more conspicuous and;
* when viewest by a good Achromatic-Telescope, the branches of trees
* could be plainly discovered --- From 3 o'clock in the afternoon, till
* dark, the whole Peninsula was considerably elevated above the horizon,
* and viewed by all our company with admiration. --- There was a singular
* appearance attending this Phenomenon, which I do not remember to have
* seen taken notice of by any writer --- The Peninsula was frequently
* seen double, or rather two similar Peninsula's, one above the other,
* with an appearance of water between:--- the separation, and coincidence
* was very frequent, and not unlike that observed in shifting the index
* of an adjusted Godfrey's quadrant. . . . The next morning Presque-Isle
* was again invisible, and remained so during our stay at that position.
* Presque-Isle was about twenty-five miles distant, its situation very low."
* The marginal note says "Read Nov. 21, 1788".

S. Dickenson
“A Description of a Phaenomenon caused by Haze seen at Sea Aug. 10, 1759,”
Gentleman's Magazine 63, 601–602 (1793).

* by the Rev. Samuel Dickenson, LL.B. the Chaplain of the Dunkirk
* Man of War. . .
* "The term haze , prefixed to the foregoing account, is adopted from the
* phrase then used by the sailors, perhaps improperly; for, there was not
* the least appearance of mist or fog, or thickness of atmosphere; on the
* contrary, the air seemed uncommonly clear."

E. Williams, W. Mudge, and I. Dalby
“An Account of the Trigonometrical Survey Carried on in the Years 1791, 1792, 1793, and 1794, by Order of His Grace the Duke of Richmond, Late Master General of the Ordnance. By Lieut. Col. Edward Williams, and Capt. William Mudge, of the Royal Artillery; And Mr. Isaac Dalby. Communicated by the Duke of Richmond, F. R. S.,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 85, 414–591 (1795).

* INFERIOR MIRAGE and variable refraction reported by
* Lieut. Col. Edward Williams, and Capt. William Mudge,
* of the Royal Artillery; and Mr. Isaac Dalby.
* Dalby's observation in April, 1793 (pp. 586-588):
*      "I observed . . .  a very uncommon effect of terrestrial refraction. . . .
* ". . . when the eye was brought to about 2 feet from the ground, the top
* of the hill appeared totally detached, or lifted up from the lower part,
* for the sky was seen under it. This phænomenon I repeatedly observed."
* The discussion continues: ". . . it is more than probable, that moist
* vapours were the principal cause of the very unusual refractions:
* the truth of which conjecture seems to be verified by the following
* circumstance. In measuring the base on Hounslow Heath, we had driven
* into the ground, at the distance of 100 feet from each other, about 30
* pickets, so that their heads appeared through the boning telescope to be
* in a right line; this was done in the afternoon. The following morning
* proved uncommonly dewy, and the Sun shone bright; when having occasion to
* replace the telescope, we remarked that the heads of the pickets exhibited
* a curve, concave upwards, the farther-most pickets rising the highest;
* and we concluded they were not properly driven till in the afternoon,
* when we found that the curve appearance was lost, and the ebullition in
* the air had subsided."
* (available at JSTOR; no paper copy filed)

Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen 1, 82. St. , 809–818 (21 Mai, 1796).

* Woltman's newsletter announcement (1796)
*      This is the lead item in the issue, attributed to "Hr. Dir. Woltmann"
* (with 2 "n"s.) "zu Cuxhaven". There is no title; the general heading
* is "Göttingen". This is an account of a paper sent to "der königl.
* Societät" [i.e., the "Königliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften" in
* Göttingen], and presented by "Hr. Hofrath Kästner". (The Göttingische
* Gelehrte Anzeigen was its official organ, published almost daily.)
*      This extended abstract begins with Gruber's 1786 paper, and goes
* directly into an account of Woltman's measurements of dip by using two
* stakes driven into the dikes, with the distant house as target. This
* seems to be the first appearance of the phrase "Spiegelung unterwärts" in
* print. The basic data (distances between the sights and the house, and
* some angles) are given, with the Hamburg foot as the unit of length.
*      The part of his later complete table that summarizes the results for
* Feb. 1795 is printed, showing that the terrestrial refraction is
* greatest in the morning and least in the evening; the total range is
* 10 min. 16 sec.
*      "Diese Bilder können nicht ganz allein aus Reflection entstehen, weil
* keine Spiegelfläche in der Luft vorhanden ist; es muss dabey eine
* Refraction mitwirken, die den Strahl unterwärts krümmt." (p. 812)
* He also describes briefly the effects of superior mirages, and for
* further information refers to his forthcoming paper in the "nächsten
* Bande der kaiserl. königl. Gesellschaft zu Prag". The heat has the
* strongest effect of all meteorological variables: "Ist das Wasser 2 oder
* mehr Fahrenheitische Grade wärmer, als die Luft, so findet sich allemal
* Erniedrigung der Strahlen, die sich über die Wasserfläche erstrecken;
* aber Hebung, wenn die Luft über dem Wasser 2 oder mehr Grade wärmer ist,
* als das Wasser." (p. 815)
*      At the end, Woltman describes some inferior mirages he has seen over
* land: "Man muss zu dem Ende eine ganz offene Ebene vor sich haben ,
* oder über Gebüsche und dergl. von einer hohe wegsehen können. Dann
* scheint die ganze Landschaft in einem unbeweglichen Glanzmeere zu stehen ,
* worin alle die erhobenen Gegenstände sich unterwärts spiegeln. So hat
* Hr. W. oft von den Geesthöhen herab die Marschen gesehen , als wären
* sie ganz mit glänzendem Wasser überzogen. Diese Bemerkungen . . . findet
* er Uebereinstimmung der Strahlen über Land und über Wasser, der Strahl
* krümmt sich allemahl nach der wärmsten Seite; die Refraction ist desto
* grösser, je grösser der Unterschied der Wärme zwischen beyden Materien
* ist, . . . ." (p. 817)
*      He continues with remarks on distortions of the low Sun: "Sieht man
* die Sonne des Morgens heiter aufgehen , so gibt ihre Gestalt ein
* untrügliches Merkmahl , ob Hebung oder Depression Statt finden wird.
* Nähmlich im letztern Falle ist sie nie rund , sondern ein Theil
* der Sonnenscheibe spiegelt sich unterwärts ; der kann , nachdem die
* Depression schwacher oder stärker ist, wohl ein Achtel oder ein Viertel
* des Sonnendurchmessers betragen, Hr. W. bildet dergleichen
* Erscheinungen ab , als wenn unten an der Sonnenscheibe , auch an den
* aufgegangenen Theil, der Anfang einer andern Scheibe angesetzt wäre ;
* dergleichen hat er auch an dem Vollmonde wahrgenommen. Findet dergleichen
* Depression Morgens und Abends Statt, so ist ihre Dauer auf dem festen
* Lande denselben Tag keinem Zweifel unterworfen , weil sie hier um Mittag
* allemahl zunimmt." (p.818)
*      Evidently the editor --- at that time,  Christian Gottlob Heyne, the
* head of the University Library, and "perpetual secretary" of the Society
* --- thought highly of this report: "Das viele Merkwürdige und Neue
* aus einer noch ungedruckten Schrift wird die Länge dieses Auszugs
* entschuldigen."
*      Available at

E. A. W. von Zimmermann
Allgemeine Blick auf Italien
(Verlag des Industrie-Comptoirs, Weimar, 1797).

* Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann's translation of Giovene
*      The introduction refers to Swinburne's work, and briefly enumerates
* the various sources, and their translators.
*      Giovene's interesting mirage passage is on pp. 171-181.  Zimmermann
* does indeed copy "S.S.O." literally from the original, which garbles
* the directions, as "O." is "Ovest" in Italian. So the error is the
* translator's and not Gilbert's.
*      Note: the umlauts are tiny e's above their vowels.
* Available at

J. Huddart
“Observations on horizontal Refractions which affect the Appearance of terrestrial Objects, and the Dip, or Depression of the Horizon of the Sea,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 87, 29–42 (1797).

*      "The variation and uncertainty the dip, in different states of the
* air, taken at the same altitude above the level of the sea,, was the
* occasion of my turning my thoughts to this subject; as it renders the
* latitude observed incorrect, by giving an erroneous zenith distance of
* a celestial object.
*      "I have often observed that low lands and the extremity of headlands
* or points, forming an acute angle with the horizon of the sea, and
* viewed from a distance beyond it, appear elevated above it, with an
* open space between the land and the sea. . . .      I believe it arises,
* and is proportional to the evaporation going on from the sea; and in
* reflecting upon this phænomenon, I am convinced that those appearances
* must arise from refraction, and that instead of the density of the
* atmosphere increasing to the surface of the sea, it must decrease from
* some space above it; . . . ."
*      His observations of the miraged ship, made from a height of 40 feet,
* [=12 m] plainly showed the contraction of the inverted image. (p.32)
*      His figures show accurate ray diagrams for the inferior mirage;
* he notes the vanishing line ("a little below the maximum of density,
* where inversion begins; therefore no land lower than this can be seen;
* . . . " (p. 37); and he points out the effects seen at the fold line:
* "There are always confused or ill defined images of the objects at
* the height of the dotted line, fig. 1, above the level of the sea, as
* before mentioned; and instead of the points of d [i.e., the apparent
* land horizon] ending sharp in that line, they appear blunted . . . ."
*      Notable for having used measurements of the Sun at noon at both
* northern and southern (i.e., opposite) horizons to infer the actual DIP.
*      He says "The effect indicated by the barometer and thermometer is
* insufficient;" but he fails to understand why, being fixed on the idea
* that humidity is the main problem.
*      Cites Hamilton (1766) on "Ascent of Vapours".  Also cites the paper by
* Williams, Mudge, and Dalby (1795).
*      Joseph Huddart read his paper to the Royal Society on November 24.
* 1796. It was published on Jan. 1, 1797.
* Available at JSTOR, and at the Roy. Soc. website.

J. Huddart
“Observations on horizontal Refractions which affect the Appearance of terrestrial Objects, and the Dip, or Depression of the Horizon of the Sea,”
William Nicholson's "A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts" 1, 145–152 (July, 1797).

* The same, reprinted:
* Note: Nicholson's Journal merged with Phil. Mag. in 1813.

W. Nicholson
“An Account of the Fata Morgana; or the Optical Appearance of Figures, in the Sea and the Air, in the Faro of Messina. With an Engraving.,”
William Nicholson's "A Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts" 1, 225–227 (1797).

* Nicholson's summary of MINASI's Fata Morgana paper
* He begins by quoting James Thomson's lines from "The Castle of Indolence",
* Canto i. Stanza 30: "As when a shepherd of the Hebrid' Isles. . .
*        (Whether it be lone fancy him beguiles,
*        Or that ae"rial beings sometimes deign
*        To stand, embodied, to our sense plain) . . .
*        A vast assembly moving to and fro:
*      Then all at once in air dissolves the wondrous show."
* -- an interesting reference, considering the reports of mirages from
* the Orkneys and other northern outliers of Britain.
*      He then cites Brydone and Swinburne as making "mention of a very
* striking phenomenon . . . known by the name of Fata Morgana, or, as some
* render it, the Castles of the Fairy Morgana. The accounts differ from
* each other . . . . How far the effects themselves may be subject to
* variation, or to what extent the imagination of the narrators, who speak
* of the exhibition as calculated to produce astonishment, may be subject
* to irregularity, would admit of discussion. . . ."
*      Nicholson borrowed a copy of Minasi's work from Sir Joseph Banks,
* and says, "In this treatise the facts are related with much simplicity
* and precision, and the philosophical reasoning of the author is kept
* distinct from the narrative." [But see Gilbert's scathing commentary!]
*      Now comes Nicholson's loose translation of Minasi's description:
*      "When the rising sun shines from that point whence its incident
* ray forms an angle of about forty-five degrees on the sea of Reggio,
* and the bright surface of the water in the bay is not disturbed either
* by the wind or the current, the spectator being placed on an eminence
* of the city, with his back to the sun and his face to the sea; -- on
* a sudden there appear in the water, as in a catoptric theatre, various
* multiplied objects, that is to say, numberless series of pilasters,
* arches, castles well delineated, regular columns, lofty towers, superb
* palaces, with balconies and windows, extended alleys of trees, delightful
* plains with herds and flocks, armies of men on foot and horseback, and
* many other strange images, in their natural colours and proper actions,
* passing rapidly in succession along the surface of the sea during the
* whole of the short period of time while the above-mentioned causes remain.
*      "But if, in addition to the circumstances before described, the
* atmosphere be highly impregnated with vapour, and dense exhalations not
* previously dispersed by the action of the wind or waves, or rarefied by
* the sun, it then happens that in this vapour, as in a curtain extended
* along the channel to a height of about thirty palms, and nearly down
* to the sea, the observer will behold the scene of the same objects not
* only reflected from the surface of the sea, but likewise in the air,
* though not so distinct or well defined as the former objects from the sea.
*      "Lastly, if the air be slightly hazey and opake, and at the same time
* dewy and adapted to form the iris, then the above-mentioned objects
* will appear only at the surface of the sea, as in the first case,
* but all vividly coloured or fringed with red, green, blue, and other
* prismatic colours." [Minasi actually says "purple" rather than "other
* prismatic colors."]
*      Nicholson's translation seems to have become the canonical version
* of Minasi's account in English (though in Brewster's 1830 "Edinburgh
* Encyclopedia" and some later copies, "alleys" became "valleys").
* (Google Books shows dozens of copies, right up to the present day.)
* Minasi just says "very high trees" -- no alleys or valleys.
*      Nicholson refers to Minasi's note on "the etymology of Morgana
* . . . which is so foreign to the Roman idiom, . . . considering the great
* exultation and joy this appearance produces in all ranks of people, who
* on its first commencement run hastily to the sea, exclaiming Morgana,
* Morgana!"
*      "In the second chapter the author describes the city of Reggio,
* and the neighbouring coast of Calabria; by which he shews that all the
* objects which are exhibited in the Fata Morgana are derived from objects
* on shore." (I take "derived from" in a different sense, though!)
*      In dealing with Minasi's observation (in the 3rd chapter) that the
* tides have something to do with it, he takes from Minasi that "It is high
* water, that is to say, the northern current ceases, at full and change,
* at nine o'clock. There is probably a small rise and fall, though the
* annotation to a large chart before me affirms that there is none."
*      The various crank ideas following the 4th chapter, in which Minasi
* "collects the opinion and relations of various writers . . . , namely,
* Angelucci, Kircher, Scotus, and others," are elided, "because it seems
* difficult to make any clear or productive statement either from the
* narrative or the reasoning." [Pace , Gilbert!]
*      His summary includes: "3. That the Morgana Marina presents inverted
* images below the real objects, which are multiplied laterally as well
* as vertically; and that there are repetitions of the same multiplied
* objects at more considerable vertical intervals. This I gather from
* the appearance of the dome and other objects in the plate." And:
* "8. By attentive reflection upon the facts and reasonings in Mr.
* Huddart's paper, we may form a theory to account for the erect and
* inverted images . . . ; but for the lateral multiplication we must have
* recourse to reflecting or refracting planes in the vapour, which appear
* nearly as difficult to deduce or establish, as those which have been
* supposed on the water."
* Issue dated August 1797

W. Latham
“Account of a singular Instance of atmospherical Refraction. In a Letter from William Latham, Esq. F.R.S. and A.S. to the Rev. Henry Whitfield, D.D. F.R.S. and A.S.,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 88, 357–360 (1798).

* William LATHAM's observations of LOOMING, seen from Hastings
* "On Wednesday last, July 26, about five o'clock in the afternoon, . . .
* the coast of France was plainly to be distinguished with the naked eye.
* I immediately went down to the shore, and was surprised to find that,
* even without the assistance of a telescope, I could very plainly see the
* cliffs on the opposite coast; which, at the nearest part, are between
* forty and fifty miles distant, and are not to be discerned, from that
* low situation, by the aid of the best glasses. They appeared to be only
* a few miles off, and seemed to extend for some leagues along the coast.
* . . . the cliffs gradually appearing more elevated, and approaching
* nearer, as it were . . . .
*      "Having indulged my curiosity upon the shore for near an hour, during
* which the cliffs appeared to be at some times more bright and near,
* at others more faint and at a greater distance, but never out of sight,
* I went upon the eastern cliff or hill, which is of a very considerable
* height, when a most beautiful scene presented itself to my view; for
* I could at once see Dengeness, Dover cliffs, and the French coast,
* all along from Calais, Boulogne, &c. to St. Vallery; and, as some of
* the fishermen affirmed, as far to the westward even as Dieppe. . . . This
* curious phenomenon continued in the highest splendour till past eight
* o'clock, (although a black cloud totally obscured the face of the sun
* for some time,) when it gradually vanished.
*      "I should observe, the day was extremely hot, as you will perceive
* by the subjoined rough journal of a small thermometer, . . . and the three
* preceding days were remarkably fine and clear. . . . Not a breath of wind
* was stirring the whole of the day . . . .
*      Latham's temperature log shows that at 10 A.M. each of the previous
* 3 days, the temperatures were 65, 66, and 66 (F), and 68 on the day of
* looming; but at 5 P.M. it was 76. The 10 A.M. temperatures on the next
* 4 days were 72, 70, 72, and 70; so it appears the looming accompanied
* the arrival of a warm front.
*      Reprinted in Nicholson's Journal 2, 417-419 (1799).
* Cf. the similar observations of Parnell (1869).

R. Woltman
“Bemerkungen über ein Katoptrisches Phänomen, welches an den Gegenständen nahe am Horizont nicht selten sichtbar ist,”
Neuere Abhandlungen der königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 3, 69–97 (1798).

* REINHARD WOLTMAN's 1798 paper
* This is the paper partly reprinted by Gilbert in Ann. Phys. 3, 397 (1800)
* At this time, Woltman was "Baudirektor im hamburgischen Amte Ritzebüttel"
* A footnote on the first page says that Woltman began this work toward the
* end of the year 1794, continued it in 1795, and finished on 8. Nov., and
* communicated it in part with Abbe Gruber. It was extensively reviewed in
* the "Götting. Anzeigen 82ten Stück, 21ten May 1796."
*      There is some background information on Woltman in the prefatory pages.
* On p. III we see that he was not a member of the Bohemian Scientific
* Society, but had submitted his manuscript to it through Abbe Gruber.
* On p. XXIII we learn that he was "Direktor der Ufer und Wasserbauwerke im
* hamburgischen Amte Rützebütl", and a member of several scientific
* societies, some in Harlem and Rotterdam; but here he is in a list of
* foreign members.
*      He begins with a classic description of inferior mirages:
*      "The phenomenon is that objects, houses, trees etc. near the horizon
* often are separated from the visible ground surface by a bright strip of
* air, and almost seem to stand in the air; or as if a shining empty space
* were present between the visible horizon and the objects; or if the eye is
* considerably raised, and sees several distant objects behind one another,
* as if these houses, mills, churches, trees etc. stood in a calm shining
* sea, in which the entire landscape were immersed and reflected."
*      This is followed by an extensive list of "Alle, die davon geschrieben
* haben: Gruber's 1781 "Briefe"; Büsch's 1783 "Tractatus duo"; Gruber's
* 1786 response. "Diese zwey Abhandlungen hat H. Hofrath Kästner in seiner
* Dioptrik 1792 nebst mehreren Beyspielen angeführt; unter andern, dass H.-
* Justizrath Niebuhr einen Araber auf einem Kamele in freyer Luft reiten
* gesehen. Siehe dessen Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien 1. Theil, S. 253."
*      "Ich habe selbst mit einem achromatischen Fernrohr sehr deutlich
* wahrgenommen, dass die entfernten Häuser, Bäume, Schiffe in umgekehrter
* Gestalt sich sehr deutlich abbilden, wie eben dieselben Gegenstande
* in de Nähe thun, wenn zwischen ihnen und dem Auge ein ganz ebener
* Wasserspiegel befindlich ist."
* "Auch sieht man das Phänomen so gut gleich nach einem Regen, als vor
* demselben; und selbst im Regen verschwindet es nicht eher, als bis die
* Undurchsichtigkeit der Luft das Sehen in der Ferne verhindert." (p. 71)
*      He then describes the qualitative effects of object distance and eye-
* height. "Woraus folgt, dass nur diejenigen Strahlen von den Objecten
* durch Reflexion ins Auge kommen, die unter sehr kleinen Winkeln auf
* die spiegelnde Fläche fallen." And he describes how the "bright strip"
* shrinks and vanishes as the miraged object approaches the observer;
* and similarly describes the effects of increasing the height of the eye.
* "Therefore the bright strip is no object, like a luminous surface, . . .
* but is itself an image of a reflected bright object." (p. 72)
*      On the next page, he tries to explain the phenomena with ray diagrams;
* he knows that the curvature of the Earth is important, but he draws all
* the rays as straight lines, except where they are reflected. Still, this
* allows him to explain why the apparent horizon is lowered by the mirage.
* He also explains that all the miraged objects lie beyond the effective
* distance to the horizon. (p. 74)
*      In §.10. (p.75) he points out that "the images are always considerably
* smaller than their objects." He has found the images generally about
* half the size of the object, and shows an example in Fig. 7. Unfortunately,
* he neglects the curvature of the Earth; so he thinks this might be due to
* the rays being reflected under a smaller angle than that of incidence!
* But "maybe the refraction has something to do with it." On the next page,
* we find the real cause: his eye (in his house at Cuxhaven) is 3 toises
* (almost 6 meters) above the high-water level.
*      He goes through a very rough argument that neglects the curvatures of
* both the surface and the rays, and then weasels out: "Zu genauern
* Bestimmungen wären genauere Beobachtungen mit einem Mikrometer nöthig;
* auch musste wohl die Refraktion in Betracht gezogen werden; welches zu
* unternehmen ich mir nicht getraue." (p.77)
*      In §.13. he begins by discussing the trembling motion of the images,
* and compares it with the appearance of objects seen through the "vapors"
* above a coal fire. But then in the middle of the paragraph he gets into
* a description of superior mirages: "Eben diese Dünste im aufgelösten,
* durchsichtigen Zustande vergrössern zuweilen die horizontale Refraktion
* dermassen, dass die Meeresfläche, entlegene Ufer, Küsten und Sandbänke
* eine ganz ungewöhnliche Gestalt annehmen. Die Meeresfläche wird concav
* gekrümmt, die nähern Schiffe erniedrigen sich, oder vielmehr der entlegne
* Horizont scheint über ihnen fast hervor, entfernte niedrige Ufer erscheinen
* wie hohe Küsten; und diese, wenn sie auch 7 oder 8 Meilen entfernt, und
* weit unterm Horizont sind, erscheinen wie Gewölke über demselben; ganze
* Landschaften, die man sonst wegen der vorliegenden Sandhügel nicht sehen
* kann, erscheinen über dieselben hervor." (p. 78)
*      Next, he worries about how to explain the "reflection".  "Die Erdfläche
* selbst, so wie auch das Wasser, wenn es vom Winde in Unruhe gesetzt wird,
* sind zu rauh, um Bilder zu machen."
*      "Mein würdiger Lehrer, der Hr. Prof. Büsch pflegte in der Optik zu
* bemerken, dass die zurückwerfung nicht unmittelbar an den Flächen,
* sondern in einer kleinere Entfernung von denselben . . . geschehe."
* He then describes a case where the mirage was seen at both high and
* low tide, when the water was 1½ toise lower; "Die Erniedrigung der
* Meeresfläche hat also denselben Effekt, den eine wirkliche Erhöhung
* des Auges oder des Objects haben würde . . . ."
*      In the second part (p. 81) he considers whether the reflecting surface
* shares the curvature of the Earth, and whether this can explain the
* reduced size of the images. Unfortunately, because he neglects some
* small quantities, he thinks the reflection at a spherical surface will
* be the same size as the object, just as if the surface were flat.
*      On p. 86, he says that mirages were sometimes still visible in late
* January, when the ground and the ice on the river were covered with snow.
*      DIP and the inferior MIRAGE:
*      His quantitative measurements of terrestrial refraction (given in
* the Table facing p. 86) clearly show a correlation between refraction and
* the inferior mirage: "bey verstärkter Refraktion oder Hebung des Hauses
* niemals Spiegelung gewesen; oder umgekehrt, dass bey der Spiegelung das
* Haus allezeit weniger erhaben gewesen, folglich eine relative Depression
* der Objekte wenigsten bey der Spiegelung statt habe."
*      These measurements clearly establish the connection between refraction
* and the air-water temperature difference, and likewise the connections
* between the inferior mirage and depression, and the superior mirage and
* looming. Here is his memorable "2 deg. Fahr." rule; "unter mehr als 150
* Beobachtungen hat diese Regel keine Ausnahme." (p. 95)
*      Woltman's final remark is that these phenomena are very well described
* by Martinet in the Verhandelingen der holländ. Gesellsch. zu Harlem XXVII.
* Deel. II. Stück, under the title "Warneemingen omtrent het opdoemen van
* Zee en Land".
* Woltman's figures are at the very end of the volume; in Google's scan at
* they come after Gruber's figures, at image 491.
*      Notice the correct spelling of his name here.

T. Gruber
“Abbé Gruber's Thcorie dieses katoptrischen Phänomens, von Senkung und Hebung der Objekte am Horizonte,”
Neuere Abhandlungen der königlichen Böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 3, 97–107 (1798).

* Gruber's comments on Woltman's immediately preceding paper
* [partly reprinted by Gilbert in Ann. Phys. 3, 439 (1800).]
*      Gruber's ray diagrams are all drawn for a flat Earth, so he has to
* violate symmetry in them in trying to explain the compression of the
* inverted image in the inferior mirage.
*      The Tafel showing Gruber's figures is image 475 in the Google Book.

L. A. Milet-Mureau
Voyage de La Pérouse
(Imp. de la République, Paris, 1797).

* early report of SUPERIOR MIRAGE, by Jean François Galaup de La Pérouse:
* (filed slightly out of order to stay with the English translations)
* The mirage observation itself is on p. 10 of Tome 3:
*      "Les journées du 15 et du 16 furent très brumeuses ; nous nous
* éloignâmes peu de la côte de Tartarie, et nous en avions connaissance
* dans les éclaircis ; mais ce dernier jour sera marqué dans notre
* journal par l'illusion la plus complète dont j'aie été témoin depuis
* que je navigue.
*      "Le plus beau ciel succéda, à quatre heures du soir, à la brume la
* plus épaisse ; nous découvrîmes le continent, qui s'étendait de l'Ouest
* un quart Sud-Ouest au Nord un quart Nord-Est, et peu après, dans le
* sud, une grande terre qui allait rejoindre la Tartarie vers l'Ouest,
* ne laissant pas entr'elle et le continent une ouverture de 15d. Nous
* distinguions les montagnes, les ravins, enfin tous les détails du
* terrain ; et nous ne pouvions pas concevoir par où nous étions entrés
* dans ce détroit, qui ne pouvait être que celui de Tessoy, à la recherche
* duquel nous avions renoncé. Dan s cette situation, je crus devoir serrer
* le vent, et gouverner au Sud-Sud-Est ; mais bientôt ces mornes, ces ravins
* disparurent. Le banc de brume le plus extraordinaire que j'eusse jamais vu
* avait occasionné notre erreur : nous le vîmes se dissiper ; ses formes,
* ses teintes s'élevèrent, se perdirent dans la région des nuages, et nous
* eûmes encore assez de jour pour qu'il ne nous restât aucune incertitude
* sur l'inexistence de cette terre fantastique. Je fis route toute la nuit
* sur l'espace de mer qu'elle avait paru occuper, et au jour rien ne se
* montra à nos yeux ; l'horizon était cependant si étendu que nous voyions
* parfaitement la côte de Tartarie, éloignée de plus de quinze lieues."
*      This observation was made the 16th of June, 1787 -- just in the middle
* of superior-mirage season, for mid-latitudes (they were about 44° N).
* The location was off the coast of the Sikhote-Alin mountain range, ENE
* of present-day Vladivostok. The introductory remark indicates that
* La Pérouse was familiar with mirages.
*      Furthermore, they had directly observed a strong thermal inversion a
* few weeks earlier (May 26), a little farther south in the Sea of Japan:
*      "Si les nuages ne nous avaient par annoncé ce changement, nous avions
* eu néanmoins un avertissement que nous n'entemdîmes pas, et qu'il n'est
* peut-être pas facile d'expliquer : les vigies crièrent du haut des mâts
* qu'elles sentaient des vapeurs brûlantes, semblables à celles de la
* bouche d'un four, qui passaient comme des bouffées et se succédaient
* d'une demi-minute à l'autre. Tous les officiers montèrent au haut
* des mâts et éprouvèrent la même chaleur. La température était alors
* de 14d sur le pont ; nous envoyâmes sur les barres des perroquets un
* thermomètre, et il monta à 20d : cependant les bouffées de chaleur
* passaient très-rapidement, et, dans les intervalles, la température de
* l'air de différait pas de celle du niveau de la mer." (T.2, p.389-390)
* Title page reads:
*                          V O Y A G E
*             D E      L A      P É R O U S E
*                        AUTOUR DU MONDE,
*                               publié
* conformément au décret du 22 avril 1791,
*                          ET RÉDIGÉ
*        par M. L. A. MILET-MUREAU
* Thanks to Luc Dettwiller for discovering the mirage report!

L. A. Milet Mureau
The Voyage of La Pérouse round the World
(John Stockdale, London, 1798).

* 1st English translation of La Pérouse:
* This edition uses the long-s, and seems to have been the "popular"
* rather than the "official" translation. The mirage story reads:
*      "The 15th and 16th of June were very foggy days.  We kept within a
* small distance of the coast of Tartary, and got sight of it at intervals;
* but the last of these days will be distinguished in our journal by the
* most complete illusion I have witnessed since I have been a seaman.
*      "At four in the afternoon a perfectly clear sky succeeding to the
* thickest fog. we descried the continent extending from W. by S. to N. by
* E. and soon after, an extensive land in the south, running towards Tartary
* in the west, where it left an opening of less than fifteen degrees.
* We distinguished the mountains, hollows, and all the variations of the
* ground, but could not imagine how we had entered this strait, which must
* necessarily be that of Tessoy, of which we had given up the pursuit.
* In this situation I thought it necessary to haul the wind, and steer
* S. S. W.; but these hills and hollows soon disappeared. The most
* extraordinary fog-bank I had ever beheld occasioned this deception,
* and we soon witnessed its dispersion. Its forms and its tints mounted,
* and vanished in the atmosphere among the clouds; and enough of day still
* remained fully to demonstrate that land to be unsubstantial and imaginary.
* I stood on, during the night, over the space it had appeared to occupy,
* and at day-break no object presented itself to our view. The horizon was
* even sufficiently extensive to admit of our distinctly seeing the coast of
* Tartary, although more than fifteen leagues distant. I shaped my course
* towards it, but at eight in the morning the fog again surrounded us."
* [The above passage appears on pp. 27-28 of Vol. II.]

L. A. Milet Mureau
A Voyage round the World, performed In the Years 1785, 1786, 1787, and 1788, by the Boussole and Astrolabe, Under the Command of J. F. G. de la Pérouse
(G.G. and J.Robinson, London, 1799).

* 2nd English translation of La Pérouse:
* This edition uses the short s, and is written in a more formal style.
* The mirage story is on p. 7 of Vol. II:
*      "The 15th and 16th were very foggy.  We sailed along the coast of
* Tartary at no great distance, and had sight of it at intervals, when
* the fog dispersed a little; but the 16th will be distinguished in our
* journal by the most complete illusion that I ever witnessed since I have
* been at sea.
*      "At four in the evening the most beautifully clear sky succeeded the
* thickest fog. We discovered the continent, which extended from west by
* south to north by east; and very soon after, to the south, an extensive
* land, running west towards Tartary, so as not to leave an opening of
* 15° between it and the continent. We distinguished the mountains,
* the valleys, and all the particulars of the land; and could not conceive
* how we had entered into this strait, which could be no other than that
* of Tessoy, the search after which we had given up. In this situation
* I thought it advisable to haul our wind, and steer south-south-east.
* But soon these hills and valleys disappeared. The most extraordinary
* fog-bank I had ever beheld was the cause of our illusion. We saw it
* disperse; it's shapes, it's colours, ascended, and vanished in the region
* of clouds; and we still had day-light enough left to remove every doubt
* about the existence of this fantastic land. I sailed all night over
* the space of sea it had appeared to occupy, and at day-break nothing of
* it was visible, though our horizon was so extensive, that we distinctly
* saw the coast of Tartary upwards of fifteen leagues distant."
* [NOTE: the abnormally large distance to the horizon shows that inversion
* conditions were still present.]
*      The previous inversion observation appears in this edition on p. 537
* of Vol. I:
*      "The sky was clear and serene, but it grew very black, and I was
* obliged to stand off the shore, that I might not be embayed by the
* easterly winds. If the clouds did not give us warning of this change,
* we had an indication of it, which we did not understand, and which it
* is not perhaps easy to explain. The men at the mast-head cried out,
* that they felt burning vapours, resembling those of the mouth of an
* oven, coming in puffs every half minute. All the officers went to the
* mast-head, and felt the same heat. The thermometer at that time was
* at 14° upon deck. We sent one up to the cross-trees, and it rose
* to 20°. These puffs of heat, however, passed with great rapidity,
* and in the intervals the temperature of the air did not differ from that
* of the temperature of the level of the sea."
*      Note: this edition has the dates in the margins, like the original.

S. Vince
“Observations upon an unusual horizontal Refraction of the Air; with Remarks on the Variation to which the lower Parts of the Atmosphere are sometimes subject,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 89, 13–23 (1799).

* early report of SUPERIOR MIRAGE, by Vince:
* ``The uncertainty of the refraction of the air near the horizon has long
* been known to astronomers, the mean refraction varying by quantities
* which cannot be accounted for from the variations of the barometer and
* thermometer. . . .''
* ``In fact, the images were visible, when the whole ship was actually below
* the horizon. . . . The discovery of ships in this manner might, in some
* cases, be of great importance. . . .''
* ``As the phenomena are very curious, and extraordinary in their nature, . . .
* They appear to be of considerable importance; as they lead us to a
* knowledge of those changes to which the lower parts of the atmosphere are
* sometimes subject.      . . .  it might throw further light upon this subject,
* and lead to useful discoveries respecting the state of the atmosphere. . . .''
* This was the Bakerian lecture.
* According to the paper's title, Vince was the Plumian Prof. of Astronomy
* & Experimental Philosophy (i.e., physics) at Cambridge.

“Copie des procès-verbaux des séances de l'Institut d'Égypte, envoyés à l'Institut national de France,”
Décade Philosophique, An VII, 2me. Trimestre , No. 10, 4–5 (1798).

* The Décade Philosophique meeting abstract of Monge's lecture
*      The full title is "La Décade Philosophique, Littéraire et Politique"
* and the publication date is 10 Nivôse = Dec.30, 1798. The article is headed
*             Institut d'Égypte
* and on p. 2 is the sub-head:
* Copie des procès-verbaux des séances de l'Institut
* d'Égypte, envoyés à l'Institut national de France
* followed by the account of the first meeting, on 6 Fructidor an VI.
* The minutes of the second meeting (11 Fructidor) begins on p. 4, with
* Monge's abstract beginning there and continuing to p. 5. The third
* meeting (16 Fructidor) begins near the foot of p. 5. Later meetings
* continue through p. 11.
* Available at Gallica:

G. Monge
“Sur le phénomène optique, nommé MIRAGE par les marins,”
Ann. Chim. 29, 207–208 (1799).

* The Ann.Chim. lecture abstract of Monge's mirage memoir
* "A la mer, il arrive souvent qu'un naivre appercu de loin, paroit
* tout-à-fait dessiné dans le ciel, et n'être point supporté par l'eau. (1)"
* ------------- (the footnote says): -------
* (1) Cette illusion optique nous paroit avoir quelque rapport avec ces
* apparitions dans la mer et dans l'air pres du phare de Messine, connus
* sous le nom de fée Morgan , dont il est fait mention tom.XXV de ces
* Annales, pag. 80. Note des Rédacteurs .
* [This is a brief mention of Nicholson's translation of Minasi.]
* ------------------------------------------
* "Un effet analogue a frappé tous le Francais pendant la marche de l'armée
* à travers le désert. . . .
*       "Le cit. Monge attribue cet effet à la diminution de densité de la
* couche inférieure de l'atmosphère. Cette diminution dans le désert est
* produite par l'augmentation de température qui est la résultat de la
* chaleur communiquée par le soleil aux sables avec lesquels cette
* couche est en contact immédiat. A la mer, elle a lieu lorsque, par des
* circonstances particulières, telles que l'action des vents, la couche
* infèrieure de l'atmosphère tient en dissolution une plus grande
* quantité d'eau que les autres couches. Dans cet état de choses, les
* rayons de lumière qui viennent des parties basses du ciel, étant arrivés
* a la surface qui sépare la couche la moins dense de celles qui sont
* au-dessus, ne pénètrent pas dans cette couche; ils sont réfléchis, et
* vont peindre, dans l'œil de l'observateur, l'image du ciel. . . . "
*      So here we have water vapor and a fictitious reflecting "surface",
* from the very beginning.
* The text is almost identical to that appearing in Décade Philosophique,
* An 7, No. 10, pp. 4-5, where it is part of the report for the second
* meeting of the Institut d'Egypte.
*              Page 207 is headed:
*                        E X T R A I T
*Du mémoire lu à la séance de l'institut
*      du Caire, du 11fructidor, an 6;
*                  Par le cit. M O N G E
*      (That date is 28 August 1798.)
* However, the issue of Ann. Chim. in which this reprint appears is dated
* 30 Nivôse = 19 janvier 1799.
*      Available at Gallica:

G. Monge
“Mémoire sur le phénomène d'optique connu sous le nom de mirage,”
La Décade égyptienne 1, No. 2, 37–46 (1799).

* The text of Monge's mirage memoir
*      Monge says that the mirage in the desert may be due to heat, but that
* the mirage at sea is different: "En effet, l'air a la faculté de
* dissoudre l'eau, et même d'atteindre le point de saturation, sans perdre
* sa transparence; et Sassure a fait voir due la pesanteur spécifique de
* l'air décroit à mesure qu'il tient une plus grande quantité d'eau en
* dissolution. Lors donc que le vent qui souffle en mer apporte un air
* qui n'est pas saturé d'eau, la couche inférieure de l'athmosphère qui
* est en contact avec la surface de la mer, dissout de l'eau nouvelle, et
* se dilate. Cette cause, jointe à la légère augmentation de température,
* peut enfin amener les circonstances favorables au mirage, et produit en
* effet celui que les marins observent assez fréquemment." (p. 45)
*      This differs by many minor changes in spelling and punctuation from
* the final version (below), which has the addendum on rainbows.
*      According to Gallica, this was published in 1799.  The title page
* says only " An VII ". This first volume was supposedly printed every 10
* days; as Gallica dates the volume at Jan. 1, this second number might
* have been printed on Jan. 11, 1799. The signature footers say "
* Trimestre, AN 7."

G. Monge
“Sur le phénomene d'optique, connu sous le nom de Mirage,”
Memoires sur l'Égypte 1, 64–79 (1800).

* GASPARD MONGE explains the INFERIOR MIRAGE as total internal reflection,
* He leans very heavily on total internal reflection, and attributes
* the inferior mirages seen at sea to the effect of water vapor on the
* refractivity of air, confusing optical "density" with mechanical density.
*      ". . .  ce phénomene pourroit ne pas être ignoré des habitants du
* département des landes; mais il est très connu des marins, qui
* l'observent fréquemment à la mer, et qui lui ont donné le nom de
* Mirage ."  (p. 65)      [Cf. Le Gentil (1789) for "se mirer".]
*      He takes the internal-reflection picture very literally, repeatedly
* referring to "la surface qui sépare la couche inférieure et dilatée
* de l'atmosphere de la couche plus dense qui est au-dessus d'elle" (p. 71)
* and "la surface réfléchissante, qui sépare les deux couches d'air des
* densités différentes, n'est ni parfaitement plane" (p. 73). This
* mistaken idea was immediately challenged by Reinecke (see below), and
* by Wollaston (1803). Nevertheless, we still see it stated in physics
* textbooks today.
*      This volume simply says "An VIII" on the title page, and no more
* precise date is indicated. As most of that year in the Republican
* calendar was in Gregorian year 1800, I adopt "1800" as the date.
* This also is the date in most library catalogs.
*      NOTE: the spelling "phénomene" (without a grave accent) is used
* consistently throughout; it is not a typo here in his title.

G. Monge
“Memoir relative to the optical Phenomenon, known by the name of {\textsc{MIRAGE,” in Memoirs relative to Egypt
(K.Phillips, London, 1800), pp. 74–90.

* Monge's memoir translated into English
* The translator is not named, though there is an Advertisement of the
* Translator -- in which we read that "Some of the Memoirs bear the marks
* of being hastily composed, but . . . no omissions or alterations have been
* made by the English Editor, which might render the translation any thing
* else than an accurate and complete copy of the original Work."

Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen, 186. St. , 1849–1852 (22 Nov., 1800).

* Brief mention of Monge's memoir in a review of the whole "Memoires"
* We are interested only in the lines on p. 1850:
*      "Abhandlung über die unter dem Nahmen Mirage  bekannte optische
* Erscheinung, von G. Monge. Mit der Beschreibung dieses Phänomens wird
* man besser zufrieden seyn, als mit der Erklärung, die M. davon zu geben
* versucht."
*      Available at Google Books.

[J. M. Reinecke]
“Über die Fata Morgana , das Seegesicht und die Erhebung .,”
Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden 5, No. 3, 195–222 (1800).

*      He begins with the Fata Morgana, "or the Castles in the Air of the
* fairy Morgana," immediately naming Angelucci, Kircher and Scotus as
* the older writers who have tried to offer descriptions and explanations.
* Of the newer writers, he mentions only Minasi, whose work he knows only
* from Nicholson's 1797 extract in the Philosophical Journal. Fortunately,
* it includes Minasi's illustration of the whole thing, which is copied
* here as Tafel I. So it's necessary to translate Minasi's description
* from the English. . . . And in doing so, he refers to the details of the
* engraving.
*      Among other things, he points out the Sun low in the sky at the
* left edge of the image -- a detail that seems to have escaped all other
* students of the image. Evidently, he thinks Minasi's "45 degrees"
* refers to an azimuthal angle, not a solar altitude. (Note his remark
* on p. 209 about 9 a.m. being the favorable hour.)
*      He also points out the impossibility that the city depicted could be
* Reggio, as it is Messina that lies on the opposite shore. The doubling
* of the images must make the city unrecognizable; and the random angles
* at which the "reflected" towers stand, without falling down, make them
* "true fairy-castles" which could "exist on the coast of neither Italy
* nor Sicily". Then comes a salient point: "Only through precise drawings,
* both of the phenomenon and of the view of the city of Reggio from the
* seaside, which, as has happened in the present copper engraving, were
* placed next to each other, could one part of the riddle and the origin of
* these fairy-castles be found." So he understood the need for photographic
* evidence decades before photography was invented, and centuries before
* photographs of Fata Morgana displays were actually obtained. "Here I
* regret that Minasi is not more detailed." But he generally accepts
* Minasi's account of both the phenomena and their cause as correct.
*      So he thinks the sides of the waves generally have an inclination to
* the horizontal of 45 degrees, and supposes that the inclination of the
* mean surface can be similarly large, so that the waves could actually
* have vertical surfaces (as shown in Fig.1 of Tafel II) -- thus making
* the vertical mirror that Minasi imagined.
*      He then gives a German translation of Nicholson's English translation
* of Minasi's Italian. This is a different German translation of
* Nicholson than the one published by Gilbert two years later (see the 1802
* entries below). Gilbert clearly used parts of Reinecke's discussion in
* making his own, and cites Reinecke -- though not by name.
*      In the end, Reinecke tries to explain how Minasi's wave-facet scheme
* might work because of the shape of the Strait. It is all very contrived.
*      However, on p. 206, there is the useful idea that Minasi probably meant
* Puglian miles, of 7000 Neapolitan palms each, in specifying distances.
*      Apart from the supposed interactions of local causes, Reinecke admits
* that "it would always appear striking that this phenomenon is not also
* visible at other coasts . . . ". (p.210) In searching for examples, the
* best he can find is Wetterling's 1788 discussion of the Erhebung and
* the Seegesicht . [His accouunt of the virtual "cliffs" seen in Sweden
* in August, 1774, seems quite similar to Forel's identification of a
* "striated zone" as the hallmark of the Fata Morgana a century later.]
* Surprisingly, Reinecke knew of accounts by de Ferrariis and others
* of similar mirages in southern Italy, citing Giovene as well.
*      Having identified the Seegesicht  as being at least related to
* the Fata Morgana, Reinecke turns to looming. (p.219) Unfortunately,
* he says that it is the same thing as Kimmung , which is the appearance
* of floating or suspension produced when a strip of miraged sky is seen
* beneath objects at the apparent horizon -- but in an inferior mirage;
* the inverted image seems to hang down from the fold line. (P&E call
* this effect "Schwebung oder Kimmung" on their p.137). However, Reinecke
* correctly describes Erhebung as making "objects that lie under the
* horizon, or are hidden by other objects, become visible above it."
* He adds that the phenomenon is mostly observed on the Baltic Sea.
* As examples, he offers both Wetterling's discussion and that of
* Prof. Büsch (in his Tractatus .)
*      His first impression was that just one kind of phenomenon had been
* called the Erhebung ; but on closer examination, he found that "many of
* them, especially those in which the images of ordinary objects appear cut
* off in the air, are really Morganas ." He cites examples from Wetterling
* that show extreme vertical exaggeration and rapid variations, noting the
* similarity of circumstances (position of the Sun, calm air) and location
* (near the sea), and compares these with Giovene's Lavandaja observations.
* But he is puzzled: if the circumstances and locations are so similar,
* why are the appearances so varied? (pp. 220-221)
*      NOTE: as Reinecke was primarily a cartographer, geographer, and
* paleontologist, his ignorance of physics in general and optics in
* particular is to be expected; so his acceptance of Minasi's nonsense
* "theory" is not surprising. Given this ignorance, his connection of
* looming with Fata Morganas is a substantial accomplishment.
*      The first page of this number says "V Bds. drittes Stück.  März 1800."
* in italics; and then "A B H A N D L U N G E N".
*      No author is named in this issue; but his identity is revealed in the
* July issue. This Abhandlung is numbered I. After the title is another
* italic note: "Hierzu gehören die Kupfer --- Tafeln I und II."
*      I do not have a copy of these plates.  However, they have been
* reprinted in Marcello Séstito's "Fata Morgana" book, which cites these
* papers by Reinecke, Büsch, and Monge, translating them all into Italian.
*      Special thanks to Marcella Giulia Pace for bringing these important
* references to my attention!

[J. G. ] Büsch
“Schreiben des Hrn. Prof. Büsch in Hamburg, an d. Herausgeber der A.G.E.,”
Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden 6, No. 1, 3–14 (1800).

* Reinecke's discussion of mirages is commented on by Büsch, followed by
* Reinecke's rejoinder and translation of Monge's article, and Reinecke's
* further comments on Monge. I list these components separately here,
* as they are assigned separate numbers in the Abhandlungen. All are
* in the Appendices to Séstito's book, translated into Italian.
*      The first page of this number says "VI. Bds. erstes Stück.  Julius 1800."
* in italics; and then "A B H A N D L U N G E N".
*      Here is Abhandlung I., divided into four numbered sub-sections; they
* are sometimes cited by the collective title of the whole Abhandlung:
*       "Fernere Beyträge und Bemerkungen über die Fata Morgana, das Seegesicht
*            und die Erhebung."
*      Büsch had himself already read Minasi's Büchlein  some years before,
* and thinks it's better to see the original than Nicholson's English
* translation. And he doesn't think much of Minasi's original, either:
* "There is only one place in the book, p. 74, that makes me believe he
* had seen the phenomenon himself. But instead of describing it exactly,
* he immediately turns to the glorification of God. . . . So I almost
* believe that he himself knows no more about it than his father had
* told him. Then, it seems, this marvel appears only rarely, though even
* so M. produces a theory whereby it should appear very often and regularly
* under his defined conditions." (p.4)
*      "Such a marvel should, if it's possible, be seen from more than one
* place, and from different viewing points and distances. But that should
* be easy, as it includes such a great space in the atmosphere.
*      "It is a phenomenon of the atmosphere, so M. should have guessed to
* observe the state of the atmosphere at the same time, even if only by
* the height of the barometer. A thermometer would have been no trouble
* at all.
*      "All this didn't stop him from devising a theory, but which?  It
* should 'come from the different currents that meet in the Strait of
* Messina, pressing hard, and working against one another, create a
* mirror-smooth surface.' But that would be remarkable in a strait where
* a Scylla and Charybdis make currents that already the Ancients
* described as dangerous. But M. has surely never attentively observed
* a body of water in which several streams encounter one another. We have
* several such places in the Elbe , where the water is always restless,
* even if it is moved by no wind from the side. . . . " (p.5)
*      After describing those examples in detail, he asks: "Should Nature be
* so completely different in the Strait of Messina, and even form a smooth
* concave mirror whose figure would have to be not just spherical, but
* that of a hollow cylinder?" (p.6)
*      Büsch then adds a few more comments on "theorifying", and thanks the
* author [Reinecke] for mentioning his own Latin thesis on mirages. Then
* he returns to the Fata Morgana:
*      "In regard to the Fata Morgana , one of three [sic] things must be true.
* 1) Either the whole phenomenon has been described falsely until now,
* or magnified through the desire for the miraculous. . . . Minasi is free
* of such monks'-dreams, but he seems to me not to have seen quite clearly
* yet. 2) But if Minasi has seen correctly, even if it were only one
* observation, then the phenomenon is something completely different from
* what I have seen and described a hundred times. Then we could completely
* lay the Fata Morgana aside, and so it will come to the point that
* Teutons will examine the matter more closely with Teutonic diligence,
* and seek to explain the results, which certainly lie in the study of
* the determination of the refraction. For no one but Gruber and me has
* yet thought to give an explanation of how it occurs over dry land ."
*      He then relates some of his own mirage observations made while
* traveling on the Baltic coast. These were clearly inferior mirages,
* "which had been so remarkable to the French, but from which they learned
* nothing." [So much for Monge!] "I saw them at all hours of the day,
* and not a single time with different or unfamiliar circumstances. It
* amuses me when I read so many differences in the description. But then
* I think: 'The man did not see what you saw, or his power of imagination
* has added what yours did not, because you yourself know to keep it in
* bounds.'" (p.9)
*      He then mentions Humboldt's observations of mirages, and says that he
* has just received the first part of the British Transactions for 1799
* with the observations by Vince; but he was not able to understand
* Vince's figure. [Obviously, because he only is familiar with inferior
* mirages.] (p.11)
*      On the next pages is an amusing anecdote about showing the mirage to
* Graf von Czeczeny from Hungary, while traveling in the Harkshaide [sic]
* on the road from Hamburg to Kiel, in July, 1790. This is followed on p.14
* by a brief mention of the 1798 publication of Latham's observation of
* looming at Hastings.
*      A footnote on the first page explains that the unsigned review in the
* March issue was written by Dr. Reinecke, a frequent contributor.
*      Büsch's letter here is cited in a footnote on p. 133 of Pernter & Exner
* (1922), where it is attributed to Bertuch and Gaspari, the publishers of
* Allgem. geogr. Ephemeriden; Reinecke is not mentioned. Likewise, in
* Gilbert's 1802 discussion of Minasi (see his note on p.30 there).
*      This must be nearly the last thing Büsch wrote; he died August 5, 1800.

Dr. J. M. Reinecke
“Antwort auf das Schreiben des Hrn. Prof. Büsch ,”
Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden 6, No. 1, 14–15 (1800).

* Reinecke's reply to Büsch
*      Reinecke begins by quoting Büsch, and correcting the "3 for 2" error
* on p.7. He declares that the second is obviously the correct choice.
* And he emphasizes that Büsch has a single observation that seems to have
* some similarity with the Fata Morgana in his Tractatus .
*      "That Minasi observed superficially may well be true; but where are
* the better observers?" [Note: Minasi was a medicinal botanist, not a
* physicist.]
*      The first page of this number says "VI. Bds. erstes Stück.  Julius 1800."
* in italics; and then "A B H A N D L U N G E N".
*      This is part 2 of Abhandlung I.

G. Monge [in translation]
“Abhandlung über ein optisches Phänomen, die Kimmung genannt, von Gaspard Monge,”
Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden 6, No. 1, 15–25 (1800).

* Reinecke's translation of Gaspard Monge's paper in Memoires sur l'Egypte
* There is a footnote to the title word "Kimmung" that says:
* "Gewönlich Erhebung , Franzos. Mirage , in Niederteutschland
* Währkatten , Updracht , Holl. Opduining , Schwäd. Hägring ."
*      The first page of this number says "VI. Bds. erstes Stück.  Julius 1800."
* in italics; and then "A B H A N D L U N G E N".
*      This is part 3 of Abhandlung I.

Dr. Reinecke
“Zusatz des Übersetzers,”
Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden 6, No. 1, 25–30 (1800).

* Reinecke's additional comments as translator of Monge
*      Reinecke does not mince words: "The above theory requires a correction,"
* is his first sentence. ["Die obige Theorie bedarf einiger Berichtigung."]
* (Cf. Büsch's similar remarks in his 1783 "Tractatus".)
* Of Monge's "einzigen bestimmten Fläche", he says:
*      "Eine so genau abgeschnittene Fläche findet aber, wie auch schon Hr.
* Prof. Büsch bey Gelegenheit der Gruberschen Erklärung desselben
* Phänomens bemerkt, in der Natur nicht statt; sondern die Dichtigkeit der
* Luft nimmt fortgehend und allmählich ab oder zu, und es ist kein Grund
* vorhanden, warum sie an einer Stelle mehr als an der andern reflectieren
* sollte. Statt einer einfachen Reflexion erleidet vielmehr ein
* Lichtstrahl, wenn er durch ein Medium von abnehmender Dichtigkeit geht,
* auf jedem Puncte seines Weges eine Brechung, und beschreibt daher eine
* krumme Linie, die, je nachdem die Dichtigkeitszunahme schneller oder
* geringer, und der Weg des Lichtstrahls länger oder kürzer ist, von
* verschiedener Art seyn kann." He goes on to explain that the usual
* state of the atmosphere makes the rays concave toward the Earth; but
* if we invert the usual decrease of density upward, the rays will be
* concave upward and turn their convex sides to the Earth -- "obgleich
* keine wirkliche Reflexion erfolgt."
*      "Dies ist nun auch das Phänomen, von dem Hr. Prof. Büsch  in
* seinem Tractate und in obigem Briefe handelt. Seine Erklärung, die
* Monge nicht gekannt zu haben scheint, weicht von der hier gegebenen
* ganz ab, aber wie? --- Nach Hr. Büsch erklärt sich alles aus der
* gewöhnlichen --- verstärkten horizontalen Strahlenbrechung, statt
* dass wir es eben aus der umgekehrten horizontalen Strahlenbrechung
* erklären." He goes on to explain that either explanation will work; that
* is, he sees that it is the change in the ray curvature that is needed
* to produce the inverted images. Both explanations produce "the same
* phenomenon, a variation of the horizon." Büsch's model should produce
* "eine Erhebung der Gegenstände über den Horizont"; in Reinecke's
* model, "die Gegenstände müssen . . . unter den Horizont hinabsinken."
* He decides that Hebung is the usual case in northern latitudes, and
* thus accounts for Büsch's observations of looming.
*      So he notes the problem: "Monge  hat keine Winkelmessungen
* angestellt, und überhaupt auf diesen Punct, wie es scheint, nicht
* Rücksicht genommen." So Reinecke recognized that the absolute values of
* the altitudes near the horizon are needed to understand the full details
* of the mirages. The DIP is an essential feature of mirages.
*      "Inzwischen ist es sehr zu wünschen, dass Beobachter, die sich in
* Rücksicht ihres Wohnorts in einer dazu günstigen Lage befinden, ---
* denn bey Erscheinungen, die den Beobachter ganz unvorbereitet auf der
* Reise überraschen, ist das nicht zu erwarten, --- ihre Beobachtungen
* mit Winkelmessungen, und was sich ohnehin versteht, mit Thermometer-
* und Barometer-Beobachtungen verbinden mögen, wie schon Hr. Büsch am
* Schlusse seines Tractats empfiehlt, weil ohne diess nothwendig manches
* schwankend bleiben muss."
*      Reincke's perceptive remarks here show a much better understanding of
* the mirage problem than his earlier comments would suggest.
*      The first page of this number says "VI. Bds. erstes Stück.  Julius 1800."
* in italics; and then "A B H A N D L U N G E N".
*      This is part 4 of Abhandlung I.
* Available from Google Books:
* and

J. G. Büsch
“Beobachtungen über horizontale Strahlenbrechung und die wunderbaren Erscheinungen, welche sie bewirkt,”
Gilberts Ann. Phys. 3, 290–301 (1800).

* extracted and translated from:
* Jo. Geo. Büsch tractatus duo optici argumenti, Hamburgi 1783, 132 S. 8.
* "Ich bemerkte dieses Phänomen schon in meiner Jugend bey den
* Ueberfahrten von Hamburg nach dem eine Meile entlegnen Harburg, wo mein
* Grossvater lebte. Wenn der Wind die Wellen mitten im Strome ziemlich
* heftig um das Schiff bewegte, schien das Wasser am Ufer vollkommen ruhig
* zu seyn, gleich einer Spiegelebene. Dieses komme, sagten mir die
* Uferbewohner, von den Untiefen am Strande her; allein, wenn wir eine Höhe
* erstiegen, und von da nach dem entgegengesetzten Ufer sahen, war auch das
* Wasser voll Wellen."
* (cf. Abbott, 1854, who reports the same phenomenon in India!)
* (also, Forel, p. 526 of his 1895 monograph; and Manning, 1912.)
* includes a distorted moonrise: "Der Mond, der beynahe voll war, ging
* auf, wie ihn Fig. 6 zeigt. Als ich die anderen Passagiers fragte, ob
* ihnen nicht etwas besonderes am Monde vorkomme, antwortete einer:
* `Meiner Treu, er gleicht einem umgestürzten Nachtgeschirr.'"
* [See Büsch, Tractatus duo (1783) for the original quote in English.]
* Prof. Johann Georg Büsch (1728 - 1800) taught at the academic
* Gymnasium in Hamburg. About 1780 he allowed Reinhard Woltman to attend
* his lectures and use his extensive library. Woltman in turn became the
* supervisor of Heinrich Wilhelm Brandes, who was in charge of the water
* works on Neuwerk in 1794-95, and was recommended by Woltman to the post
* of "Deichconducteur" in Eckwarden in 1801, where he continued Woltman's
* observations of refraction phenomena.
*      This is Part 3 of Band 3, mostly devoted to refraction and mirages.  It
* begins with a German translation of Huddart's paper on dip, followed by
* General Roy and Dalby's work. The issue date is not known, but Gilbert's
* preface to the whole volume is dated "den 2ten Februar 1800".

J. Huddart
“Beobachtungen über die horizontale Strahlenbrechung bey irdischen Gegenständen und über die Vertiefung des Seehorizontes (dip of the sea),”
Gilberts Ann. Phys. 3, 257–280 (1800).

* HUDDART translated by Gilbert
*      With the usual copious comments by Gilbert!  Already on p. 259, he
* inserts a footnote referring to Gruber and Büsch, "die der Leser im
* nächsten Bande der Annalen in kurzen Auszügen finden wird".
* This volume of Gilb. Ann. is available at

L. W. Gilbert
“Beobachtungen besonderer Strahlenbrechung von Boscowich, Monge und Ellicot,”
Gilberts Ann. Phys. 3, 302–308 (1800).

* summaries of the work of others by Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert:

“Domestic Literature,” in The New Annual Register for the Year 1800
(G.and J.Robinson, London, 1801), p. 270.

* 1801 review of Monge's final paper
*      Buried in a long paragraph on a variety of technical publications,
* we find: "One other optical phenomenon has been illustrated by the
* publications of the present year, viz. what is called the Mirage, in the
* Collection of Memoirs published by the Philosophers who followed Bonaparte
* to Egypt. The author is M. Monge, whose account is neither very clear
* nor scientific." (This follows a mention of Wollaston's 1800 paper.)
*      As this is mentioned under "Domestic Literature", I suppose it is based
* on the official English translation of the Memoirs published in London.
*      Full title: "The New Annual Register or General Repository of History,
* Politics, and Literature, for the Year 1800."
*      NOTE: the several sections of this volume are separately paginated.
* This is in the last one, which starts with "Biographical Anecdotes and
* Characters"; its sub-section "Domestic Literature of the Year 1800" runs
* from p. 225 to p. 336. The subsection "Foreign Literature . . . " begins
* on p. 337. No authors' names are given.

T. Gruber
“Beobachtungen über die Strahlenbrechung auf erwärmten Flächen,”
Gilberts Ann. Physik 3, 377–396 (1800).

*      Abbé Tobias Gruber (Grüber?) -- see his 1786 paper.
*      Gilbert says this is an extract of Gruber's "Physikalischer Abhandlung
* über die Strahlenbrechung und Abprallung auf erwärmten Flächen" in
* Abhandlungen der böhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, B.II, (1787).
* Pernter and I both have 1786 for its date; Gilbert's date might be the
* actual year of publication -- or that of the Dresden offprint.
*      Büsch's reference to Gruber in his comments in Vol. 6 of A.G.E.
* [see above], and his contributions to Gilbert's Annalen in the next few
* years suggest that Gilbert reprinted Gruber's work at Büsch's suggestion.
*      Gilbert's preface ("Vorredé) to the volume is dated "de 2ten Februar".
*      This begins the fourth part of Band 3.

R. Woltmann
“Beobachtungen über die Brechung der Lichtstrahlen, die nahe über der Erdfläche hinfahren,”
Gilberts Ann. Physik 3, 397–438 (1800).

* Reinhard Woltman (Not "Woltmann", says Pogg.)
* [It seems that Woltman was Brandes's supervisor in 1794-95.]
* Gilbert attributes the term "Spiegelung" to Woltman.
* Mirages visible in RAIN and on overcast days (cf. Ashmore, 1955):
* ". . . selbst im Regen verschwindet sie nicht eher, als bis die
* Undurchsichtigkeit der Luft die Aussicht in die Ferne verhindert.
* Ueberhaupt ist die Erscheinung (wenigstens um Cuxhaven) weit häufiger
* als man sie mit blossen Augen gewahr wird, indem an dunkeln Tagen der
* Luftstreifen, welcher die Gegenstände von der Erde zu trennen scheint,
* nicht so als an hellen Tagen ins Auge fällt." (p. 399)
* REDUCED SIZE of image attributed to reflection at a convex surface (p.403):
* "Bey unserm Phänomen sind . . . die Bilder allemal beträchtlich
* kleiner , als ihre Objecte." (Cf. Bravais, 1853; Riccò et al., 1888)
* "Auch die astronomische Horizontalrefraction würde daher wenigstens
* um eben so viel, d.i. etwa um 1/6 ihrer ganzen Grösse veränderlich und
* ungewiss seyn." (p. 421)
* Gruber's footnote, pp. 429-430, on CORRELATION of DIP & MIRAGEs:
* ". . . so ist bey allen Spieglungen ohne Ausnahme Depression , so wie bey
* Spieglungen aufwärts, Hebung über diese scheinbare Horizontallinie."
*      See Gruber's paper on this in the following item.
* "Zuweilen trennt ein Luftstreifen das verkehrte Bild von dem darunter
* stehenden Gegenstande; doch stossen häufiger Bild und Gegenstand
* zusammen , und vermischen sich so, dass keins von beiden kenntlich ist,
* und das Ganze wie eine hohe Seeküste, mit vielen senkrechten Strichen,
* erscheint." (p.430)
* Relation of "seeing" (TURBULENCE) to inferior mirage (pp. 432-433):
* "Die Bilder der Spieglung unterwärts sind sehr unbeständig und
* wandelbar; sie werden bald grösser, bald kleiner, bald in Stücken
* getrennt, und sind zuweilen eine Zeitlang in steter Bewegung."
* ". . . allemal, wenn das Wasser um 2° Fahrenh. oder mehr wärmer als
* die Luft war, eine Erniedrigung der Strahlen, die sich über die
* Wasserfläche erstreckten, und (vorausgesetzt, dass die Gegenstände
* sichtbar waren) eine Spiegelung herabwärts stat find. War dagegen das
* Wasser um 2° F. kälter als die Luft, so fand Hebung der Strahlen
* und nie eine Spiegelung herabwärts statt." (pp. 434-435)
* SEASONAL and DIURNAL variations: p. 435.
*      OMEGAs are described, p. 438:
* "Sieht man die Sonne oder den Mond aufgehn oder untergehn , so
* giebt ihre Gestalt ein untrügliches Merkmal, ob Hebung oder Senkung
* statt findet. Im letztern Fall scheint die Sonnen- oder Mond-scheibe
* nicht rund, sondern in die Länge gezogen. Ein Theil derselben spiegelt
* sich unterwärts; das umgekehrte Bild kann 1/8 bis 1/4 des Durchmessers
* betragen, und es ist, als ob an dem auf- oder untergegangnen Theile der
* Anfang einer andern Scheibe angesetzt wäre." (p. 438)
*      Gilbert's footnote on p. 397 says this is an extract of two works of
* Woltmann's "under the above title, one still unpublished, reported in
* the Götting-gelehrten Anzeigen J. 1796, St. 82; and from Woltmanns
* Bemerkungen über ein (scheinbar) katoptrisches Phänomen , welches
* an den Gegenständen nahe am Horizont nicht selten sichtbar ist , . . . in
* den Neuen Abhandl. der kön. bÖhmischen Gesellsch. d. Wiss. B. 3 Prag
* 1798. S.67-97 4."
* Note that Gilbert prints double-s as a long followed by a short s.
*      This continues the fourth part of Band 3.

T. Gruber
“Theorie der mit Spiegelung verbundnen Senkung und Hebung der Objecte am Horizont,”
Gilberts Ann. Physik 3, 439–446 (1800).

* Abbé Tobias Gruber (Grüber?) comments on Woltman's preceding paper;
* possibly an extract of his 1793 "Theorie . . . Senkung und Hebung" ??
*      He uses ray diagrams, assuming a flat Earth, and thereby has some
* difficulties in explaining the reduced size of the inverted images in
* inferior mirages, and the vertical striation associated with superior
* ones.
*      There is also extensive editorial discussion of terminology in Gilbert's
* long footnotes; e.g., he criticizes Gruber and Woltman for using the
* words "Abprellung" and "katoptrisches" for inferior mirages: "allein
* da sie das wirklich nicht, sondern ganz und gar eine dioptrische
* Erscheinung ist . . . ". (p. 441)
*      This continues the fourth part of Band 3.

J. L. Heim
“Eine merkwürdige Erscheinung durch ungewöhnliche Strahlenbrechung,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 5, 370–375 (1800).

* a simple case of LOOMING in the mountains
* Gilbert unaccountably makes more of this than it deserves. His final
* footnote contains: "Auch bei uns, mitten im Deutschland, ist also die
* Fata Morgana zu Hause, obwohl bei weitem seltener als in dem heissen
* Unter - Italien und unfern der See. Denn dass die wundervolle
* Fata Morgana zu dieser Klasse ungewöhnlich starker Refractionen
* gehört, glaube ich in einem der folgenden Stücke der Annalen ziemlich
* ausser Zweifel setzen zu können." But he recognizes that it's similar
* to Latham's observation.
* This may be the earliest MIS-USE of "FATA MORGANA" for a simpler case.
*      In the fourth part of Band 5.

W. H. Wollaston
“On double Images caused by atmospherical Refraction,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 90, 239–254 (1800).

* William Hyde WOLLASTON's paper on mirage theory:
* Wollaston re-invents Hooke's (1665) two-liquid demonstration here.
* He distinguishes between "two opposite states of the atmosphere" that
* produce double or triple images; he also notes what we would call
* looming, and explicitly mentions mirages on roads.
*      His laboratory experiments on liquids showed the focusing effect:
* ". . . adjacent portions of the converging rays will form a focus, beyond
* which they will diverge again; and the varied medium will produce
* effects similar to those caused by a medium of uniform density having
* a surface similar to the curve of densities . . . ." (p. 242)
*      "When an oblique line . . .  is viewed through any variable medium . . . ,
* it appears bent into different forms . . . .
*      "If it be at the distance of the principal focus, one point of it is
* bent into a vertical line . . . ." (p. 244)
*      He also discovers the laminar sub-layer, via the third image:
* "To explain why red-hot iron occasions two [additional] images, while
* solar hear produces but one, I imagine that the intense heat in the
* former case rarefies the air for some small distance uniformly, and
* thereby affords the same series of variations as between other fluids
* of uniform density; but that, in the latter, the heat is conveyed off
* as fast as it is generated . . . ." (p. 248)
*      On the next page, he mentions that "a level open road" is best for
* observing what we would call inferior mirages. He also uses "a pocket
* telescope magnifying about 16 times".

[J. A. ] de Luc
“Über eine scheinbare Erhöhung der Gegenstände über den Horizont,”
Neue Schriften der Ges. Naturf. Freunde zu Berlin 3, 168–179 (1801).

* Jean André de Luc's inferior-mirage observation, and disbelief
* A curious paper: "Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass am Ufer der Seen und
* der breiten Flüsse und am Strande der Meerbusen eine gewisse optische
* Täuschung oft statt findet, wenn der Zuschauer sich auf einem erhöhten
* Standpunkte befindet; er sieht nemlich alsdann unter gewissen Umständen
* das entgegengesetzte Ufer wie in der Luft schwebend, und man pflegte
* dieses Phänomen auf die Strahlenbrechung zu reduciren: ich glaube aber
* nicht, dass es von dieser Ursache herrühre."
* He nicely describes the effects of eye height; but manages to convince
* himself the apparent "sky" is just a band of haze, "eine Dunstschicht",
* that manages to be indistinguishable from the sky. (This seems incredible
* to anyone living in a dry climate, but is perhaps not so far-fetched
* for someone living in hazy Germany.) At the end of the 10th page
* of the paper (p.177), he lets the cat out of the bag: "Ich zweifle
* kaum dass dies der wahre Grund aller Erscheinungen dieser Art wirklich
* sei, und zwar um so weniger, da ich nie habe begreifen können, wie
* Strahlenbrechung etwas dergleichen hervorbringen könnte."
*      The observation was made over a peat-bog; the miraged trees were
* "ohngefahr eine deutsche Meile" away (6 or 7 km).
*      The GNF had a number of well-known members, including Adelbert von
* Chamisso, Alexander von Humboldt, Adolf Traugott, and Johann Elert Bode.
*      Reuss fails to give the year, but other citations to this volume say
* 1801 [confirmed by e-mail from Hans-Ulrich Raake of the
* Universitätsbibliothek, Humboldt-Universität Berlin (30 July 2002).]
* Prof. De Luc was Swiss.

W. H. Wollaston
“Untersuchungen, wie durch atmosphärische Strahlenbrechung doppelte Bilder von Gegenständen entstehen,”
Gilb. Ann. Phys. 11, 1–65 (1802).

* Gilbert's translation of Wollaston's 1800 paper, with copious notes:

J. Giovene
“Wunderbare Phänomene nach Art der Fata Morgana, beobachtet vom Canonicus J. Giovene, Grossvicar des Bischofs von Molfetta in Apulien,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 12, 1–19 (1802).

* Gilbert's version of Giovene's observations, heavily annotated
* Here Giuseppe Maria Giovene is Germanized to "Johannes"; the whole
* thing is taken from Zimmermann's "Allgemeiner Blick auf Italien" (1797).
* A good first-hand account of a Fata Morgana observation from near
* Molfetta, on the Adriatic coast (about 300 km north of Reggio):
* "Die von mir selbst beobachteten Phänomene dieser Art schreibe ich
* wörtlich aus meinen Journalen ab; von den übrigen theile ich die
* Nachricht meiner Correspondenten unverändert mit.
*      "Ich befand mich am 9ten Februar 1790 auf einem kleinen Landhause,
* wo ich mich wegen des freien Horizonts vorzüglich gern aufhalte.
* Die Tagen vorher waren heiter gewesen, und es hatte ein mässiger
* Nordwestwind geweht. Der ausnehmend schöne Winterabend lockte mich
* ungefähr eine halbe Stunde nach Sonnenuntergang an ein Fenster, das
* sich gerade nach S.S.O. öffnet. [Giovene's original Italian indeed has
* "S.S.O."; but "O" stands for "ovest"; so the directions are wrong here.]
* Die Luft war so still, dass der Rauch von den Städten Terlizzi , Ruvo
* und Corato , auf die ich die Aussicht hatte, sich gar nicht bewegte,
* sondern über diesen Städten wie ein grosser Sonnenschein hing.
* [Certainly "Sonnenschirm" was intended here; this correction is made
* by P&E on p. 164, without comment.] Indem ich am Horizonte umher sah,
* schienen mir an dem äussersten Ende desselben gegen Westen einige Wolken
* aufzusteigen, die etwa 20 Grad einnahmen. Um daraus auf den Wind und auf
* die Witterung des folgenden Tages urtheilen zu können, wollte ich ihren
* Zug beobachten. Sie stiegen bald auf 2° Höhe, fingen dann aber an
* mannigfaltige Gestalten anzunehmen, und dieses Spiel überzeugte mich,
* dass sie ganz etwas anderes waren, als Wolken.
*      "Ich bat daher den Doktor  T r i p a l d i ,  einen sehr unterrichteten
* Mann, der mich gerade auf einige Tage besucht hatte, an der fernern
* Beobachtung Theil zu nehmen, und wir schickten uns beide dazu auf das
* sorgfältigste an. Die vermeinten Wolken nahmen alle Augenblicke eine
* andere Gestalt an. Zuerst sahen wir im Hintergrunde eine Menge Palläste
* und Thürme, die eine grosse Stadt vorstellten, so dass wir glaubten,
* vermittelst einer sehr verstärkten atmosphärischen Refraction den
* Flecken Cerignola zu sehn, der in der Richtung lag, jedoch über 8
* deutsche Meilen, (in gerader Linie nur 6,) enfernt war. Allein gar bald
* veränderte sich das Schauspiel: wir sahen zwei Hügel gegen einander
* über, die immer höher und höher wurden, und sich dann in viereckige
* Thürme mit grossen Fenstern verwandelten, wodurch das Licht von der
* Abenddämmerung einfiel. Doch ich kann unmöglich alle die verschiedenen
* Figuren beschreiben, die mit der grössten Schnelligkeit abwechselten.
*      "Unsre Verwunderung wurde indess bald noch sehr vermehrt.  Die
* Dämmerung war sehr hell, und ich sah verschiedne Mahl Lichtströme
* vom äussersten Horizonte bis zu einer Höhe von 6 bis 7° aufsteigen.
* Ich hielt dieses anfangs für eine Täuschung, allein D. T r i p a l d i
* sah sie gerade so, und der Zeitpunkt, worin wir einen neuen Lichtstrahl
* wahrnahmen, stimmte jedes Mahl vollkommen überein. Wir stellten uns
* darauf vor das eine Fenster, das gerade nach W.N.W. lag, und sahen das
* Phänomen eben so. Die Lichtwellen gingen gerade bis an die Grenzen
* der Dämmerung; da, wo die Dämmerung stärker war, waren sie lebhafter,
* und gegen die Grenzen der Dämmerung zu schwächer. Fünf oder sechs
* lichte Ströme erschienen unmittelbar nach einander, darauf erfolgte
* eine Pause von 1 oder 2 minuten, worauf sich neue Ströme zeigten, und
* während dieses Spiels wechselte eine unendliche Mannigfaltigkeit der
* seltsamsten Figuren am äussersten Rande des Horizonts ab. Dieses schöne
* Schauspiel währte etwa eine halbe Stunde; es verlor an Schönheit, so
* wie die Dämmerung abnahm, und nach 3/4 Stunden war es gänzlich vorbei."
*      Giovene points out that such phenomena are not rare in Apulia and
* Lecce province (Terra d'Otranto, the old Japygia). But writers have
* ignored it, except in folklore, with one exception: he cites Antonius
* de Ferrariis (Galatheus) (De situ Japygiæ , 1558) for reporting the
* name of Mutata . (p. 9)
*      A useful common observation: "Nach Versicherung der Einwohner des
* Vorgebirges von Lecce ist die Zeit dieser Erscheinung vor Aufgang
* oder nach Untergang der Sonne, und in der Ebene soll man dabei bald ein
* stürmisches Meer, bald eine Stadt, bald einen Wald sehn." (pp. 10-11)
*      He also says: "Die Seeleute von Molfetta nennen sie Lavandaja
* (Wäscherinn,) -- warum, weiss ich nicht -- und halten sie für Vorboten
* einer Veränderung in der Witterung. In der That erscheint die
* Lavandaja in ihrer grössten Schönheit, wenn der Wind lange Zeit geweht
* hat und nun eine Stille erfolt. Im Herbste und Winter ist sie häufiger
* als in den übrigen Jahreszeiten, wiewohl man sie auch oft im Sommer
* und zuweilen im Frühling sieht. Im Sommer haben wir fast alle Tage
* eine Art kleiner Lavandaja des Nachmittags; indess ist sie auch hier
* vor Sonnenaufgang und nach Sonnenuntergang am prächtigsten.
*      "In Molfetta sieht man die Lavandaja mehrentheils über dem Monte Gargano ,
* einem Gebirge, welches in die See vorspringt, von Molfetta 60 ital.,
* (15 deutsche,) Meilen entfernt ist, sich von dort am äussersten Horizonte
* zwischen W.N.W. und N.N.W wie eine dunkelblaue Wolke zeigt, und aus dessen
* Ansicht, je nachdem es sichtbar oder unsichtbar ist, und die Wolken den
* Fuss oder den Gipfel desselben bedecken, oder einen grossen Hut darüber
* bilden,) die Schiffer das Wetter mit vieler Zuverlässigkeit vorhersagen.
* Beim ersten Mahle, als ich daran die Lavandaja , ohne noch von ihr
* gehört zu haben, sah, wurde ich wirklich unruhig. Das ganze Gebirge
* war in einer zitternden Bewegung ; ein Theil des Berges versank und
* liess ein grosses Thal zurück; an derselben Stelle erhob sich einige
* Minuten nachher ein neuer Berg, höher als der vorige, und neben diesem
* stiegen mehrere andere kegelförmige empor, nahmen aber sogleich die
* Gestalt grosser viereckiger Thürme an, die sich eben so in einem
* Augenblicke versenkten und grosse Thäler eröffneten. Endlich schien
* mir der ganze Berg fürchterliche Erschütterungen zu leiden. --- Ich
* habe diese Abwechselungen oft mit dem grössten Vergnugen beobachtet.
* Die wunderbarsten Figuren folgen in einem Augenblicke auf einander,
* und eine nur etwas warme Phantasie wird sich sehr leicht überreden,
* Pferde, Menschen, Schiffe, Thürme und Städte zu sehn.
*      "Noch eine besondere Lavandaja zeigt sich hier, besonders wenn die
* Sonne gegen Westen steht und ein leichter Ostwind weht. Das Vorgebirge
* Gargano verändert dann mit der grössten Geschwindigkeit seine Gestalt
* auf eine unendlich mannigfaltige Weise. Es verlängert sich, zieht
* sich wieder zusammen, und scheint in viele Theile zerstückt, die das
* Ansehn von Inseln im offenen Meere haben. Zuweilen scheint ein Theil des
* Meeres viel höher zu seyn als das übrige, und das Wasser in der Ferne
* scheint von einem heftigen Sturme bewegt zu seyn, ob es sich gleich in
* vollkommner Ruhe befindet." (pp. 11-14).
*      He then goes on to describe a case of looming at sunrise on 15
* Oct. 1789, "in meinem Landsitze eine halbe Meile von Molfetta," which
* brought into view several towns normally hidden. This was also seen by
* Dr. Tripaldi. "Um 9 Uhr, nachdem wir 3 Stunden beobachtet hatten, war
* alles wieder wie gewöhnlich. In Hoffnung, das Phänomen wieder zu sehn,
* wenn ich höher träte, stieg ich auf eine Terasse, die ungefähr 20 par.
* Fuss über dem Fenster liegt, und wirklich sah hier das Schauspiel noch
* in seiner ganzen Schönheit.  . . .      Da  D.  T r i p a l d i  am Fenster
* geblieben war, so überzeugten wir uns, dass damals das Phänomen 40 Fuss
* über der Erde gar nicht, in 60 Fuss Höhe aber vollkommen sichtbar war."
* (p. 16)
*      Giovene recognized that these were all refraction phenomena; but he
* tried to connect them with minerals in the ground. As usual, "Dünste"
* get the blame. Still, he suspects "eine . . . wellenförmige Bewegung" of
* the air is responsible for the motions.

A. Minasi, W. Nicholson, and L. W. Gilbert
“Des P. Minasi Beschreibung der Fata Morgana oder der See- und Luftgebilde bei Reggio im Faro di Messina, ausgezogen von Nicholson und beurtheilt vom Herausgeber,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 12, 20–33 (1802).

* ANTONIO MINASI's classic (if rather exaggerated) Fata Morgana review
* This is Gilbert's translation into German of Nicholson's translation
* into English from Minasi's original Italian, with commentary by
* both Nicholson and Gilbert. . . .
* Gilbert is very hard on Minasi: "Ich entlehne diesen Aufzug aus Minasi's
* Werke über die Fata Morgana aus Nicholson's Journal of nat. philos.,
* Vol. I, p. 225. Da Minasi's Träumereien selbst bei einem so
* nüchternen und scharfsinnigen Physiker, als Nicholson, Eingang gefunden
* haben, so hielt ich es für nicht unverdienstlich, darzuthun, dass
* Minasi's Nachrichten mit so viel Einbildungen versetzt sind, dass man
* sie im Ganzen kaum für etwas mehr, als für ein Mährchen nehmen darf,
* und sie bei einem Versuche, die Fata Morgana zu erklären, lieber ganz
* bei Seite legt." [footnote attached to the title!]
*      Here I credit all three as authors; none is named explicitly.  Notice
* that most of pp. 24 - 30 is occupied by a long commentary by Gilbert on
* Minasi's dissertation.
*      Furthermore, Gilbert refers to Reinecke's discussion of Minasi in the
* footnote on p. 26 here, as "der Verf. des Aufsatzes in den Allg. ge. Eph.
* 1800, S. 199," and again in the notes on pp.30 ("Verfasser des angeführten
* Aufsates [sic] in den geogr. Ephem. ) and 32.
*      The harsh and rather dismissive treatment of Minasi here resembles
* Büsch's scornful comments on Minasi in A.G.E. Vol. 6 (1800).

W. Beauford
“A dissertation on the reflection and refraction of light from vapours, fogs, mists, &c.; with an account of some curious phænomena proceeding from those causes, seen in Ireland in the years 1796, 1797, and 1801,”
Phil. Mag. 13, 336–341 (1802).

* William Beauford's perceptive review, just before Wollaston's
* Probably this should be an entry in the FOG file. However, his
* perceptive remarks require its presence here, despite his curious
* explanation: "Of all the phænomena exhibited by nature in her various
* operations, there are none more curious and extraordinary than those
* represented by the reflection and refraction of light from fogs and
* vapours arising from the sea, lakes, and morasses, replete with marine
* and vegetable salts. For such vapours, by means of the said salts,
* form various polished surfaces, which reflect and refract the light of
* the sun, and even the moon, in various directions; thereby not only
* distorting but multiplying the images of objects represented to them in
* a most surprising manner; forming not only images of castles, palaces,
* and other buildings, in various styles of architecture, but the most
* beautiful landscapes, spacious woods, groves, orchards, meadows, with
* companies of men and women, with herds of cattle, walking, standing,
* lying, &c., and all painted with such an admirable mixture of light and
* shade that it is impossible to form an adequate conception of the
* picture without seeing: not any scenery represented by the
* camera obscura can be more beautiful, or more like faithful
* representations of nature."
* Nice discussion of TERMINOLOGY: "The only ones which seem at present
* to have attracted the attention of the curious, are those frequently,
* during the summer season, seen on the southern coasts of Italy, near the
* antient city of Rhegium; and even to this attention they were directed
* by the fishermen and country peasants, who in their native tongue call
* them fata morgana , or dama fata morgana . They are, however,
* frequently noticed by the English, Erse, and Irish peasants, fishermen,
* and mariners; and denominated in the languages of the two latter
* feadhreagh mairethmhe , or sea fairies, and duna feadhreagh , fairy
* castles. . . . On the eastern and western coasts of South America, even
* on the highest summit of the Andes, the fata morgana is met with.
* Also far out at sea, in the midst of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans,
* the adventurous mariner sometimes observes them; and though well known
* under the name of fog banks , yet has their appearance been so imposing
* as to illude the nicest scrutiny, and to promise refreshments to the
* fatigued and sea-worn mariner which he could not obtain. The most
* antient account of these aërial castles and islands which has been
* transmitted to us, is the representation of a beautiful island situated
* nearly in the middle of the Atlantic ocean, between the coasts of
* Ireland and Newfoundland, first observed by Danish and Irish fishermen
* about the year 900, and from that period to the commencement of the 14th
* century frequently by the Anglo-Saxon, English, and French fishermen and
* mariners.
*      "But, as this island could never be approached, it was called the
* inchanted island , and supposed by the maritime inhabitants of Scotland,
* Ireland, France, and Spain, to be the country of departed spirits, and
* consequently denominated in Erse Flath Innis , or the Noble Island; in
* Irish Hy Brasil , or the Country of Spirits; by the Anglo Saxons,
* Icockane , or the Country in the Waves; and by the French and Spanish,
* who supposed it to consist of two distinct islands, Brasil and
* Assmanda ; or the Islands of Ghosts."
* He then describes the Irish mirages in agonizing detail: "The country
* seemed laid out in lawns and improvements, in which were situated three
* gentlemen's seats; the houses well defined, the windows and doors
* distinct; some of the windows appeared open, and brass knockers were
* seen on the doors." [etc., etc., at some length.]
* Then we get more factual details: ". . . none of those aërial
* exhibitions continue any length of time, and always in calm weather and
* a clear sky, if the picture is brilliant; for, though those fog banks
* often appear in dark or cloudy weather, the reflection is imperfect, and
* represents only confused images of rocks, mountains, and capes."
* Then the final, fatal admission: "For the vapour, being formed into
* different parts, the light refracted through them causes the confused
* appearance of ruins, houses, woods, lawns, &c. in the same manner as a
* board covered in an irregular manner with black and white spots mixed
* with lines, will at a certain distance resemble a landscape with woods,
* ruins, houses, trees, castles, &c., and under such imposing forms as to
* appear real representations. Of this species of the fata morgana seem
* to be those seen at Youghal in 1801 before spoken of; but in whatever
* manner the representations from vapours and fogs are formed, the weather
* must be calm and serene, otherwise the vapours will be broken and
* dispersed by the wind." (cf. Baur, 1857)
* There is a passing mention of Commodore Byron's Voyage round the World.
* Note that Beauford cites both Swinburne's Travels and Crantz's
* History of Greenland . The long s is used throughout.
*      NOTE: In his letter to me of 2 Feb. 2002, Irish folklore expert
* Miceal Ross has some harsh words for Beauford's scholarship here:
* "I do not know where he gets his Irish from. I never heard a word
* called feadhreagh and if it existed the declension would be faulty and
* also the spelling. The 'e ' after dh would be impossible. . . . Duna should
* be Dúnta. It looks like the same William had no Irish and probably
* little access therefore to tradition.
*      "Flath Innis [recte Flaith Inis] means the isle of princes; Hy Brasil
* or Brazil is in Irish `Í Bráth-saol' The island of eternal life."
*      [Yet the criticized words appear in some 19th-Century books; cf.
* M`Farland, 1853. . . .]

W. H. Wollaston
“Observations on the Quantity of horizontal Refraction; with a Method of measuring the Dip at Sea,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 93, 1–11 (1803).

* WOLLASTON picks up Monge's use of "mirage" in his Bakerian Lecture:
*      He starts by refuting Monge's density discontinuity:
* "The definite reflecting surface which he [Monge] supposes to take
* place between two strata of air of different density, is by no means
* consistent with that continued ascent of rarefied air which he himself
* admits; and the explanation founded on this hypothesis will not apply
* to other cases, which may all be satisfactorily accounted for, upon the
* supposition of a gradual change of density, and successive curvature of
* the rays of light by refraction." (p.2)
*      There is also a fine illustration of the SMOOTH BEND where the erect
* and inverted images meet; the figure on p. 3 is the same one reprinted
* as Tafel VII, Fig. 6 in Gilb. Ann. vol. 23, showing the bent oar. It
* is worth quoting his passage about this (pp. 3 and 4):
*      "I was sitting in a boat near Chelsea, in such a position that my eye
* was elevated about half a yard from the surface of the water, and had a
* view over its surface, that probably somewhat exceeded a mile in length,
* when I remarked that the oars of several barges at a distance, that were
* then coming up with the tide, appeared bent in various degrees, according
* to their distance from me. The most distant appeared nearly in the form
* here represented; dd being my visible horizon by apparent curvature
* of the water; ab the oar itself in its inclined position; and bc
* an inverted image of the portion be . By a little attention to other
* boats, and to buildings on shore, I could discern that the appearance
* of all distant objects seen near the surface of the water was affected
* in a similar manner, but that scarcely any of them afforded images so
* perfectly distinct as the oblique line of an oar dipped in the water.
*      "A person present at the time (as well as some others to whom I have
* since related the circumstance) was inclined to attribute the appearance
* to reflection from the surface of the water; but, by a moderate share
* of attention, a very evident difference may be discovered between
* the inversion occasioned by reflection, and that which is caused by
* atmospherical refraction. In cases of reflection, the angles between the
* object and image are sharp, the line of contact between them straight and
* well defined, but the lower part of the image indefinite and confused,
* by means of any slight undulation of the water. But, when the images
* are caused by refraction, the confines of the object and its inverted
* image are rounded and indistinct, and the lower edge of the image is
* terminated by a straight line at the surface of the water."
* (Similar advice is given by Bravais, 1853.)

H. W. Brandes
Gilb. Ann. Physik 14, 250–253 (1803).

* Brandes's first communication about refraction mentions Woltman
* "Ich hoffe Ihnen nächstens eine Reihe von Beobachtungen über
* die Refraction , denen ähnlich, die Sie von Hrn.      W o l t m a n n
* kennen, übersenden zu können."
* This item is under the heading "Auszüge aus Briefen an den Herausgeber"

Dr. Castberg
“Ueber die Fata Morgana und ähnliche Phänomene,”
Gilberts Ann. Physik 17, 183–199 (1804).

* Castberg's FATA MORGANA review (translated by Gilbert)
* Several very early references here: Pomponius Mela, Thomas Facellus,
* Athanasius Kircher, Pliny and Haithon. But he is mostly concerned with
* the F.M. classics: Minasi and Angelucci. There are also references to
* then-recent discussions by Gilbert, including looming and mirages.
* Castberg leans heavily on the idea that, if this were a simple mirage,
* the locals would recognize the miraged objects: they don't, so it isn't.
* He makes the good point that the cities are too far apart (6500 toises):
* at this distance, one would be hard pressed to make out individual
* buildings, let alone individual figures, trees, sheep, etc.
* [This matter of DISTANCE is often overlooked in fantastic reports.]
* Furthermore, if it were a mirage of Messina seen from Reggio, then the
* reverse should be true; but (he says) there are no reports of the
* Morgana being seen from Sicily.
* He concludes that it is the shadows of the city cast on mists!

Doctor Brandes
“Einige kritische Bemerkungen über Höfe, Ringe, Nebensonnen, Fata Morgana, u.s.w.,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 19, 363–371 (1805).

* Brandes comments on atmospheric optics, including FATA MORGANA
* The Fata Morgana is discussed on p. 367, where he comments on Castberg's
* report in Ann. 17, 183. There is an amusing crack: "Die Bilder sind
* gewöhnlich so verzerrt, und der Gegenstand selbst erscheint unter so
* veränderter Gestalt, dass man leicht mit Hülfe einer italiänischen
* Phantasie Säulengänge, Wasserleitungen, u. s. w., in diesen
* Erscheinungen finden kann."
*      See also the Brandes papers from vols. 17 & 18 in "Terrestrial Refr."
* [from a letter dated 2ten Febr. 1805]

H. W. Brandes
“Fortgesetzte Beobachtungen über die irdische Strahlenbrechung,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 20, 346–353 (1805).

* Brandes reports his progress to Gilbert
* There is some interesting background here: he explains how he was led
* by Pictet's observations of the diurnal cycle of temperature gradients
* at different heights, which showed the same pattern he had already seen
* in his own observations of variable terrestrial refraction, to make such
* temperature measurements himself.
* [from a letter dated 16ten Mai 1805]

J. B. Biot
Traité Élémentaire d'Astronomie Physique
(Bernard, Paris, 1805).

* Biot's astronomy textbook (1805)
*      Astronomical refraction is discussed on pp. 36-38; mirages on p. 40
* In §43 (p. 39), he refers to Maraldi's work on terrestrial refraction.
* The description of mirages in lower Egypt is taken almost verbatim from
* Monge's text, though edited down slightly: "Monge a expliqué ce phénomène
* d'apres les lois de l'optique, dans le premier volume de la Décade
* Egyptienne." (p. 41)
*      The Plates that follow p. 330 indicate by simple diagrams the effect of
* astronomical refraction; but there are no mirage pictures. [Those appear
* in the 2nd edition (1810).]
*      The first volume bears a dedication to Laplace (cf. Biot's anecdote!)
* Often, the two volumes of this work are bound together.
*      The 1st volume is available at Google Books:

Professor Kries
“Ueber Luftspiegelung,”
Gilberts Ann. Physik 23, 365–379 (1806).

* Friedrich Christian Kries points out the lack of explanation in the
* reports of Vince and Wollaston, and tries to explain away Wollaston's
* experimental results as an artifact due to surface tension at the
* edge of the glass. However, his explanation of the 2-image superior
* mirage is exactly the same as Wegener's, apart from using (here) a flat
* Earth. Because of omitting this vital detail, he fails to understand
* how a 3rd, upright, image can be formed. So he introduces the crazy
* notion of a perfect reflection in the sea , which he supposes is
* inverted to form the uppermost, erect, image.
*      But there is a prophetic phrase in which he foresees the actual
* complexity of thermal inversions:
* "Und da Luftspiegelung oberwärts mit starken Hebung verbunden zu
* seyn pflegt, so ist es nicht unwahrscheinlich, dass alsdann mehrere
* Luftschichten von verschiedener Dichtigkeit über einander liegen."
*      According to Pogg., Kries was born in "Thorn, Westpreuss." -- the
* home town of Copernicus.

D[r]. Brandes
“Einige kritische Bemerkungen zu den in den Annalen befindlichen Aufsätzen über die irdische Strahlenbrechung, und Nachricht von der Vollendung seiner Refractions-Beobachtungen,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 23, 380–393 (1806).

* Brandes comments at length on earlier reports, and announces his
* forthcoming ("um Michaelis") monograph (1807) [below].
* Several nice quotes here. On p. 383, good advice for astronomers:
* "Da wohl ohne Ausnahme über einer Erdfläche die Luft Nachts, dicht
* an der Erde kälter ist, als in der Höhe, . . . ." He notes that, with
* strong looming, the sea often appears concave rather than convex (p.385).
* [Note observation of CONCAVE surface.]
* [The concave appearance is also described by Forel (1895), p. 541.]
* Remarking on the stories Busch was told by the dike-workers, he says:
* "Ueberhaupt hat der gemeine Mann selten die Gabe, eine Erscheinung so zu
* beschreiben, dass der Physiker die Erzählung gebrauchen kann." (p. 386)
* On the next page is another suggestion for the origins of strange
* reports: "Ich sah neulich auch früh Morgens von hier aus das weiss
* übertünchte Schloss zu Varel und einige andere Gegenstände mit blossen
* Augen so auffallend hell, dass ich es wohl für näher hätte halten
* können; von besonderer starker Refraction war aber nichts zu bemerken,
* sondern ich konnte keinen anderen Grund finden, als dass diese
* Gegenstände hell von der Sonne beschienen wurden und die übrige Gegend
* im Schatten von Wolken lag. Grösser erschienen die Gegenstände auch
* nicht, aber bei so starker Beleuchtung kann ein scharfes Auge einzelne
* Theile der entfernten Gegenstände erkennen, und dies mochte die
* Täuschung verursachen, dass man sie für grösser hielt."
* The Figures show a distorted sunset, probably with mock mirage.
* He wonders if Heemskerk's observations on Nova Zembla were not this?
* [From letters dated 18ten April & 15ten Mai 1806.]
*      Note that his drawing of a mock mirage in Tafel VII, Fig. 3 & 4,
* is probably the EARLIEST such sunset recorded pictorially.

W. H. Wollaston
“Bemerkungen über die horizontale Strahlenbrechung, und über die Vertiefung des Seehorizonts,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 23, 394–407 (1806).

* Wollaston's 1803 article translated by Gilbert.
* His Fig.6 is remarkable for showing the smooth bend in a miraged oar
* extending from a barge to the water. This vertical magnification
* is what makes the inferior-mirage flash visible to the naked eye.

“Observations sur les réfractions terrestres,”
Mém. Présent. Inst. Savans Étrangers, Sci. Math. Phys. 1, 463–468 (1806).

* DANGOS reports his observation of early OMEGA (and looming of Etna)
* "Ayant lu depuis peu, dans la connoissance des temps de l'an 12, une
* observation curieuse sur les réfractions terrestres, faite par un
* savant physicien anglois, j'ai pensé que l'Institut national verroit
* avec plaisir les détails d'un phénomène à peu près semblable, qui se
* montra à Malte en 1784, et dont tous les habitans de l'île furent les
* témoins.
*      "Le 20 mars vers 1 heure de l'après-midi, je fus instruit par des
* grands cris qui retentissoient dans les rues, qu'une île venoit de
* s'élever dans le canal de Malte, et j'aperçus bientôt, de dessus les
* terrasses de l'observatoire, une terre très-blanche, entourée d'eau,
* et dont la forme étoit celle à peu près d'un cône droit
* irrégulièrement tronqué. Des marins et des pêcheurs étoient déja
* partis pour aller reconnoître cette île et pour en prendre possession.
*      "La figure de cette terre, sa blancheur et surtout sa position, qui
* se trouvoit exactement dans la direction de la mire que j'avois tracée
* depuis long-temps vers le mont Etna, me firent reconnoître bien vîte
* que cette terre n'étoit autre chose que le sommet toujours neigé de ce
* mont élevé de 3326 mètres . . . ." [The modern figure is 3323 m.]
*      ". . .  cette apparence extraordinaire dura environ 30 minutes depuis
* l'instant où j'en eus connoissance. . . . La mer étoit calme, le vent
* nord-est foible, le thermomètre à 14° 4'; . . . le temps étoit
* humide, et il avoit régné un brouillard épais toute la matinée,
* ainsi que la veille."
*      From his further description of a repeat of this performance on 17
* April 1785 at 6:10 a.m., it appears that the island had been hidden by a
* superior mirage that reflected the sea: ". . . l'horizon de la mer qui
* l'entouroit étoit extrêmement net. . . . L'île . . . survint un instant
* de confusion, et lorsque je la cherchois dans les airs, je la vis, avec
* étonnement, assise à sa place. Tout le mont et les côtes de Sicile,
* qui avoient été invisibles, se montrèrent bientôt en entier, et
* furent visibles le reste du jour." On this occasion, he measured the
* "depression" and found it 15' 17'', "ce qui donneroit pour sa distance
* apparente de l'observatoire, à peu près 18000 mètres . . . ."
* [The actual distance is about 130 km.]
*      He notes this cannot be a simple reflection, "comme on le prétendit
* dans les journaux d'Italie : car alors l'image auroit dûe être
* renversée, et elle étoit droite . . . ." So I suppose it is the isolated
* 3rd image of a 3-image mirage.
*      Now comes the OMEGA report:
*      "Je finis en rappelant un phénomène assez curieux qui tient à
* l'objet de ce mémoire, phénomène bien connu des marins, des
* astronomes qui ne sont pas fort éloignés de la mer, que j'ai vu assez
* souvent à Malte et surtout à l'observatoire de Rouen.
*      "Le soleil prend quelquefois, vers son lever, une forme un peu
* allongée qui se rétrécit tout-à-coup dans sa partie inférieure, et
* qui est terminée par le bas, par une ligne droit, de sorte qu'il
* ressemble à une urne sur son piédestal." (Jules Verne, did you read
* this?)
*      "La cause de ce fait est bien simple, d'après la théorie de
* M. Monge sur le mirage . . . ."
*      ``Lu le 27 prairial an 10'' which works out to June 15, 1803 if my
* arithmetic is correct.
* NOTE: I have filed the 1814 German translation in the Colton file.
* It lacks the last paragraph connecting the Omega display with Monge's
* mirage. (Cf. Jacques Cassini's Omega sunrise, nearly a century earlier!)
*      This is indexed under different titles; I have not seen the actual
* title page of the volume. The Royal Society Catalogue says it was
* ``Mémoires présentés à l'Institut des Sciences, Lettres, et Arts par
* divers Savans, et lus dans ses Assemblées : Sciences Mathématiques et
* Physiques'' for Vols. I and II (1806-1811). The later title, according
* to the same source, was ``Mémoires présentés par divers Savans à
* l'Academie [Royale] des Sciences de l'Institut de France; ou Collection
* des Mémoires des Savans Étrangers'' from 1827 on. However, the
* page headers read ``Mémoires présentés a la classe des sciences
* mathém. et physique'' and the footer has ``Sav. Étrangers. 1. T. 1.''
* The ILL people got a copy by asking the Bibliothèque de l'Institut for
* ``Memoires de l'Institut national de France.'' Take your pick.

T. Young
A Course of Lectures on Natural Philosophy and the Mechanical Arts, Vol.II
(Joseph Johnson, London, 1807).

* THOMAS YOUNG's remarks on refraction, in his "Lectures" book
*      A good source of early references on refraction & mirages.
* EARLY treatment of the RN = const. model: Section 461 (cited in his
* paper below) is pp. 80-81. [Cf. Kummer!]
* On p. 81, he seems to lose the factor of 2 in terrestrial refraction,
* saying ". . . the terrestrial refraction, instead of being 1/7 of the arc
* intervening between two places, is seldom more than 1/10."
* Available at
* and

"EMERITUS" [Thomas Young]
“Article I [remarks on looming, or horizontal refraction],”
Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, and the Arts 17, 153–156 (1807).

* THOMAS YOUNG's remarks on mirage theory
* Young comments on the inadequacy of Wollaston's demonstration.
* He proposes a model very similar to that of August Schmidt (1878)!
* "If the variable medium be only thick enough to admit the passage of
* rays below [the height where the conjugate point turns around], there will
* be no direct image, but an inverted one only. . . . the case being nearly
* similar to a very oblique internal reflection." (p. 154) -- cf. Wegener!
* "The points K and ε may be considered as conjugate foci, with
* respect to the refraction of the variable medium."
*      He considers DUCTING and CRITICAL REFRACTION: the assumed temperature
* gradient of 1 degree (F?) per foot of height produces a ray curvature of
* 1 second of arc in 16 feet of path length; "The curvature of the earth's
* surface becomes a second in 102 feet; consequently . . . a change of
* temperature of a degree in 6 or 7 feet, would be sufficient to produce
* a refraction equivalent to the apparent depression of a distant object
* arising from this cause, and to elevate the coasts of a wide channel,
* so as to make them visible to each other. This result may also be more
* simply obtained from Simpson's investigations respecting atmospheric
* refraction, the refractive density being inversely proportional to the
* distance from the centre of the earth, when the temperature varies 1°
* in 6 or 7 feet; for, as Dr. Young observes in his extensive system of
* natural philosophy lately published, Vol. II, Art. 461, `If the refractive
* density of a medium vary as a given power of the distance from a certain
* central point, the angular deviation of a ray of light will be, to the
* angle described round the centre, as the exponent of the power to unity.'"
* (p. 155)      [cf. Kummer (1860)]
*      Then there is a Postscript (pp. 155-156) that continues the discussion,
* finding the image position (cf. Gergonne, Nölke, etc.).
*      Note that Plate V faces p. 153, the title-page of the article.
* This is usually known as "Nicholson's Journal"; dated July.

H. W. Brandes
Beobachtungen und theoretische Untersuchungen über die Stralenbrechung
(in der Schulze'schen Buchhandlung, Oldenburg, 1807).

* Heinrich Wilhelm BRANDES uses temperature gradient info
* Here is the first paragraph (p. 3):
* "Obgleich es eine lange bekannte Wahrheit ist, daß nur in sehr
* wenigen Fällen die Lichtstralen von einem entfernten Gegenstande auf
* der Erde in gerader Linie zu unserm Auge kommen, und daß wir daher
* selten oder vielleicht niemals die Gegenstände in derjenigen Richtung
* sehen, in welcher wir sie sehen würden, wenn der Lichtstral durch einen
* gänzlich leeren Raum oder durch ein völlig gleichartiges Medium zu uns
* gelangte, so ist doch die Anzahl der Beobachtungen über diese Brechung
* des Lichtstrals in den untern Luftschichten noch immer nicht so groß
* als es bei einem so interessanten Gegenstande zu wünschen wäre, und
* noch immer fehlt es uns an sichern Regeln, um die wahre Höhe eines
* Gegenstandes auf der Erde aus seiner scheinbaren Höhe zu bestimmen."
* ". . . die großen Aenderungen, denen die scheinbare Höhe eines
* bestimmten Gegenstandes, den man aus einerlei Standpunkt betrachtet . . . "
* "Schon mehrere Beobachter hatten zwar die ungleiche Erwärmung der Luft
* in verschiedenen Höhen, als einen vorzüglichen Grund mancher hier
* vorkommende Phänomene angegeben; aber so viel mir bekannt ist, hatte
* noch keiner durch Beobachtungen gezeigt, daß die Aenderungen der Refraktion
* ganz genau mit der Aenderung der Unterschiede der in verschiedenen
* Höhen statt findenden Wärme übereinstimmen. Dieses darzuthun,
* waren meine ferneren Beobachtungen bestimmt, und wenn die ersten
* Beobachtungen nur dahin leiten konnten, empirische Regeln für die
* Bestimmung der gleichzeitigen Aenderungen der scheinbaren Höhe
* verschiedener Gegenstände anzugeben, so müssen die leztern,
* wofern sie ihren Zweck erreicht haben, uns in der theoretischen Bestimmung
* der Refraktion einen Schritt weiter bringen." [p. 5]
* The INFERIOR MIRAGE discussion begins on p. 111 (section 61). On p. 114
* he mentions the reduced size of the inverted image; if this were due to
* simple reflection, ". . . wo sollte hier die polierte Fläche sein, auf
* welcher sich der Gegenstand abspiegelte? Vielmehr ist das Phänomen aus
* einer Refraction der Lichtstralen zu erklären . . . ." And in §65:
* "Je mehr die Erdfläche erwärmt ist in Vergleichung der höheren
* Luft-Schichten, desto stärker ist die Spiegelung, . . . ." -- and he gives
* several examples from his own measurements. A ray-traced example is
* treated in §66 (p. 115) and Fig. 10. He trips over the horizontal-ray
* paradox, but talks himself out of it by asserting that it is the
* spherical curvature of the refracting surfaces that allows the ray
* to find its way back up from the perigee point!
* §67 (p. 116) discusses the ray vertices: ". . . und deswegen erscheint das
* untere Bild umgekehrt." (p. 117) Then in §68 he has a nice argument to
* determine the point where the erect and inverted images join, by
* interchanging object and observer.
*      §68b then discusses the location of the apparent horizon: ". . .  die
* scheinbare Tiefe des Horizonts ist also um etwas sehr erhebliches
* grösser, als sie bei gradlinigtem Fortgange der Lichtstralen sein
* sollte. . . . so is offenbar, dass der sichtbare Horizont sich mit der
* Erniedrigung des Auges sehr merklich verkleinern muss, welches auch
* wirklich sehr auffallend der Fall ist, wenn man auch die Höhe des Auges
* nur wenig ändert." (p. 118)
* The SUPERIOR MIRAGE discussion begins on p. 121 (section 72).
* EARLY MIRAGE OF SUN (cf. the similar publication in Gilberts in 1806.)
* (section 78, p.126): "Eine Erscheinung muß ich noch erwähnen, die
* ebenfalls hier gehört. Am 8. April 1806 nämlich erschien die Sonne beim
* Untergange in einer solchen Gestalt, wie Fig. 18. zeigt. Hier ist offenbar
*      a c b      das aufrechte,      d c e      das umgekehrte und      d f e      das zweite
* aufrechte Bild. Ich hatte damals kein Fernrohr zur Hand, aber am folgenden
* Tage, wo die heitre Witterung mit Ostwind fortdauerte, zeigte sich beim
* Untergange der Sonne etwas ähnliches, obgleich die Spiegelung
* schwächer war, und diese Erscheinung habe ich mit dem Fernrohr beobachtet.
* Die Sonne erschien nämlich wie Fig. 19. und als sie tiefer sank,
* trente sich das Stück oberhalb des Einschnitts ab, schwebte noch
* abgesondert einen Augenblick und verschwand dann. Etwas später trente
* sich noch ein zweiter solcher Streifen. -- Die Sonne erschien zitternd und
* daher schlecht begrenzt, indeß war diese Erscheinung sehr deutlich. --
* Tages vorher waren Nachmittags auch einige südlich liegende
* Gegenstände oberwärts gespiegelt.
*      "Diese Spiegelung der Sonne könte, dünkt mich, gar nicht statt
* finden, wenn die Schichte, worin die starke Brechung erfolgte, sich sehr
* weit, z.B. über den ganzen Gesichtskreis, erstreckt hätte.
* Stellt nämlich (fig. 20.)      d c      die oberfläche der Erde,      b      die
* Gegend vor, wo der Scheitel des Strals [sic] lag, so würde, wenn in      a
* eben so starke Brechung, als in      b      statt finde, keine Vervielfachung des
* Bildes möglich gewesen sein."
* Google Books has the text, but it is made useless by their usual failure
* to open the gatefolds of tables and figures.

H. W. Brandes
“Darstellung seiner Untersuchungen über die irdische Strahlenbrechung, und über die sogenannte Luftspiegelung; und was in dieser Materie noch zu thun ist,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 34, 133–151 (1810).

* Further observations by Brandes, with an appeal for support by Gilbert
*      The letter from Brandes to Gilbert actually begins on p. 135; the
* first 2 pages are Gilbert's comments, citing the earlier works.
*      Most of Brandes's letter is a summary of the high points of his book.
* However, he has a few comments at the end about what needs to be done,
* which would be good advice to mirage observers generally (pp. 148 ff.).
*      He notes the TRIPLE IMAGE often associated with superior mirages:
* "Eine genaue Betrachtung der Umstände, welche diese Spiegelung fast
* unstreitig bewirken, zeigt, dass man eigentlich dann immer drei
* vollständige Bilder und in dem höchsten alle Mahl die Spitzen der
* Gegenstände sehen sollte . . . ." (p. 146) as well as its association
* with the Fata Morgana.
*      There is also a nice comment about the Fata Morgana : "Sie scheint
* mir eine veränderliche Spiegelung zu seyn, die in einem Augenblicke
* vielleicht in demselben Punkte des Horizonts einen Gegenstand zeigt, der
* Meilen weit hinter dem liegt, welchen man im nächst vorhergehenden
* Augenblicke sah. . . .      Freilich könnte auch dann noch, wegen der
* Mannigfaltigkeit der Gegenstände, die hinter einander in einerlei
* Richtung liegen, sich mancherlei zeigen; aber gewiss würde man bei
* solchen Beobachtungen doch eher zu einer Erklärung gelangen, als durch
* die Beschreibung von Feenschlössern und andern Herrlichkeiten, die
* gewiss nur die Fantasie sah, und nicht das Auge." [p. 147]
*      And (p. 151): "Allem, was ich bis jetzt von Beschreibung dieser
* Phänomene kenne, scheint ganz der philosophische Geist zu fehlen,
* welcher nötig ist, um gerade das Rechte zu treffen, und aus dem Chaos
* von zerstreuenden Nebendingen nur den Hauptpunkt hervor zu heben."
*      He also notes the bad seeing that accompanies the inferior mirage:
* ". . . mit dieser Spiegelung . . . fast ohne Ausnahme ein heftiges Zittern
* der Gegenstände verbunden ist . . . ." [p. 150]

J. B. Biot
Notices sur les Opérations exécutées en Espagne, en France, en Angleterre et en Écosse, pour mesurer la courbure de la Terre et la variation de la pesanteur sur l'arc du méridien qui s'étend depuis l'îsle de Formentera, la plus australe des Pythiuses, jusqu'à Unst, la plus boréale des îsles Shetland
(Academie des Sciences, Paris, 1810).

* Biot and Arago's expedition recounted
* The "Notice sur les Opérations d'Espagne et de France" (pp. 1-30
* here), "Lue à la séance publique de la classe des Sciences de l'Institut,
* le 2 janvier 1810" is the account quoted in the 1821 book by Biot & Arago;
* see below (at 1821) for excerpts.
* Now available at
* but they don't give the exact citation; probably this appeared in one of
* the Academie's serial publications. . . .
*      This was reprinted in Biot's  Mélanges Scientifiques et Littéraires
* (M. Levy, Paris, 1810), pp. 47 - 68.
* Thanks to Luc Dettwiller for pointing out the availability of this item!

“Mathematiques. Mémoire sur les réfractions extraordinaires qui s'observant très-près de l'horison,”
Paris, Soc. Philom. Bull. 1, No. 15, 262–264 (Dec., 1808).

* Abstract of the 8 Aug. talk by J. B. BIOT on refraction phenomena
*      A marginal note says:
* Instit. Nat.
* 8 Août 1808.
* and the signature footers say "Tome I. N°. 15, 2e. Année." The title
* page of the volume is dated 1807, and a few Roman-numeraled pages at
* its front explain the interruption in publication of the Society's
* Bulletin in 1805. On p. vi is the editorial staff of the revived
* Bulletin; Mathematics is handled by Poisson ("P.") The first number
* of this volume is dated Oct. 1807.
*      Here, Monge, Wollaston, and Humboldt are mentioned, and their
* explanations are summarized. Poisson says:
*      "On ne peut donc pas douter que cette explication ne donne la vraie
* cause du Mirage. Mais, pour ia mettre dans tout son jour, il étoit bon
* de déduire de l'analyse mathématique, les diverses circonstances que
* peut présenter ce phénomène, et qui sont relatives à l'élévation de
* l'observateur au-dessus du sol, à sa distance aux objets mirés, et à
* la rapidité du décroissement de la température. C'est ce que M. Biot
* s'est proposé de faire dans le mémoire que nous annonçons. On trouve
* aussi dans ce mémoire, l'explication de plusieurs phénomènes qui ont
* un rapport plus on moins éloigné avec le Mirage. Le plus remarquable de
* ces phénomènes est la double image du soleil à l'horison, observée par
* Le Gentil à Pondichéri et sur les côtes de Normandie. M. Biot attribue
* cette parélie à la même cause qui produit le Mirage. En général,
* M. Biot a rassemblé dans son mémoire les nombreuses observations de
* Mirage ou de phénomènes analogues, qui ont été faites jusqu'ici,
* afin qu'on puisse en comparer les résultats à ceux du calcul."
*      This is available at the BHL website:
*      Full title of publication is:
* Nouveau Bulletin des Sciences, par ls Société Philomatique. Paris.
* (A variety of local scientific societies called themselves "Philomathic"
* in this period; so it's necessary to specify which one by location.
* The Roy. Soc. Cat. calls this "Paris, Soc. Philom. Bull." The BHL
* calls it "Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris".
*      Note the spelling "horison" with an "s" rather than a "z", in both the
* title and the text.
* The abstract is signed with the initial "P." = Poisson.

[L. Brugnatelli]
“Estratto di una memoria: Sopra le refrazioni straordinarie che si osservano vicinissime all'orizzonte; del Sig. Biot,”
Giornale di Fisica, Chimica e Storia Naturale, Vol. 2, 63–65 (1809).

* Italian report on Biot's mirage memoir: first use of "miraggio" ?
*      The title page of the volume says:
*                        GIORNALE
*             DI FISICA, CHIMICA
*              E STORIA NATURALE
*                          ossia <-- (in small caps)
* Raccolta di Memorie sulle Scienze, Arti, <-- (in flowery script)
*             e Manufatture ad esse relative
*                   DI L. BRUGNATELLI
* [followed by a long paragraph of his degrees, awards, memberships in
*                         numerous foreign learned societies.]
*                         TOMO II
*              CON TAVOLE IN RAME
* PAVIA nella Tipografia Capelli 1809.
* -----------------------------------------
* Page 3 is headed "PRIMO BIMESTRE 1809"
* -----------------------------------------
* Successive pages are headed "Giornale" and "di Fisica, Chimica, ec."
* This item beginning in p. 63 is headed:
* Sopra le refrazioni straordinarie che si osservano
*            vicinissime all'orizzonte; del Sig. Biot
*      (Instit. Naz. di Francia 8. Agosto 1808. l. c.)
*      The footnote about Pliny on p.65 is signed "L'Edit." so I think I am
* safe in attributing it to Luigi Valentino Brugnatelli (as does the Royal
* Society Catalogue), Considering the timing and the dates, this must be
* based on the Philom. Soc. Bull. abstract; and in fact this is just a
* translation into Italian of that abstract.
*      This is available at:

J.-B. Biot
“Recherches sur les réfractions extraordinaires qui s'observent très-près de l'horizon,”
Mémoires de la classe des sciences mathématiques et physiques de l'Institut de France, Ann. 1809, 1–266 (1810).

* The first full version of Biot's monograph; read 8 Aug. 1808
*      The Mémoires are for the year 1809; but the publication date is Aug. 1810,
* and observations made in 1809 are discussed in several places. Clearly,
* lots of material was added after 8 Aug. 1808.
*      The first 98 pages of this volume contain the history of the Institute.
* (The "Histoire" and the "Mémoires" are bound together as one volume here,
* each beginning with p. 1, just like those of the Académie des Sciences.)
* After this "Histoire" comes the table of contents for both it and the
* Mémoires that follow.
* The edition scanned by Google has "1809." in its signature footers.
*      The Google scan is available at HathiTrust:
* -- but it completely lacks the figures!
*      Its table of contents on the unnumbered page after p. 98 gives the
* title as "Recherches sur les réfractions extraordinaires qui s'observent
* très-près de l'horizon", as does p. 1. Notice that the odd-numbered
* pages in both versions have the "très-près" in their headers.
*      This seems to be the version that is often cited as 1809.
* Both the Readex and the stand-alone version of the mirage monograph have
* the same page numbers, and seem to be printed from the same type, except
* for some minor changes from the Google version, such as the title,
* and the end of the third line of the body text, which ends in a comma
* in the Google scan but a semicolon in the Readex/monograph version.
* The last line of text on the first page of the monograph appears at the
* top of p.2 of the edition scanned by Google. Yet the two versions must
* be printed from the same type: look at the pale e-acutes in the word
* "détachés" in line 9 of the Google scan (line 8 of the monograph) on
* page 2. (There are other pale é types in the text; evidently this glyph
* was cast separately and shrank a little more on cooling than the main
* font.)
*      On p. 11, the bottom line of the monograph version appears at the top
* line of p. 12 in the Google scan. The bottom two lines on p. 12 of the
* monograph are at the top of p. 13 in the Google scan. After this there
* is a steady creep of text, with the monograph generally having one more
* line per page than the Google version. But at p. 15, the monograph
* absorbs the accumulated space by adding a 4-line footnote about Arago.
*      The two versions then remain in step until Biot's text ends on p. 266.
* That page says "FIN" in the monograph; but the Mémoires continue with
* several more mathematical papers by Lagrange, Laplace, et al.
*      The signatures are all marked "1809" in the footer at the first
* page of each in this Mémoire; but that date was removed from most of
* the signature labels in the monograph (see, e.g., p.201 which begins
* signature 26, or p.193 which begins sig. 25.)

J. B. Biot
Recherches sur les réfractions extraordinaires qui ont lieu près de l'horizon
(Garnery, Paris, 1810).

* This is the stand-alone reprint of the monograph.
* It contains BIOT + ARAGO's multiple-image red/green observation:
*      "Bientôt nous ne vîmes pas seulement deux lumières, mais trois,
* quatre ou davantage. Elles se formoient et disparoissoient ensuite sans
* que le nombre de celles qui paroissoient ensemble eût rien de
* déterminé. . . .      Cette formation successive a beaucoup d'analogie avec un
* autre phénomène que nous avons observé plusiers fois dans l'autres
* stations. On voyoit le point lumineux s'allonger comme une petite colonne
* de feu sous le fil vertical de la lunette, et s'étendre ainsi jusqu'à une
* certaine longueur, après quoi la colonne se rompoit tout à coup et
* formoit deux images dont le plus basse étoit sensiblement rouge, et la
* supérieure sensiblement verte; ou bien elle se concentroit de nouveau sur
* elle-même; et redevendroit un point lumineux unique, de dimension
* insensible, comme auparavant. . . . " (p.15 -- his experiments with Arago)
* See their 1821 report for more details!
* [cf. M.O. 24, 13 (1954)]
* This is a remarkable work: it is not only the first theoretical
* monograph on mirages, it explores many important ideas later forgotten
* and rediscovered, such as the effect of uneven ground in truncating the
* inverted image of the inferior mirage (pp. 28-33), based on Wollaston's
* (1800) measurements on a sandy road -- even including a warning about
* radiation-induced errors in air thermometry; the relation between
* the locus of the minima in the ray-paths and the occurrence of erect
* or inverted images (pp. 41 - 63; cf. Tait, 1883); the divergence of
* rays above the horizon, and hence the need for the minimum to occur
* between observer and object if a mirage is to occur (p. 65; cf. Meyer,
* White, Fraser, et al.); an observation of conjugate inferior mirages
* over uneven ground (p.84); the importance of the Earth's curvature, and
* caustic curves (pp. 151 ff.); the role of temperature in determining
* the dip of the horizon; the possibility of ducting (p. 196), and hence
* of negative dip and a false horizon (p. 203); etc. -- and all supported
* by quantitative measurements!
*      The circulating ray is on p. 154.  Measurements in thermal inversions
* begin on p. 163; negative dip is discussed on pp. 167 ff.
*      MULTIPLE HORIZONS are mentioned on p. 265.
*      August Schmidt's (1878) comments are appropriate.
* [cf. the German treatment by Brandes, 1814.]
*      A "Table des Matières" follows p. 266.  It contains a one-paragraph
* abstract of each major section of this long paper. The figures are
* immediately after this Table.
*      This is occasionally cited as:
* Recherches sur les réfractions extraordinaires qui s'observent
* très-près de l'horizon, avec 9 planches; lu le 8 août 1808
* (Mémoires de l'Institut national des sciences et arts 10, pp.1-266)
* as that title (from "sur" on) appears on the first page of the text.
* That was the original title published in the Mémoires, and is repeated
* here in addition to the slightly changed wording on this volume.
*      The title page gives the date of publication as 1810; but a few
* individual signatures bear the date 1809: see pp. 129 and 169.
*      P. 169 discusses observations made in Dec., 1808, and p. 168 shows dip
* measurements of 6 Feb. 1809. Data measured on 8 March 1809 are on p. 31
* and 82. The last line in the table on p.32 is a Dunkirk observation on
* 23 March, 1809.
*      Note that the drawings are by Claude Louis Mathieu (cf. Delambre, 1827)
*      Google Books has finally made available a PDF of the whole book,
* INCLUDING Mathieu's drawings! Here's the URL:
* Jean Baptiste Biot

J. B. Biot
Traité Élémentaire d'Astronomie Physique, Seconde Édition
(Klostermann, Paris, 1810), pp. 224–234.

* Some of the same figures appear in Biot's revised (1810) textbook:
* The miraged man is (Fig. 41); the distorted sunsets (42 & 43) are in Pl.9
*      ORIGIN of the term "MIRAGE" (cf. Le Gentil, 1789!):
* After describing the ordinary inferior mirage over hot sand, such as was
* seen by the French army in Lower Egypt, he says: "On observe
* à-peu-près la même chose à la mer dans des tems très-calmes. Un
* navire, vu dans le lointain et à l'horison, offre quelquefois deux
* images, l'une directe, l'autre renversée; celle-ci absolument pareille à
* l'autre, souvent égale en intensité, en un mot parfaitement semblable à
* l'effet de la réflexion dans un miroir. De là est venu le nom de
* mirage que les marins ont donné à ce phénomène." (p.229)
*      The first volume bears a dedication to Laplace (cf. Biot's anecdote!)
*      Sergey Kivalov points out that in the second volume of this 3-volume
* work, on pp. 558-560, Biot calculates the flattening of the full Moon
* at the horizon; this establishes a long-standing interest in this topic
* that helps explain his discovery of the magnification theorem in 1836.
* [NOTE: we have this book in our Special Collections; when I went to look
* at those pages, I found them uncut. I was the first person ever to have
* read that passage in our copy, in nearly 200 years!]
*      Unfortunately, the treatment here is oversimplified: he supposes the
* Moon so small that its image is symmetrical, and (worse) repeats Kepler's
* error of supposing the difference in refraction of the upper and lower
* limbs to correspond to the difference in altitudes of the true (rather
* than diminished) vertical diameter. Having neglected an appreciable
* second-order effect, he then evaluates the effect of refraction on
* the horizontal diameter, which he finds diminished by about 3 parts
* in ten thousand.
*      The publication date of the second volume is 1811.
* A very poor copy is available from Gallica. Google Books also.
* The HathiTrust website has the 3rd edition -- but only the Google scan,
* so no plates. There, the discussion of the Moon's diameter is in Vol. 3,
* pp. 19 ff., published in 1845.

“Untersuchungen über die ungewöhnlichen Strahlenbrechung, welche zuweilen nahe am Horizonte Statt findet, frei bearbeitet von H.W.Brandes, Prof. d. Math. in Breslau,”
Gilberts Ann. Physik 47, 237–313 (1814).

* The German treatment of Biot's monograph, by Brandes
* In the first 2 pages, Brandes explains why and how he has abridged this
* partial translation.
* This is only the first of two installments. As usual in Gilberts Ann.,
* the notes are as valuable as the text.
*      On p. 245, commenting on Biot & Arago's observation of red/green
* dispersion of the signal light (p. 15 of Biot's book), Brandes remarks
* on "die prismatischen Farben," and cites Herschel's 1785 double-star
* catalog, p. 52 [an error: really p. 83]. His translated quotation
* attributed to W.H. is very much abbreviated, however.
*      On p. 257 [Biot p. 26] appears the "magic number" of 1° 23'.
*      On p. 275 [Biot p. 65] is the discussion of the minimum of the
* trajectory. Biot says the rays must be horizontal to give a mirage
* -- this is the later mis-named "Fraser's theorem". Brandes explains
* that the order of inclination of the rays at the eye is also their order
* in any layer, in the branch above the horizontal. And immediately
* afterward is Tait's belated rediscovery about the ordering of the
* minima and the nature of the image (Biot p. 66). This is discussed in
* detail later [p. 279 = Biot p. 72], after the locus of the minima is
* discussed [Brandes p. 278; Biot p. 71].
*      NOTE: "Breslau" is now Wrocłow, Poland.

“Untersuchungen über die ungewöhnlichen Strahlenbrechung, welche zuweilen nahe am Horizonte Statt findet, frei bearbeitet von Brandes, Prof. d. Math. in Breslau,”
Gilberts Ann. Physik 47, 366–441 (1814).

* The German treatment of Biot's monograph, by Brandes -- part 2

E. Polehampton
The Gallery of Nature and Art; or, A Tour through Creation and Science, Vol.IV
(R.Wilks, London, 1815).

* Rev. Edward Polehampton's review of natural phenomena
*      There is a fuller summary of Minasi's work than one usually finds.
* Mirages begin on p. 504; see pp. 509-514 for the section covering the
* Fata Morgana.
*      "Fellow of King's College, Cambridge" says the title page.
* So this is the Edward P. who was rector of Greenford, Middlesex (1822-30).
* He was born in 1776 and died in 1830.
* This is "Vol. IV" of "six volumes".
* Evidently this is the source for Thomas Milner's similar work (1846+).
* Available on Google Books

J. F. Erdmann
“Beobachtungen über die Strahlenbrechung und sogenannte Luftspiegelung in den Steppen des Saratowschen und des Astrachanschen Gouvernements,”
Ann. Physik 58, 1–28 (1818).

* MANY OLD REFERENCES and some current observations (MIRAGE HISTORY)
* Cites Quintus Curtius Rufus, as well as many references to mirages
* ("Sarab") in the Koran and other Arab writings
* (Johann Friedrich von Erdmann, according to Roy.Soc. index)
* Available at:

W. Scoresby
An account of the Arctic regions with a history and description of the northern whale-fishery, Vol. I
(Constable, Edinburgh, 1820).

* William Scoresby's "Arctic Regions" book
* The mirages are described in Sect. V, on pp. 383-392:
*      "Under certain circumstances, all objects seen on the horizon, seem
* to be lifted above it a distance of 2 to 4, or more minutes of altitude,
* or so far extended in height above their natural dimensions. Ice, land,
* ships, boats, and other objects, when thus enlarged and elevated, are
* said to loom . The lower parts of looming objects, are sometimes
* connected with the sensible horizon, by an apparent fibrous or columnar
* extension of their parts, which columns are always perpendicular to the
* horizon : at other times, they appear to be quite lifted into the air,
* a void space being seen between them and the horizon." (pp. 384-385)
*      A typical Fata Morgana display is well described on pp. 385-386, with
* "lofty spires, towers and battlements," converted in a few minutes into
* "a vast arch, or romantic bridge." "A mass of ice on the horizon,
* appeared of the height of a cliff, and the prismatic structure of its
* front, suggested the idea of basaltic columns. It may be remarked,
* that these phenomena took place on a clear evening, after an uncommonly
* warm afternoon." So, a textbook case; July 16, 1814.
*      On the next page, another example of "variegated basaltic columns" was
* see on the coast of Spitzbergen, in June. An iceberg became "a
* prodigious cliff of alabaster pillars." Likewise, on May 13, he saw
* "a dense appearance in the atmosphere," which "advanced with the wind
* toward the N.W." The horizon under this apparent density "was
* considerably elevated; . . . a separation of seven minutes extent of the
* altitude, showed the division of the true and refracted horizons." The
* refracted horizon "had the appearance of a line drawn nearly parallel to
* the true horizon, distant from it 7 minutes, with an open space between.
* Two ships lying beset about fourteen miles off, the hulls of which,
* before the density came on, could not be wholly seen, seemed now from the
* mast head, not to be above half the distance, as the horizon was visible
* considerably beyond them. . . . Their hulls were much enlarged and
* elongated, and their masts very much shortened. They had precisely the
* prospective appearance of ships in a heeling position." (pp. 387-388)
* [This description resembles Minasi's tilted ships.]
*      On p. 389 is another observation, April 28, 1811: a ship "at such
* a distance, that her hull was not visible ; and when viewed from an
* elevation of ninety feet, with a good telescope, half her lower masts were
* intercepted by the ice on the horizon. Now, at the elevation from which
* this ship was seen, the horizon, under common circumstances, would be nine
* miles distant ; and from the knowledge of the dimensions of her masts,
* I estimated the portion of the hull and masts intercepted by the horizon,
* at about 22 feet ; consequently, her distance beyond the horizon must have
* been at least 4½ miles, and her distance from us not less than 13½."
* [In addition to the quantitative estimates, notice that all these were
* seen during the normal superior-mirage season.] It had been a bright,
* sunny day; at 11 p.m., the officer of the watch reported "that the ship to
* the eastward of us, appeared to he forced by the ice upon her beam ends ,
* or into an heeling posture. I immediately ascended the deck, and having
* cleaned the glasses of a good telescope, I hastened to the mast-head. I
* at once attributed the cause of the deception to unequal refraction. This
* ship, which, two hours before, was 4½ miles beyond the visible horizon,
* now appeared as far within it, and was in every respect deformed like the
* ships above mentioned." The intervening ice was "compact and motionless".
*      "The horizon on this occasion, between the east and north, though
* continuous, appeared curiously undulated. There appeared a difference of
* nearly a quarter of a degree, between the elevation of the highest and
* lowest portions of the circumferential boundary." (p.390)
*      On p. 391, Scoresby notes that these refractions "have usually
* occurred in the evening or night, after a clear day." He correctly
* infers that "two streams of air of different temperatures" are involved;
* but unfortunately supposes that "an irregular deposition of imperfectly
* condensed vapour" may produce the phenomenon.
*      Also noteworthy for a brief discussion of halo phenomena on p. 393:
* here Scoresby criticizes Huygens's suggestion of circular cylinders as
* the cause, remarking that "It is, however, probable, that such a form
* of hail does not occur in nature, though snow or hail of a prismatic or
* spicular form is not uncommon in the polar regions."
*      There are also remarks on the ice-blink on pp. 299-300; and an
* interesting discussion of sea-ice and icebergs in Chapter IV, where the
* word "effulgence" occurs in connection with seeing icebergs at night.
*       Available at
* and at the Biodiversity Heritage Library.
* On the title page of the original volume, the author's name is
*       W. Scoresby Jun.  F.R.S.E.
* Cited by Prof. Everett (1874).
*      Thanks to Eric Frappa for pointing this out!

Biot & Arago
Recueil d'Observations Géodésiques, Astronomiques et Physiques
(Courcier, Paris, 1821).

* BIOT & ARAGO (details)
* This gives the real story of the expedition: how Delambre and Méchain
* began the project, to determine the length of the meter; how the
* southern part of the arc was lost by Méchain's death; and how the
* completed part was published by Delambre in Base du Système
* métrique . The work reported here was done in 1806-07. The very
* breezy Introduction (it is explained in a somewhat apologetic Note) "est
* tirée d'une notice lue par M. Biot, à la séance publique de
* l'Académie des Sciences, pour l'année 1810." It gives the general
* public the bare outlines of how geodesy is done -- along the way,
* offering one of the earliest comparisons of the smoothness of the Earth
* to the peel of an orange (p. vi) -- and reviews the great
* accomplishments of French geodesists, from Picard (1670) and the
* Cassinis, through "Bouguer, Godin, la Condamine, Clairaut, le Monnier,
* Maupertuis et La Caille, tous nos compatriotes, et membres de
* l'Académie des Sciences".
*      "Malgré tant d'efforts, malgré tant d'entreprises, on pouvait
* faire mieux encore; . . . les instrumens d'Astronomie étaient bien
* éloignés alors de la perfection qu'ils ont maintenant acquise,
* perfection telle, qu'on peut régarder comme le dernier terme de la
* précision que l'on atteindre par des évaluations mécaniques, surtout
* depuis qu'un autre français, Borda, aussi membre de l'Académie des
* Sciences, eut trouvé le secret d'atténuer indéfiniment les erreurs
* des observations partielles, en les faisant suivre et succéder les unes
* aux autres sur le limbe circulaire de l'instrument auquel il a donné le
* nom de cercle répétiteur." (p. viii)
*      So (p. ix), the Bureau des Longitudes has chosen Arago and Biot to
* finish the job. The big problem (p. xi) is that one of the sides of the
* Yvice triangle must be some 160 km long, "environ quarante et une lieues
* de longueur. [ Assuming, as the footnote says, a league of 2000 toises;
* "je n'ai employé cette dénomination vague que pour rendre sensible à
* l'esprit la grandeur de nos triangles, par des évaluations encore
* habituelles pour beaucoup de personnes, mais que, sans doute, avec le
* temps, on finira par abandonner pour les évaluations métriques qui ont
* sur les autres l'avantage d'avoir toujours, et partout, la même
* signification." -- now, read on: ] A de si grandes distances, des
* signaux de jour auraient été complètement invisibles. On devait y
* suppléer per des lampes à courant d'air, derrière lesquelles on
* plaçait de grands miroirs de métal poli, pour réfléchir la lumière,
* et toutes les observations devaient se faire de nuit."
*      Desierto de las Palmas  is so called "parce qu'il y croît en
* abondance une petit espèce de palmier à feuilles en éventail, que les
* botanistes nomment le chamærops humilis ." (p. xii)
* Then come all the anecdotes: Biot's ship is driven by a storm to the
* tiny islet of Espalmador, inhabited only by a lighthouse keeper and a
* family of poor fishermen. "Jamais on ne vit de plus profonde misère;
* mais, dans cette misère même, il y avait encore de la vanité: le
* gardien de la tour méprisait beaucoup les pauvres pêcheurs." (p. xiv)
* There are the French consuls who helped the expedition, only to lose
* everything later, having to seek refuge in France. (p. xvi) There is
* the loss of one repeating circle, broken in shipment (p.xvii). He
* describes the wonderful view of the Kingdom of Valencia (p. xviii),
* including the site of Méchain's death and entombment; and "les tours
* de la brillante ville de Valence, heureux séjour du peuple le plus
* insouciant et le plus frivole. Mais ces beautés . . . n'avaient alors
* pour nous aucun attrait. Tout remplis, de la seule idée qui nous
* occupait, nous ne songions, nous ne pouvions songer qu'à nos travaux,
* et aux invincibles obstacles qui . . . ." (Well, you get the idea.)
* Here is the story of the tents blown into the sea by a gust of wind;
* "et nous n'avions pu en préserver notre pauvre cabane qu'en passant
* par-dessus des câbles, et la liant au rocher." (p. xix)
*      After 2 months of futile effort, they figured out how to spot the
* signals at Ybice, by pointing the telescope to the summit of Campvey
* just after sunset. "Je ne saurais exprimer l'émotion que nous
* éprouvâmes, lorsqu'après tant de peines et tant de doutes, nous
* eûmes enfin la certitude de réussir." (p.xxi) And then Biot
* dramatically reveals Méchain's letter, to top it off!
*      We also have the story of the station in the Favaretta mountains
* where Arago tried to establish a station; "mais nous fûmes obligés d'y
* renoncer, à cause de l'abondance des neiges qui couvraient presque
* tout-à-fait les tentes, et aussi parce que les brigands, maîtres de
* ces montagnes, exigeaient que l'on fît un traité avec eux pour avoir
* le droit d'y séjourner." (p. xxii)
*      Then there is the episode where Biot leaves the English safe-conduct
* with Arago and promptly gets himself captured by Ragusan pirates. (p. xxvi)
*      The original note of 1810 is now available as a PDF file at
* But of course our real interest is in the refraction observations.
* These commence on pp. 84-85: "en observant Iviza un instant auparavant,
* la lumière de cette station nous paraissait partagée en plusieurs
* lumières distinctes et bien séparées . . . ." (25 Dec. 1806) This
* story continues on p. 106: "Tems parfaitement calme depuis plusieurs
* jours. . . .      Mais à la quatrième ou à la sixième . . . , l'un de nous
* commenc,a de voir à Campvey deux lumières, exactement dans la même
* verticale et éloignées l'une de l'autre d'une quantité que, sur le
* fil, on estima au moins de trois minutes. La vraie lumière . . . était
* à sa place ordinaire; l'autre . . . était plus élevée dans le ciel
* . . . ; elle était aussi plus grosse, plus dilatée, plus irisée." They
* first took it to be a star. There was a problem caused by the two
* observers requiring different eyepiece settings; but when "l'autre
* observateur dut amèner sa lunette sur ce même point, non-seulement il
* apperçut deux lumières, mais il en vit trois et quatre les unes
* au-dessous des autres. . . . Quelquefois on appercevait plus de quatre
* lumières . . . . Le autres, toujours plus élevées dans le ciel, se
* formaient ensuite successivement . . . ." The regular image brightened as
* the others appeared; sometimes the extra images were still brighter than
* the bottom one. No color reported. Biot's monograph is cited.
*      Similar phenomena are reported on pp. 134-135, in observing the signal
* at Desierto from Cullera. Again, the multiplicity of images is
* accompanied by brightening.
* It gets really interesting in the observation from Mongò (p. 144),
* in which DISPERSION is at last reported (though not recognized):
* "Tems parfaitement calme, mais vaporeux; lumière de Cullera bien
* visible; celle du Desierto faible, quelquefois diffuse comme si on la
* voyait à travers une gaze; d'autres fois alongée en un
* parallélogramme vertical; d'autres fois brillante et bien terminée.
* Pendant la 16e observation, on l'a vue double; on l'a vue double aussi
* pendant la 20e. Dans ces deux cas, l'une des deux lumières paraissait
* rouge, l'autre paraissait d'un vert pâle. La première nous a semblé
* à tous deux répondre à la place qu'occupait un instant auparavant la
* lumière véritable; le seconde image, celle qui était verte,
* paraissait, dans le champ de la lunette, au-dessous de la lumière
* rouge, ce qui la mettait au-dessus en réalité, puisque les lunettes de
* nos cercles renversent les objets; en sortant de la cabane, nous
* observâmes qu'il y avait des masses de brouillards moutonnées sur la
* mer, comme lorsque nous observâmes de la station de Desierto plusiers
* lumières à Campvey." (13 Feb. 1807; both B&A again.)
*      Another DISPERSION report comes from La Mola de Formentera;  "Les
* habitans de cette petite île sont très-peu nombreux, et ceux d'Yviza
* les regardent comme des sauvages, quoiqu'ils ne soient pas eux-mêmes
* très-civilisée." (p. 170) But I digress; the good stuff is on p.
* 175, where we have both Arago and Biot observing again, 27 April 1807.
* The light on Mongò was ordinarily "un petit point rond bien terminé;
* mais quelquefois elle s'alongeait verticalement et occupait plus d'une
* minute décimale. Il nous a semblé remarquer alors que cette image
* n'était point de même couleur dans toute son étendue. le rouge était
* en haut, le verd en bas dans la lunette qui renverse. . . . Tems calme."
* Full title is:
* Recueil d'Observations Géodésiques, Astronomiques et Physiques,
* exécutées par ordre du Bureau des Longitudes de France, en Espagne, en
* France, en Angleterre et en Ecosse, pour déterminer la variation de la
* pesanteur et des degrés terrestres sur le prolongement du Méridien de
* Paris, faisant suite au troisième volume de la Base du Système
* métrique; rédigé par MM. Biot et Arago, Membres de l'Académie des
* Sciences, Astronomes adjoints du Bureau des Longitudes, etc.
* (Umberto Eco mentions this in section 84 of ``Foucault's Pendulum'',
* calling this title ``phantasmagorical''!)
* available at Google Books

W. Scoresby
“Description of some remarkable Atmospheric Reflections and Refractions, observed in the Greenland Sea,”
Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 9, 298–305 (1823).

* cf. Rees, 1988, and Lehn & Rees (1990) for inversion

W. Scoresby
Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale-Fishery
(Constable, Edinburgh, 1823).

* The full title is "Journal of a Voyage to the Northern Whale-Fishery;
* Including Researches and Discoveries on the Eastern Coast of West
* Greenland, Made in the Summer of 1822, in the Ship Baffin of Liverpool"
*      The refractions are discussed on pp. 96-97: "Hummocks of ice assumed
* the forms of castles, obelisks, and spires; and the land presented
* extraordinary features. In some places, the distant ice was so
* extremely irregular, and appeared so full of pinnacles, that it
* resembled a forest of naked trees; in others it had the character
* of an extensive city, crowded with churches, castles, and public
* edifices."
*      NOTE the footnote on pp. 96-97 (spanning Plate II) warning the reader
* that phenomena that were not contemporaneous are depicted together in
* the Plates!
*      Looming of distant land, well over 100 miles away, is described on
* pp. 106-108.
*      There is another short account of mirages on pp. 117-119: "The ice
* about the horizon assumed various singular forms: -- hummocks became
* vertical columns, -- floes and fields arose above the horizon, like
* cliffs of prismatic-formed spar, -- and, in many places, the ice was
* reflected in the atmosphere at some minutes elevation above the horizon."
* He then describes mirages of ships. . . . "The most remarkable effect
* produced, was on the most distant objects, the interesting appearances
* of which not being discernable without the use of a telescope, probably
* escaped general observation."
* [Note observation of CONCAVE surface.]
*      The main account of mirages is on pp. 163-173; see Plate V, between
* pp. 164 and 165. "Often the hummocky parts of the horizon were reared
* into various architectural figures of extraordinary elevation : and
* occasionally, as observed in a former instance, the whole distant margin
* of ice was deeply serrated, in resemblance of an innumerable collection
* of spires and pinnacles, or in the form of a thick forest of naked trees."
* (p. 164) . . . .      ". . .  the space in which the ship navigated seemed to
* be one vast circular area, bounded by a mural precipice, of great
* elevation, of basaltic ice.  . . .      And it should also be observed, that
* these phenomena were principally telescopic, both the ships and images
* being so distant, that, to the naked eye, they only appeared as
* indistinct specks." (p. 165)
*      "The general telescopic appearance . . .  is frequently that of an
* extensive ancient city, abounding with the ruins of castles, obelisks,
* churches, and monuments, with other large and conspicuous buildings.
* Some of the hills often appear to be surmounted with turrets,
* battlements, spires, and pinnacles; while others, subjected to another
* kind of refraction, exhibit large masses of rock, apparently suspended in
* the air, at a considerable elevation above the actual termination of the
* mountains to which they refer. The whole exhibition is frequently a grand
* and interesting phantasmagoria. Scarcely is the appearance of any object
* fully examined and determined, before it changes into something else.
* It is, perhaps, alternately a castle, a cathedral, or an obelisk: then
* expanding and coalescing with the adjoining mountains, it unites the
* intermediate valleys, though they may be miles in width, by a bridge of
* a single arch of the most magnificent appearance." (pp. 166-167)
*      He continues: "The cause of these phenomena, as far as they depend on
* refraction, is, I imagine, the rapid evaporation which takes place in a
* hot sun, from the surface of the sea; and the unequal density occasioned
* by partial condensations, when the moist air becomes chilled, by passing
* over considerable surfaces of ice. The vapour produced by evaporation
* and partial condensation, is sometimes perceptible to the eye, rising
* like transparent steam in all directions, in little curling clouds, and
* passing along with the breeze near the surface of the sea. Its influence
* can sometimes be perceived at the distance of a few fathoms, or, perhaps,
* half a furlong, by the tremulous motion it appears to give to all bodies
* on the water or near it. In this case, it has a tendency to produce a
* serrated or basaltic appearance of the ice on the horizon, similar to
* what occurred on the 10th and 19th of June. But at other times, when
* repeated, well-defined and proportionate images of ships appear in the
* air, the vapour giving rise to the unequal density, obtains more of a
* stratified arrangement. In its distortive effect, it seems to act like
* clear glass, of unequal surface or thickness; consequently it disfigures
* all objects seen through it. In its looming effect, or that property
* of it by which bodies on the horizon, or beyond, appear to be greatly
* elevated, or suspended, as it were, in air, it seems to act by that kind
* of refraction common to other mediums, when the density about the object
* seen is greater than at the eye of the observer. The lesser density of
* the air about the observer, arises from the elevated position he occupies
* when at the mast-head, where the phenomena are always the most striking.
* Hence, while near objects, which are seen through a very rare portion of
* this vapour, are little or nothing elevated: bodies at the distance of the
* horizon, which are seen through a mass of it several miles in thickness,
* are elevated ten, fifteen, twenty, or even thirty minutes of altitude.
* And when ships or ice within a few furlongs distance are disfigured by
* the action of this vapour, so as to present a varying and tremulous
* outline; other similar objects, at the distance of several miles,
* are, perhaps, steadily elevated. In most cases, the refracted portion
* of the distant ice is closely connected with the ice of the horizon,
* from whence it takes its rise; and when it assumes the columnar form,
* it presents the appearance of a vast amphitheatre, which is so disposed,
* that every observer, whatever may be his position, imagines himself to be
* in the centre of it. But in some instances, and these not unfrequent,
* the stratum of refracted ice is completely detached from the horizon,
* and appears to form a white horizontal streak in the lower part of the
* atmosphere. And occasionally, multiplied images of the ice, as well as
* other objects, occur, forming a parallel vertical series." (pp. 167-169)
* [This is followed by a long footnote, referring to Wollaston's paper,
* and Brewster's works, of a similar nature.]
*      He then describes the appearance of the highest parts of the land seen
* above the duct, and correctly concludes that "the tops of the mountains
* were above the vapour, . . . so that no influence could be exerted by the
* refractive medium, but on the base of the land, which was concealed by
* the looming of the ice." (pp. 171-172)
*      "As the more extraordinary and beautiful effects of unequal
* refraction cannot be fully discovered, without the use of a telescope,
* they escape general observation; and as the looming of the distant ice,
* or distortion of objects, is the most common effect of this state of the
* atmosphere, it becomes a considerable annoyance to persons not interested
* in the phenomena. As in this case, the vapour gives an indefinite and
* tremulous outline to every object beyond a certain distance;— ships, a
* mile or two off, cannot be recognised ;—a wall of ice seems to surround
* the navigator, the openings and leads in which cannot be discerned at
* a distance;—and, of the actions and employment of remote vessels,
* within sight, a knowledge of which is often of great importance to the
* unoccupied fisher, no correct conception can be formed." (pp. 172-173)
*      Now comes the incident of seeing his father's ship miraged (July 24):
*        "On my return to the ship, about 11 o'clock, the night
* was beautifully fine, and the air quite mild. The atmosphere,
* in consequence of the warmth, being in a highly refractive state, a
* great many curious appearances were presented by the land and icebergs.
* The most extraordinary effect of this state of the atmosphere, however,
* was the distinct inverted image of a ship in the clear sky, over the
* middle of the large bay or inlet before mentioned,---the ship itself
* being entirely beyond the horizon. Appearances of this kind I have
* before noticed, but the peculiarities of this were,--- the perfection
* of the image, and the great distance of the vessel that it represented.
* It was so extremely well defined, that when examined with a telescope by
* Dollond, I could distinguish every sail, the general `rig of the ship,'
* and its particular character; insomuch that I confidently pronounced it to
* be my Father's ship, the Fame, which it afterwards proved to be;---though,
* on comparing notes with my Father, I found that our relative position
* at the time gave our distance from one another very nearly thirty miles,
* being about seventeen miles beyond the horizon, and some leagues beyond
* the limit of direct vision. (Plate V. fig. 2.) I was so struck by the
* peculiarity of the circumstance, that I mentioned it to the officer of
* the watch, stating my full conviction that the Fame was then cruizing
* in the neighbouring inlet. (pp. 189-190; the Plate, between 164/165)
* Thanks to Mila Zinkova, for prompting me to include this item!
*      Available at Google Books:

H. H. Blackadder
“On unusual atmospherical refraction,”
Edinburgh Philosophical Journal 13, No. 25, 66–72 (1825).

* Info kindly supplied by A.R.Macdonald, librarian at ROE:
* Henry Home Blackadder
* "In adverting to this subject, one can hardly avoid noticing the
* remarkable inattention of not a few to what is passing under their
* immediate view, while they eagerly search after that which is distant,
* and far removed from the sphere of their contemplation. . . . Is nothing
* interesting but what is distant?"

H. H. Blackadder
“On some phenomena of vertical and lateral mirage observed at King George's Bastion, Leith,”
Edinburgh Journal of Science 3, No. 5, 13–15 (1825).

G. del Re
Descrizione Topografica, Fisica, Economica, Politica dé Reali Dominj al di qua del Faro nel Regno delle due Sicilie, Tomo I
(Tipografia dentro la Pietà de Turchini, Napoli, 1830), pp. 32–33.

* GIUSEPPE DEL RE's comments on Minasi and the terminology
* (dedicated to the Duke of Calabria)
*      The tides and associated flows are discussed on pp. 30-31.
* Then comes the interesting discussion (p. 32):
*      "A rare and surprising phenomenon in the Strait of Messina is the
* Iride Mamertina , called the Fata Morgana by the natives." He cites
* Ribaud for information on this as well as the tides.
*      "P. Minasi of Silla . . .  claims that the beautiful Fata Morgana is
* seen only from Reggio; but it seems undoubted that it is seen also from
* Catona, from Gallico, from Villa s. Giovanni and from Messina, city
* where it has the name of Iride Mamertina ."

R. R. Madden
Travels in Turkey, Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine, in 1824, 1825, 1826, and 1827 (Vol. II)
(Carey & Lea, Philadelphia, 1830), p. 123.

* This is the reference mentioned (but not cited) by Bayfield (1835)
* whose quotation is not strict. The original reads:
* "At one moment, the rippled surface of a lake was before my eyes; at
* another time, a thick plantation appeared on either side of me; the
* waving of the branches was to be seen, and this view was only changed
* for that of a distant glimpse of a city; the mosques and minarets were
* distinct, and several times I asked my Bedouins if that were not Suez
* before us; but they laughed and said it was all sand; and what appeared
* to me a city, a forest, or a lake, the nearer I endeavoured to approach
* it the farther it seemed to recede, till at last it vanished altogether,
* `like the baseless fabric of a vision, leaving not a wreck behind.'
*      "If I were to speak of the nature of the Mirage  from my own
* sensations, I should say, it was more a mental hallucination than a
* deception of the sight; for, although I was aware of the existence of
* the Mirage, I could not prevail on myself to believe that the images
* which were painted on my retina were only reflected, like those in
* a dream, from the imagination, and yet so it was."

H. W. Bayfield
in The St. Lawrence survey journals of Captain Henry Wolsey Bayfield, 1829-1853; , R. McKenzie, ed.
(Champlain Society, Toronto, 1984-1986).

* Background on the next two items. Henry Wolsey Bayfield had spent
* several years in mapping the Great Lakes; the Royal Navy was worried
* about naval warfare on the Great Lakes after the War of 1812, and
* needed maps. As the war scare on the border between Canada and the
* United States calmed down, the Navy reduced the mapping effort; but
* Bayfield, who had grown to enjoy his work in Canada, persuaded the
* Admiralty to extend the effort to the largely unmapped St. Lawrence
* estuary. But his exertions under harsh conditions had brought him
* some severe medical problems; so in staffing the new vessel under his
* command, he asked that a medical officer be added to the crew. This
* turned out to be Dr. William Kelly, "an experienced naval surgeon".
*      These are volumes 54 and 55 of the Publications of the Champlain
* Society. The index to both volumes is at the end of the second one.
*      The first volume contains Bayfield's notes on two mirages later
* published: the first (on pp. 175-176) is the mirage of June 19,
* 1832, published in Bayfield's 1835 note in the Nautical Mag.; the other
* (pp. 380-381) is the mirage of 13 Sept. 1835.

W. Kelly
“On the temperature, fogs and mirages of the river St. Lawrence,”
Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec 3, 1–45 (1832).

* Dr. William Kelly's first mirage paper
* Here he introduces some half-baked ideas, later retracted. But he has
* already discovered for himself the difference between the inferior and
* superior mirages. In the original text, he cites only Humboldt; in the
* later commentary, he reviews the papers by Latham, Vince, Huddart,
* Wollaston (whom he consistently calls "Woolaston"), Biot, and Parry.
* He says he has seen the mirage in Egypt. Note the FOG in the title;
* also (p.11): "There was generally with the mirage an appearance of a fog
* bank on the horizon . . . . The air within the horizon was at the same time
* perfectly clear."
* Effect of HEIGHT OF EYE mentioned repeatedly: "All these unusual
* appearances were generally lost in ascending the rigging from ten to
* thirty steps, when objects were seen in their natural shapes."
* Effect of DISTANCE noted: "The appearances differ much; owing,
* apparently, to the ships being more or less remote." And, in discussing
* Vince's report on p. 34, he says, "The refracted objects were all without
* the natural line of the horizon; those within it retaining their usual
* appearance." (This point was already made by Vince.)
* HEIGHT and DISTANCE COMBINED: (p. 12): ". . . during the mirage, which
* occurred in a calm with a considerable swell of the sea, the appearances
* presented by two small islands or rocks, at different distances from us,
* was very remarkable; for as the vessel rose on the wave, the more
* distant seemed to sink, and the nearer to be raised up; and again as the
* vessel sank, the first rose, and the near one was lowered. Even the
* different parts of the same island were variously affected, appearing to
* dance as the vessel rose and fell."
* Reflection in an apparently SMOOTH MIRROR (inf. mir.): "The portion of
* reflected sky between the inner islands and the vessel, resembles a
* perfectly smooth lake." (p. 17)
* MIRAGE and DIP: (p.20): he found the large dip of the inferior mirage
* ". . . so remarkable a feature, that I distinguished this in my notes as
* the mirage with shortened or depressed horizon, whilst the other was
* designated the mirage with elevated horizon, on account of the contrast
* between them . . . ", citing Humboldt's earlier work.

H. W. Bayfield
“Terrestrial refraction in the St. Lawrence,”
Nautical Mag. 4, 91–93 (1835).

* Captain Bayfield's first 3-image report (with Kelly); seen June 19, 1832
* With air 5° F warmer than sea surface, a vessel 7 miles away was seen
* "with her hull occasionally raised, so as to shew it distinctly above
* the horizon, although the height of our eyes was not over eleven feet.
* Her sails appeared elongated laterally, but were perhaps only shortened
* vertically, which made then appear so elongated." (This probably
* explains many other reports of APPARENT HORIZONTAL MAGNIFICATION as well.)
* There was a very light breeze from the west.
* This item is followed by two rather ordinary inferior-mirage reports
* from A. Inderwick in Mexico, and R. R. Madden in Egypt, on pp. 93-94, and
* p. 94, respectively. The latter's comment, taken from his "Travels in
* Turkey, Egypt, . . . ", that "I should say it was more a mental hallucination
* than a deception of the sight; for, although I was aware of the existence
* of the mirage, I could not prevail on myself to believe that the images
* which were painted on my retina were only reflected, like those in a
* dream, from the imagination, and yet so it was" -- is apposite.
* (Though to him "the mosques and minarets were distinct," the Bedouins
* "laughed at me, and said it was all sand.")

W. Kelly
“On some extraordinary forms of mirage,”
Nautical Mag. (London) 8, 394–399 (1839).

* FIRST observation of FIVE IMAGES?
* William Kelly, M. D. was an acute observer:
* "When my attention was directed, some years since, to the different
* forms of objects, seen through mirage in the St. Lawrence, one of these,
* which I particularly remarked, was the flower-pot shape assumed by small
* islands, when affected by the mirage, which depends on the contact of warm
* moist air with a surface of water colder than its dew point. Whatever
* the real shape of the island, or rock might be, its top seemed raised and
* flattened; generally extending in a straight horizontal line so far on
* each side, as at least to equal the base in extent; often beyond it;
* whilst, midway between the base and distorted top, the figure was
* contracted, having the appearance of a neck. When two islands lay close
* together, these flattened tops sometimes met, giving the appearance of an
* arch from one to the other. In all cases of mirage, depending on the same
* cause, the tops of objects seemed straight and horizontal in the same way,
* but the sides were like a wall. They frequently presented an appearance
* as if they were horizontally stratified."
* He describes an instance in detail: "A line answering to the horizon,
* was also seen on a level with the upper flat part of the inverted image of
* the island, and extending from it to a sandy point on the main. The true
* horizon was quite distinct, and well marked beneath. The sandy beach
* between us and the point seemed raised like a wall."
* Another case "presented to the naked eye nothing more than the flat top
* and walled sides usually seen in this form of mirage. But on examining it
* carefully with a telescope, in some parts of the flattened top, the
* picture of a beach was seen above the trees; thus shewing that this form
* also depended upon a second inverted image lying above, and confounded
* with, the upright one."
* "All the various forms assumed by objects, under the influence of this
* mirage, seem to be the result of two or more images, alternately erect and
* inverted, either distinct or mingled together in a greater or lesser
* degree."
* In June, 1832, "in passing Point des Monts, where the breadth of the
* river is very considerable, we saw the three images distinctly marked,
* such as they have been described by Vince and Scoresby. . . . We have
* frequently since seen treble images in the estuary and gulf . . . ."
* "A telescope, if at hand, should always be employed in observing mirages
* of any kind, as it enables us to detect particulars, that would escape the
* naked eye. On one occasion, to the naked eye, the hull of a ship seemed
* raised to an enormous height, and the sails very small, the telescope
* shewed three distinct images. . . . By the help of the telescope we were
* afterwards enabled to detect five distinct images, though the whole gave
* to the naked eye the impression of only one almost shapeless mass. . . ."
* Another time, with the air 48° and the water 39°.5, ". . . a vessel
* with all sail set, at one moment looked like an immense black chest, no
* sails or masts being visible. On observing her for a time the black body
* seemed to seperate horizontally into two parts; and two sets of mingled
* sails occupied the intervening spaces, with one set of very small sails
* above. The figures afterwards became more distinct, and three images were
* clearly discerned. Another vessel changed also from the form of a great
* square flat-topped chest, to five distinct images, the upper with sails
* erect, and the two lower double images with their sails rather confusedly
* intermingled. A raised horizon was parrallel to the upper figure of the
* hull. . . . Captain Bayfield and Mr. Bowen observed five distinct images of
* another vessel after I left the deck. When I first noticed extraordinary
* appearances, like those I have endeavored to describe, I was not aware of
* the advantage of employing a telescope for the examination of objects at
* inconsiderable distances." [spelling errors all sic ]
* "It seems probable that the horizontally stratified appearance, which
* the coast often assumes under this species of mirage, may be the effect
* of multiplied images of the horizon, or level sea at its base. The number
* of images may well exceed five, as we find they do three, which I believe
* was the greatest number hitherto noticed by any observer."
* IMPORTANCE OF MIXING in stratified waters:
* "Several rivers empty themselves into the sea at this place [the Mingan
* islands], the waters of which, in calms, float on its surface, which thus
* is sometimes several degrees warmer than the water at a depth of a few
* inches. A moderate current of air, which amongst small islands is often
* partial, sometimes, by agitating the water at one place, renders the
* surface there cold, whilst it continues warm in places sheltered from the
* wind. We have hence occasionally strange combinations of mirage." Thus,
* starting from an ordinary inferior mirage, where "The horizon on this side
* was low and near -- a rock, three miles distant, seemed above it. As the
* breeze sprung up from the S.W. the horizon receded beyond this rock, and
* the islands generally appeared to have flattened tops, shewing the mirage
* of the opposite kind. But the extreme points of the most distant island
* seemed still in the air, notwithstanding, the island generally presented
* the same flat level top as the others -- thus shewing, in its different
* parts, the opposite forms of mirage at the same time."
* "Whatever the number of images may be, they appear in every instance to
* be alternately erect, and inverted."
* "But on one occasion near the Labrador coast, the point of junction of
* the two species of mirage was so well marked that it appeared like a step
* in the horizon."
* "The most remarkable mirages over water have occurred in straits; those
* seen by Mr. Vince at Dover, and the celebrated Fata Morgagna at Measina.
* In the St. Lawrence they are most frequently observed, and present the
* greatest varieties in similar situations: as at Bic, Point des Monts,
* and the strait of Belle-isle." [typos strictly sic .]
* He also cites a case in which the dip, measured with the dip sector,
* increased from 3' 15" to 4' 11" as the water temperature changed from 43.5
* to 46.5 F (both as seen from 12 ft. 6 inches elevation).
* Footer says "ENLARGED SERIES. -- No. 6".

M. Saffioti
Lettera intorno al fenomeno Fata Morgana
(Tipografia Salita Infrascata N.344, Napoli, 1837).

* This is the second edition (1837), placed here to be next to Capozzo's
* disastrous derivative. The author's name is spelled "Saffioti" on the
* title page, and at the end. That spelling (according to Google Books's
* "Ngram viewer") was the more common in written material before 1874.
* Both Boccara (1902) and Costanzo (1903) spell his name "Saffiottï
* (with two t's); since then, the two-t spelling has dominated. The two
* spellings are about equally common on the Web today . . . .
*      He hoped to see images vaguely colored with the colors of the rainbow.
* (pp. 9, 10) These colors are mentioned again on pp. 14 and 20 (referring
* to Minasi),
*      He quotes Facellus (p. 14), and Angelucci's letter (p. 15).
* Then there are reports of the 26 April 1828 display, beginning with a
* "current of transparent vapor." (p. 17)
*      Kircher, Allegranza (!) and Minasi appear on p. 19; he thinks none of
* them were observers, and that only Angelucci saw the Fata Morgana.
*      The second part, beginning on p. 21, describes the geography around
* the strait. The tidal currents are treated on pp. 25 - 28. Then comes
* his theory, full of crystals and "vesicular vapors" (!) (p. 33)
* At least he understands that the sea and the air must both be perfectly
* calm to produce the F.M.
*      Available on the Web at

G. Capozzo
Memorie su la Sicilia : tratte dalle più celebri accademie e da distinti libri di società letterarie e di valent'uomini nazionale e stranieri (Vol. 1)
(Bernardo Virzì, Palermo, 1840), pp. 71–92.

* GUGLIELMO CAPOZZO's review of the Fata Morgana (via Saffiotti)
*      The Introduction, and particularly the "Literary Appendix" on pp. 36
* to 38, shows that this is another work devoted to Sicilian patriotism;
* so the uncritical acceptance of Giardina as an authentic F.M. observer
* is hardly surprising.
*      Quotes Giardina (1758) and Angelucci/Kircher in extenso on pp. 74-76,
* evidently believing that Giardina actually observed the 1643 display.
*      After quoting Angelucci's account in full, the author says:
* "Our Padre Domenico Giardina of the society of Jesus describes more
* fully the same phenomenon seen in Messina on the 14th of August of that
* same year 1643." But, of course, Giardina didn't see that display;
* so the "added" details are all fabricated. (Cf. the growing embroidery
* of the New Haven "ghost ship", or the spurious details added to Minasi's
* account by Nicholson and Brewster.)
*      There are many errors.  He consistently calls Saffiotti "Salfiotti",
* consistently calls Angelucci "Angellucci", and mentions Allegranza
* (footnote, p. 72). And, as he plainly knows little about physics or
* optics, his attempts to explain the reflections with "vesicular vapors"
* and the like (p. 88) are useless nonsense.
*      A final note, at the end (p. 92), says this article is an extract of
* the letter from Saffiotti cited on p. 72, note 1, with some additions.
* Those additions include the notion that Giardina saw the 1643 F.M.
* from Messina!
*      Unfortunately, this wrong account has been propagated by careless
* readers: Consolo (in his 1993 Italian original, and then again in
* translation in 2006), and the ignorant Marina Warner (also in 2006).
* Then Capozzo's Italian was republished again in 2011 by Séstito.
* This is just as useless as Boccara (1902) says.
*      The title page of the volume adds “con aggiunte e note per
* Guglielmo Capozzo” to the title given below; and Capozzo signed the
* dedication, the preface "to the readers", and the Introduction.
* The footers on pp. 17, 33, 49, 65, 82, etc. say "Capozzo Vol. I."
* So he is clearly the editor and effectively the publisher.
*       Available at Google Books, and at the HathiTrust site.

V. Consolo
Vedute dello Stretto di Messina
(Sellerio, Palermo, 1993).

* VINCENZO CONSOLO's essay on the Strait of Messina, with Fata Morgana errors
* repeats Capozzo's phony story (hence its placement here).
* A beautiful "coffee-table" book (quarto: 9x13 inches = 24x33 cm), with
* 34 color plates and 65 b/w in the text. The body type is large (about
* 12/15); the references and notes are about 11/13; and the photo credits
* on p. 183 are about 8/10.
*      The contents exactly fit the title: it's mostly a picture book of
* views of the Strait of Messina, from the Middle Ages to the middle of
* the 19th Century.
*      The subtitle "Con un saggio di Gioacchino Barbera" refers to Barbera's
* essay "Per un'iconografia dello Stretto di Messina" on pp. 41-64,
* followed by 3 pages of notes -- considerably longer than Consolo's text
* on pp. 15-37, followed by only 3 column-inches of notes on p. 38.
*      The last 5 pages of Consolo's text are enclosed in quotes here, and
* set off by a break, as they are taken from his 1988 publication "Fra
* Contemplazione e Paradiso" with N. Rubino, as indicated by his final
* note on p. 38 here. The transitional paragraph on p. 33 that leads in
* to this story was reduced to a single sentence when this was translated
* by Mark Chu for Bouchard and Lollini's 2006 book.
*      Barbera's essay is followed by 6 pages of biographical notes, and
* 18 pages of short notes on some of the works of art that are reproduced,
* prepared by Giovanni Molonia. Five of these are works by Willem Fortuyn,
* including his engraving for Minasi's Fata Morgana review.
*      Then comes a 5-page bibliography, which mentions an unpublished letter
* by Gallo on the Fata Morgana of 18 Aug. 1768.
*      The emphasis of the book is on art history; but it's garbage history,
* with no regard for factual accuracy in Consolo's text.
*      Considering Consolo's repetition of Capozzo's false account of the
* 1643 Fata Morgana display, the main value of this for our purposes is
* the re-publication of Minasi's dissertation in full.
*      Pages 159-168 contain a verbatim transcript of Minasi's dissertation,
* complete with its notes. Here there are some discrepancies with the
* original, starting with the extract from Pliny's Historia Naturalis:
* the original cites this as book VII, but Consolo's copy says book IV.
* The formal closing of the dedication has also been edited slightly: a
* comma was inserted after "Roma", and the tildes over the m's in the
* signature were omitted.
*      Similar edits were made in the Proemio, including the addition of
* typos like "gravissimus" for "gravissimis" and "dibiis" for "dvbiis"
* in the quoted inscription. [As "i" and "u" are adjacent keys on modern
* keyboards, it's obvious how these were produced.] These same copying
* errors appear in the version of Minasi's text reproduced in Séstito's
* book; so that was probably copied from Consolo, rather than from the
* original.
* Likewise, there are changes in the reproduction of Minasi's footnotes,
* which have been converted to end-notes here, with re-numbering within
* each Chapter (instead of each page, as in the original.) The change
* in format from Minasi's small single columns to much wider double
* columns with narrow margins has compressed Minasi's 102 pages to just
* 20 pages.
*      However, the re-numbering was not extended to the cross-references
* within the Notes. So "Cap. III, § 8, nota 1" that is cited in notes
* 7 and 30 to Cap. V is now note 11; and the "Cap. III, § 8, nota 2"
* cited in note 28 is now note 12. But everything is here, including
* the notes in Cap. IV that discuss the plagiarism of Angelucci's account
* by Giardina.
*      Evidently, Consolo was another of those careless writers who cite
* references (and, here, even re-publish them) without reading them.

V. Consolo
in Reading and writing the Mediterranean: essays by Vincenzo Consolo , Norma Bouchard and Massimo Lollini, eds.
(University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 2006).

* VINCENZO CONSOLO (in translation) serving up Capozzo (1840)
* (and so placed here out of chronological order):
*      The translator has rendered Angelucci's account in graceful English,
* on pp. 196-197. Then we have:
*      "And the Calabrian Jesuit sees that Fata Morgana precisely on
* the feast of the Assumption -- the great feast of the patron saint
* in Messina on the day of 15 August -- creating the suspicion that
* his might be a devout fantasy. This is all the more so for the fact
* [sic!] that another Jesuit, Father Domenico Giardina, has the same,
* identical vision, like the reflection on the second side of a double
* mirror, with only the temporal displacement of barely a day, on 14
* August of that same year of 1643, from the opposite side, from Messina.
* [Here, footnote 21 cites Capozzo as the reference.] The story of the
* Calabrian is identical to that of the Messinese (which we would like to
* reproduce here if we were not afraid of boring the reader); the details
* are identical, except for the number of the pillars: ten thousand for
* Angelucci, one hundred thousand for Giardina."
*      "Identical"!  So why didn't Consolo suspect that Giardina's account
* was copied from Angelucci's? And why didn't his editors suspect this,
* and investigate? Instead, he wanders off into airy lyricism, and
* reality and truth are abandoned. Shameful.
*      The translator of this essay was Mark Chu, another person very
* interested in Sicilian matters; which may have dampened his critical
* sense.
*      This essay (pp. 188-) is called "Views of the Strait of Messina".
* On p. 294, we find it comes from "Vedute dello Stretto di Messina"
* in "Di qua del faro" (1999), pp. 67-91; though I also see it listed as
* a separate publication by Sellerio, Palermo, dated 1993.
*      The book says copyright 2006; the publisher's website says 2007.

C. Lyell
Travels in North America in the years 1841-42; with Geological Observations on the United States, Canada, and Nova Scotia (Vol. II)
(Wiley and Putnam, New York, 1845), p. 85.

* Sir Charles LYELL's textbook example of LOOMING:
* "June 14, 1842. - From Queenstown we embarked in a fine steamer for
* Toronto, and had scarcely left the mouth of the river, and entered Lake
* Ontario, when we were surprised at seeing Toronto in the horizon, and
* the low wooded plain on which the town is built. By the effect of
* refraction, or `mirage,' so common on this lake, the houses and trees
* were drawn up and lengthened vertically, so that I should have guessed
* them to be from 200 to 400 feet high, while the gently rising ground
* behind the town had the appearance of distant mountains."
* (No photocopy; this is on P-10 microform.)

T. Milner
The Gallery of Nature: A Pictorial and Descriptive Tour through Creation, Illustrative of the Wonders of Astronomy, Physical Geography, and Geology
(William S.Orr & Co., London, 1846).

* THOMAS MILNER's update of Polehampton's 1815 work
* This version went through many editions; the 1855 one is on Google Books.
* It bears the label "A NEW EDITION, CAREFULLY REVISED" on the title page.
* A copy of the 1848 edition from the U.C. libraries is at the HathiTrust
* website. It seems identical to the 1855 one; and the quality is better.
* The 1846 edition is also at the HathiTrust site.
*      In all 3 editions, mirages are in Section 5, "Spectral Illusions",
* of Chapter XVI on "Optical Phenomena": pp. 535-540. It then goes on
* to deal with the Brocken spectre and similar images on mists, which are
* attributed to "reflection". The text returns to mirages on p. 542: "In
* northern latitudes the effects of atmospheric reflection and refraction
* are very familiar to the natives. By the term of uphillanger the
* Icelanders denote the elevation of distant objects . . . ." The mirage
* discussion then continues with Scoresby's observations, Wollaston,
* Jurine & Soret, etc. until p. 543. [Cf. Milner's 1850 book.]
*      Note: "upphillingar" seems to be the correct spelling.
*      Minasi's stuff about the tides is omitted.

W. Kelly
“On the dip of the horizon, and mirages of the Gulf and River St. Lawrence,”
Nautical Mag. (London) 15, 393–398 (1846).

* Dr. William Kelly seems to have been as sharp an observer as Willard Fisher
* "On The Dip Of The Horizon, and Mirages of the Gulf and River St.
* Lawrence. By William Kelly, M.D., Surgeon, R.N., attached to the Naval
* Surveying Party on the St, Lawrence.
* "Every one conversant with nautical astronomy is aware that some
* uncertainty always attends observations made with the natural horizon,
* from the varying amount of the dip occasioned by terrestrial refraction.
* The cause of these variations is very obscure. The best authorities seem
* to regard differences of temperature in the air and water as the sole
* cause of the irregular density of the lower strata of the atmosphere on
* which the varieties of the dip depend. It is known that, in general, when
* the water is warmer than the air, the dip is greater than that given in
* the tables; and that when the water is colder than the air, the dip is
* less. But cases occur where the deviations from the tables are found to
* bear little relation, at least in amount, to the relative temperatures of
* the air and water. Some other property of the atmosphere must therefore be
* sought after, by the influence of which the effects of temperature are
* modified."
* He recognizes the two main types: "In one (the mirage of Arctic regions)
* the horizon is elevated, the forms of objects distorted, and frequently
* two, three, or even as many as five images of the same object are seen,
* alternately erect and inverted -- the lowest always being erect. This
* kind of mirage is only met when the water is colder than the air. In the
* other kind of mirage, (the mirage of the desert), the horizon is
* depressed, distant points of land seem raised into the air, the form of
* objects is seldom materially changed, there are never more than two images
* of an object, and when a second is seen, the lower is always inverted, the
* upper erect. When this kind of mirage is seen, the water is usually
* warmer than the air."
* "The mirage with depressed horizon was constantly seen if we had an
* opportunity of observing distant points of land when the water was warmer
* than the air."
* Kelly grants that the temperature difference between water and air is
* the main factor, but thinks humidity plays a part as well.
* "The occurrence of either form of mirage, and its intensity, seemed to
* be affected by other circumstances besides the relative temperatures of
* the air and surface water, and the hygrometric states of the air. Thus
* they appeared more frequently, and their phenomena were more intense in
* calms or light winds than in a fresh breeze." -- with a footnote:
* "Still I have seen both forms in fresh breezes, and the mirage with
* depressed horizon during a strong gale."
* He gives a few extreme examples of dip, and notes a DIURNAL VARIATION in
* dip. The variations of dip parallel those of the mirages:
*      "The force of the winds had the same effect on the dip as on the
* mirages. Either the elevation or the depression was comparatively greatest
* in a calm, and least in a breeze. This was often very observable when a
* set of observations was commenced in a calm, and a breeze happened to
* spring up before it was finished."
* On the whole, a careful, cautious argument; should be taken seriously.
*      NOTE: This and other selections from Nautical Mag. were plagiarized
* in Vol. 2 of The American Merchant (1859) by "Capt. John H. Bell".
* No.8, August, 1846. Title page says "The Nautical Magazine and Naval
* Chronicle". Available at Google Books.

G. A. Bedford
“Observations on the phenomena of terrestrial refraction,”
Nautical Mag. (London) 16, 67–70 (1847).

* Commander Bedford thinks it has to do with water vapor, not temperature.
* See detailed discussion below, following the reprint in J. Franklin Inst.
* I have only a very bad copy of this from a scratched microfiche.
* Full title is "The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle".

G. A. Bedford
“Observations on the phenomena of terrestrial refraction,”
J. Franklin Inst. , series 3, 13, 279–282 (1847).

* Commander Bedford thinks it has to do with water vapor, not temperature.
* But he recognizes that the difference in temperature of sea and air is
* the decisive factor. He has observed carefully:
* "The occurrence of mirage during strong, or even fresh, winds, can be, I
* imagine, but seldom, particularly of that kind with elevated horizon. . . ."
* Despite the title, this is about mirages. This seems to be a verbatim
* reprint of his Nautical Magazine article, in response to Kelly.

K. B. Martin
“Mirage at Ramsgate,”
Nautical Mag. (London) 16, 457–459 (1847).

* A curious report, including claims of LATERAL MIRAGE
* ". . . the said light became perfectly distinct , and proved to be, (as
* in a former instance communicated to you, Calais Light , and in a
* position 2 3/4 points from its real bearing. . . . right over the middle
* of the North Sand."
* A Classical allusion: "The pilot of Ulysses was deceived, as Ithaca
* melted into mist . . . ."
* Cited by Lt. Raper.
* Capt. Martin is listed as "Harbour-Master, Royal Harbour, Ramsgate."
* Full title is "The Nautical Magazine and Naval Chronicle".
* Sept. issue.

R. Leighton
“Notes on a passage through the Grecian archipelago,”
Nautical Mag. (London) 18, 414–420 (1849).

* HEIGHT DEPENDENCE mentioned for BLACK SEA mirages
* In the section headed "Black Sea" (p. 418), Capt. Leighton says:
* ". . . I have found that dark overcast rainy weather occurs frequently,
* . . . and this weather sometimes clears off suddenly to beautiful clear
* weather, but leaves a miraged horizon. This, when it occurs at night is
* very deceptive, as it cannot then be seen, and may mislead you by false
* altitudes of stars. I have seen it several feet high all round the
* horizon during the day, appearing like broken water, or the tops of trees
* upon a low plain just rising above the horizon, that did not disappear
* until the eye was fifty feet above the sea. I have also observed the
* land to be affected by this mirage, particularly near Cape Fontane."

A. T. d'Abbadie
“Sur un météore peu observé jusqu'ici,”
Mem. Acad. Toulouse 5, 296–303 (1849).

* EARLIEST BLANK STRIP ?? Note references to "DRY FOG" throughout
* Many good descriptions and a DRAWING of black bars across the Sun!
* The "météore" is evidently a DUCT, which he says is known as "qobar"
* in the language of the Ethiopians. "Toutes les langues éthiopiennes
* ont un mot spécial pour le désigner et pour éviter les périphrases."
* (According to the E.B. (9th ed.), d'Abbadie compiled a catalog of
* existing Ethiopian manuscripts; see the article on Ethiopia.)
* "Vu de loin, aux limites de l'horizon, le qobar semble disposé par
* couches, le plus souvent horizontales, à tranches nettes, sans bavures,
* et tellement denses que le soleil s'y éclipse comme derrière l'écran
* le plus opaque. Ainsi, dans Ynarya nous vîmes, le 24 janvier 1844, le
* soleil disparaître complètement derrière un banc de qobar qui devint
* ainsi visible négativement. A mesure qu'il descendait, son disque
* paraissait, au-dessous de la limite inférieure du qobar, aussi net et
* exempt de déchirures que si l'on avait enlevé d'un trait de diamant la
* moitié supérieure d'un disque de verre rouge. Cette couche de vapeurs
* sèches avait une légère réfraction de lumière rouge sur sa surface
* supérieure pendent que l'astre était caché derrière, et nous pûmes
* voir ainsi que cette surface était tant soit peu plus déchiquetée que
* la surface inférieure."
* "Le caractère le plus frappant de notre météore, outre l'énorme
* sécheresse qui l'accompagne toujours, c'est sa faculté d'éteindre
* la lumière." N.B.: Drawing shows a VERTICAL COLUMN -- cf. Livesey, 1985.
* ". . . et toutes ces couches interceptaient totalement et sans
* déchiqueture la lumière du soleil."
* Many nice accounts of phenomena over a small lake (Tana).
* The comments following on pp.303-304 by the Commission of referees say
* that d'Abbadie was from a family of the Midi, and educated in Toulouse;
* he apparently inherited wealth, which he used to support scientific
* expeditions. This connection explains his presenting the paper here, and
* his final paragraph thanking the city fathers for their support of the
* Toulouse Observatory.

T. Milner
A Descriptive Atlas of Astronomy and of Physical and Political Geography
(William S.Orr & Co., London, 1850).

* THOMAS MILNER's "Atlas" -- mostly taken from his "Gallery of Nature"
* The "Icelanders" part has changed to: "The most usual effect is an
* increase in the vertical dimensions of the objects affected, so that
* low coasts appear elevated, what seamen call looming , and sites below
* the horizon are brought into view. The Icelanders, who are familiar
* with this effect of atmospherical refraction, call it upphillingar . . . .
*      "It is an old tradition, that Hvidsærk, a mountain in Greenland,
* and Sneefields, in Iceland, have both been visible at the same time
* from the middle of the intervening strait, which at the nearest point
* is about 300 miles wide. Though treated as a fable, it may be strictly
* true, owing to the effects of refraction. The last named mountain,
* Sneefields, though it is not seen under ordinary circumstances for
* more than 80 miles, has yet been often visible from the sea beyond
* the Westmanna Isles, a distance of more than 140 miles; and Scoresby
* relates having seen a part of the Greenland coast of inferior height,
* Home's Foreland 3500 feet high, when 160 miles distant." (p. 95).
*      Note: "upphillingar" seems to be the correct spelling.

J. B. Cherriman
“On the atmospheric phenomena of light,”
Canadian Journal 1, 6–8, 26–28 (1852).

* A very SUCCINCT SUMMARY of all of atmospheric optics
* J. Bradford Cherriman's review article deserves to be better known!
* He covers everything: refraction, mirages, scattering, absorption,
* rainbows halos, glories and coronae. He explains superior and inferior
* mirages, and says: "To this class of phenomena belong the well-known
* Fata Morgana , the appearances seen on the sandy plains of Egypt, and
* called by the French Mirage , and the Looming occasionally seen in
* parts of Great Britain."
* N.B.: The Roy. Soc. Cat. has this under "Bradford".
*      See Cherriman's entry in the  Dictionary of Canadian Biography  at

Mr. M`Farland
“On the Fata Morgana of Ireland,”
Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, Transactions of the Sections for 1852 22, 29–30 (1853).

* IRISH Fata Morganas, some with COLOR
* The first sentence is: "These singular illusions are termed in the
* Irish language Duna Feadhreagh , or Fairy Castles."
* After citing several rather fantastic reports, the author describes
* his own observation: ". . . in June, 1833, he himself and a party of
* friends, when standing on a rock at Portbalintrea, perceived a small
* roundish island as if in the act of emerging from the deep, at a distance
* of a mile from the shore; at first it appeared but as a green field,
* afterward it became fringed with red, yellow and blue; whilst the forms
* of trees, men and cattle rose from it slowly and successively; and these
* continued for about a quarter of an hour, distinct in their outlines,
* shape and colour; the figures, too, seemed to walk across it, or wandered
* among the trees, the ocean bathed it around, the sun shone upon it from
* above; and all was fresh, fair, and beautiful, till the sward assumed a
* shadowy form, and its various objects, mingling into one confused whole,
* passed away as strangely as they came."
*      Further instances are mentioned, but do not seem to be first-person
* accounts. A few references are offered for these later examples.
*      There seems to be no standard abbreviation for these Reports; see
* The full title of the volume is: Report of the twenty-second meeting of
* the British Association for the Advancement of Science; held at Belfast
* in September 1852.
*      Note: these "Transactions of the Sections" are paginated separately
* from the rest of the Reports, though both are bound together. They
* are headed "Notices and Abstracts of Miscellaneous Communications to
* the Sections", and follow the first 355 pages of the volume. According
* to the Indexes that appear at the end of this section, the first part
* of the volume is "Reports on the State of Science", while the second
* is "Miscellaneous Communications to the Sections."
*      Following p. 144 of this section comes yet a third, separately
* paginated, section of the volume (again starting on p.1) that lists
* "those Members of the British Association . . . to whom Copies of this
* Volume [for 1852] are supplied gratuitously . . . ." -- with separate
* lists of "Honorary Members", "Life Members", and "Annual Subscribers".
* This is followed by several un-numbered pages listing the past volumes.
*      Note that the M of M`Farland is followed by a left single quote mark.
* He does not appear in any of the lists of members.

A. Ganot
Traité élémentaire de physique expérimentale et appliquée et de météorologie
(Chez l'Auteur, Paris, 1853).

* Adolphe Ganot's famous textbook
* This went through 18 editions under Ganot himself; Hachette continued to
* produce revised editions until 1931. It was distinguished by the
* introduction of numerous woodcuts, from the 2nd (1853) edition on.
*      The PALM-TREE diagram appears on p. 366: "Le mirage  est une illusion
* d'optique. . . .
*      "Ce phénomène a été observé dès la plus haute antiquité; mais c'est
* Monge, le premier, qui en a donné l'explication, lorsqu'il faisait
* partie de l'expédition d’Ègypte."
*      The 17th ed. is at Gallica; the figure is slightly more elaborate, and
* appears on p. 473 there.

A. Bravais
“Notice sur le mirage,”
Annuaire Météorologique de la France pour 1852 4, 227–280 (1853).

* BRAVAIS reviews mirages
* (This 53-page article is filed separately.)
* EARLY USE of "INFERIOR" and "SUPERIOR" mirage terminology:
* "Description du mirage ordinaire ou mirage inférieur" (p. 234)
* "Mirage inverse ou mirage supérieur" (p. 264)
* This is an outstanding review of the early literature, containing many
* results not re-discovered until much later. EXCELLENT INSIGHT into
* the problem, despite being confined to simple analytical cases.
* Very complete REFERENCES to the earlier literature, even mentioning
* Quintus Curtius (p.227). But he relies on secondary sources (like
* Gilbert), consistently calls Minasi "Minazi", and confuses Biot's
* publication date (1809) with the year of his observations at Dunkirk.
* He is very impressed with Wollaston's 1800 paper. (pp.231-232)
* Much discussion of the fact that the inferior mirage is usually smaller
* than the direct image (pp. 233, 241, etc.), and tentatively attributes
* it to the CURVE of the Earth: "J'ai remarqué que, lorsque l'oeil est
* près de la surface des eaux, à 1 mètre ou 2 mètres au plus de
* hauteur, les objets étant rapprochés, les deux images ne diffèrent
* pas beaucoup de l'égalité; mais que, si l'oeil est beaucoup plus
* élevé, par exemple à 10 ou 12 mètres d'elévation au-dessus du
* niveau de la couche liquide, le rétrécissement de l'image inférieure
* devient extrêmement sensible: d'après cela, il me paraît probable
* que la courbure de la terre joue un rôle assez actif dans ce
* phénomène." (p.241) [cf. Riccò et al., 1888.]
*      This idea was proposed earlier by Woltman (1800).
* CARE in observing: "Pour bien discerner le mirage, il faut
* non-seulement une vue longue et étendue, mais savoir observer des
* détails, et avoir l'habitude de l'horizon. Aux voyageurs, aux marins,
* aux météorologistes, cet exercice est devenu familier; le reste des
* hommes s'en doute à peine; vous leur montrerez le mirage et ils ne le
* verront pas, ou ils ne verront qu'un peu de brouillard et de fumée
* à l'extrême horizon." (p.235)
* "L'horizon sensible de l'eau paraîtra presque toujours offrir un
* léger tremblotemont: si le mirage est fort, il sera bordé par une
* crête dentelée dont les sinuosités paraîtront sans cesse monter et
* descendre, s'effacer et reparaître." (p.235)
* How to tell REFLECTION on water from inferior mirage, p.237.
* "En général, dans le cas du mirage, le raccordement d'une ligne
* oblique avec sa symétrique située au-dessous se fait, non par un angle
* à sommet net, mais par un arc de courbe ayant son principal élément
* vertical." (p.238) [cf. Wollaston, 1803; & Gilbert's 1806 transl., Fig.6 !]
* OPTIMAL HEIGHT of EYE: "Il est très-probable qu'il existe une certaine
* hauteur de l'oeil pour laquelle l'angle entre l'horizon apparent et la
* ligne de partage des objets situés à une distance donnée est un
* maximum. Ce maximum, dont la hauteur doit varier avec les circonstances
* météorologiques du mirage, paraît avoir lieu pour une élévation
* de l'oeil de 1m.5 à 2m . . . ." (p. 242)
* He seems to be the first to see that the whole TEMPERATURE PROFILE must
* be measured, and that the thermometer must be ventilated. (pp. 242-243)
* Effect of UNEVEN GROUND: ". . . le mirage des plaines ne pourra jamais
* offrir une régularité aussi parfaite que le mirage des mers ou des
* lacs." (p. 244)
* Notices "que le niveau de la caustique ne peut jamais s'élever . . .
* au-dessus de l'horizon apparent." (p. 250) -- a hint of The Theorem.
* LOOMING is explained on p. 256: the ray curvature can exceed the Earth's.
* He also finds hints of the CONCAVE SURFACE and the appearance of
* "high cliffs" in Woltmann and Biot (p.257) -- i.e., the Fata Morgana.
* An early EXPLANATION of NEGATIVE DIP (cf. Kimmfläche, and Biot):
* the space below the level where ray has constant height "est pour
* l'observateur comme s'il n'existait pas, c'est-à-dire comme si le sol
* ou la mer s'élevaient . . . ." (p. 262)
* He notes de Tessan's observations of "terres qui paraissaient bordées
* d'immenses falaises" (p. 263) in the estuary at Rio de Janeiro. And
* in discussing Woltmann's observations, he says: "souvent une strie
* d'air séparait l'image renversée des objets placés au-dessous; mais le
* plus souvent, l'image et l'objet se rencontraient et se pénétraient de
* telle sorte qu'il en résultait l'apparence d'une haute falaise avec des
* stries verticales." (p. 268) [translated from p. 430 of W., (1800).]
* His numerical difficulties (bottom of p. 272): ". . . j'ai été arrêté
* par la difficulté de cette analyse, et surtout par la complication
* des calculs numériques."
* He also emphasizes the parallels between inferior and superior mirages,
* and deals with the paradox of the missing 3rd image in inferior mirages:
* "le sol interceptera les trajectoires qui la forment et fera disparaître
* l'image directe secondaire qui devrait cette fois se montrer en dessous
* de l'image renversée." (p. 274)
* "Cette non-observation de la troisième image, dans le cas du mirage
* ordinaire, ne forme donc point une objection sérieuse contre la
* théorie que nous venons d'exposer." (p. 275) Yet Wollaston has seen
* it in the lab (p. 276).
* ADVICE to observers: ". . . il est très-utile d'être muni d'une longue
* vue, ou à son défaut, d'une lorgnette de spectacle groissant au moins
* deux à trois fois, et que certains détails échapperaient à l'oeil
* nu qui pourront être facilement saisis par une lunette . . . ." (p. 280)
* The first 3 volumes of this Annuaire were bound together, with a common
* table of contents. This 4th volume is separate, with its own Introduction
* that mentions Bravais's "Note" on p. VIII. The formation of the new
* Société Météorologique is reported on p. XIII. Bravais is one of the 5
* signers of the Letter announcing this event.
*      As usual, the Google Books scan is half useless because the plates are
* only shown folded up, and so mostly invisible.
*      Gallica tries to show the plates; but the lines are too fine for the
* scanner they used, and so again are nearly useless.
*      Note the Erratum on the last page, correcting the error on p. 256.
* No date is assigned to the manuscript; but as it comes toward the end of
* the collections of papers in this volume, I assume it was submitted
* late in 1852.

A. Bravais
“Notice sur le mirage,”
Annuaire de la Société Météorologique de France pour 1853, Vol. 1, 55–59 (1857).

* Bravais's follow-up comments on his "Notice" (above)
* He begins by explaining his strategy in dealing with the mirage problem.
* Notice that he seems to prefer his "direct/inverse" terminology to the
* "inferior/superior" alternative that won out.
*      After briefly summarizing his first mirage "Note", he gets into the
* horizontal-ray problem on p.56:
*      "Jusqu‘ici on a fait jouer au phénomène de la réflexion
* totale des objets un grand rôle dans la théorie du mirage. Le
* redressement des trajectoires lumineuses qui, après avoir été
* plongeantes vers le sol, deviennent horizontales pendant une courte
* portion de leur trajet, et vont ensuite en s‘éloignant du sol,
* paraissait à plusieurs physiciens ne pouvoir s’expliquer que par
* un phénomène de réflexion totale. Je montrerai que les conditions
* nécessaires pour produire cette réflexion ne peuvent exister, et que
* le mirage est un simple phénomène de réfraction. M. Biot a fait
* voir que le fait du redressement s‘expliquait très—bien, dans le
* système de l‘émission. On verra qu‘on l‘explique avec la même
* facilité dans le système des ondes lumineuses, en adoptant les idées
* de Fresnel sur la vitesse de la lumière dans les différents milieux.
* 0n arrive alors à cette conséquence remarquable. que lorsqu‘un rayon
* de lumière traverse un système de couches planes et parallèles, et,
* par exemple, horizontales, dont la densité varie suivant la normale
* commune aux couches, la courbure de la trajectoire est partout égale au
* quotient de la variation du logarithme de l‘indice de réfraction, par
* la variation correspondante dans la hauteur de la couche considérée. De
* là se déduisent facilement les équations qui peuvent ensuite servir
* à expliquer les circonstances du problème."
*      This is in the section called "Bulletin des Séances" -- the
* reports of the meetings. The date is 8 Mars 1853; Bravais presided.
* The report of this meeting begins on p. 34 and ends on p. 64.
*      The volume is in two sections, separately paginated.  The part with
* the meeting reports ends on p. 241; the Table of Contents is pp.239-241.

J. Abbott
“On the mirage of India,”
J. Asiatic Soc. of Bengal 23, No. 2, 163–169 (1854).

* Mostly superior mirages, with DRAWINGS; Fata Morgana mentioned
*      "Few have traversed the plains of central India without being struck
* by the appearance of distant cliffs --- sometimes also of towns and
* forests, seen shortly after the rising of the sun, but which they have
* vainly looked for later in the day. I first observed this phenomenon in
* October 1829, when marching with my company from Kurnaul to Mhow in Malwa.
* Several times on reaching camp, I found it pitched in a plain, walled
* apparently to westward by lofty (See Pl. VI.) cliffs which had an inviting
* aspect. Several times I promised myself that in the afternoon I would
* pay those cliffs a visit. But, whenever I would accomplish this design,
* I found that the cliffs had entirely disappeared, and I questioned whether
* I had not been suffering some illusion of the eye or mind: for I was not
* then aware that Mirage is known in India. A residence in Malwa, where
* it is common, made me familiar with some of its phases. . . ." (pp.163-4)
*      Major Abbott understands the appearances well, but not the physics
* behind them. He continues:
*      "The Mirage most commonly observed in India is the effect produced upon
* distant objects, by means of a mirror, suspended with its surface
* downwards at the distance of from 60 to 230 feet from the earth. . . .
* This mirror is a stratum of dense but transparent and scarcely visible
* vapor, evolved from the dewey earth by the action of the sun's rays,
* generally about an hour or two hours after sunrise. The refractive power
* of this vapor being greater than that of the atmosphere, acts precisely
* as would a mirror of glass . . . ."
*      So his "cliffs" are the striated zone of the Fata Morgana; and his
* timing is that of Angelucci's observation from Reggio. He fails to
* understand the atmospheric physics, either optically or dynamically.
*      "This reflecting canopy exhibits the images of distant objects alone,
* because its substance is not sufficiently dense to repel those rays
* of light which fall upon it at any sensible angle of incidence. It is
* only when the angle of incidence is extremely small, that the ray will
* rebound from the surface of the vapor. It follows that supposing the
* strength of the illumination sufficient, the image will be distinct in
* proportion to the distance of the object." (So, unlike Monge, he does not
* think this is total reflection.)
*      He does give us some further information: "The ordinary Mirage of India
* occurs at distances of from three to eight miles. But . . . the effect may
* be produced at distances so remote, as that the substance is completely
* hidden in the convexity of the earth, and only the reflected image is
* seen suspended in the air. Of such an effect the Fata Morgana are an
* instance. And the pictures of coming vessels, as seen from the Isle of
* France, are another."
*      "In India, the most general appearance is that of a long range of
* cliffs standing to westward of the spectator. . . . Trees are the objects
* most commonly pictured by the Mirage. . . . But sometimes the monotonous
* aspect of the cliff is diversified and enlivened by the presence of a
* white town or of moving objects. Every stump of a tree becomes a palm or
* a column. Every little bush becomes a tall mass of foliage." (p. 165)
*      "With respect to the Isle of France, the vapor hanging over the sea is
* probably more transparent and of higher elevation than that which
* overhangs the land. . . . the sails of a vessel brightly illuminated by the
* sun, might be seen at the distance of a hundred or more miles. . . . the
* reflecting canopy is not a perfect plane, but is a mirror slightly
* concave answering to the convexity of the earth. The image therefore
* would probably be magnified in the concave mirror . . . ." (p. 166)
*      "The effect of mirage is greatly enhanced by the use of a telescope
* which . . . greatly increases the beauty of the exhibition." (p. 167)
* He then briefly describes seeing "another variety" of mirage, "in which
* the reflecting surface lies below the object and the spectator's eye.
* . . . The effect was precisely that produced by water upon objects standing
* beyond it, excepting that the strong undules of the vapour [sic] did not
* much disturb the accuracy of the reflection." (p. 167; cf. Büsch, 1800)
* [So he saw inferior mirages more rarely than superior mirages! And on
* the next page, he says he had not been able to study the mirage of the
* desert, which "is commonest at night in India."]
*      "I have also observed upon the Nurbudda and other large rivers that,
* whereas the nearer current is too rapid and turbid to reflect the rocks
* upon its banks, the more distant current, equally rapid and equally
* turbid, presents a perfect reflection of the banks without any waving of
* outline. This may be attributable to the transparent vapour, ever hanging
* over streams, acting as a mirror to reflect surrounding objects." (But
* then he allows that it might be due to the combined reflections from wave
* crests -- cf. Budde (1885) and Venturi (1889).)
*      On p. 169, he says he has "referred to Brewster's treatise on mirage,"
* and thinks that Brewster's attribution of superior mirages to "a denser
* stratum of atmosphere" is "a mistake." "It is undoubtedly a stratum
* of vapour which forms the mirror". So he thinks his own crank theory
* explains why "the phenomenon is only or chiefly visible from the 1st to
* the 2nd or 3rd hour after sunrise and when the nights are rather chilly
* and the skies clear."
*      So his observations are accurate and useful, but his theory is nonsense.
* Major James Abbott

“Note sur le mirage des côtes du département de l'Hérault,”
Mem. Acad. Sci. Lett. Montpellier 3, 1–11 (1855).

* Long verbal descriptions of inferior mirages; no drawings
* Remarks on effects of height of eye, etc.
* From 37 m height, "l'image inférieure était moindre de moitié."

“Sur le mirage,”
Annuaire de la Société Météorologique de France 3, 247–252 (1855).

* Possible FATA MORGANA with SUPERIOR MIRAGES with a fine fold-out plate.
* A very detailed account of observations from 37 m with 40x telescope.
* DIP VARIATIONS of 4' reported.
* "Abnormal" refraction is in fact normal:
* "Ces divers effets, je les ai observés si fréquemment, qu'on pourrait
* dire que c'est l'état normal de la contrée."
* A reasonable interpretation of "FOG":
* "Ce nuage est venu du côté de la haute mer. Sa largeur est faible, sa
* teinte et sa consistance sont celles d'un nimbus. It est probablement
* l'image du sol vu de profil." (p.248)
* "Il s'annonce par une vapeur générale qui couvre le ciel à l'horizon,
* sur une hauteur d'environ 3'." (p.251)
* ". . . montant . . . et . . . redescendant renversées : one dirait qu'il les
* aspire à son passage."
* ". . . it n'eût ondulé, au point qu'il semblait danser , selon
* l'heureuse expression de M. Humboldt."
* At one point the inverted image disappeared, leaving 2 erect ones.
* (cited by Mascart)

(E.) Bigourdan
“Du mirage à Paris,”
C. R. Acad. Sci. 41, 541–542 (1855).

* "Le soubassement sud-ouest de la Bourse de Paris, que pour abréger
* j'appellerai le mur méridional, est formé d’un mur vertical en pierre
* de taille, parfaitement construit, et sans aucune partie saillante dans
* une étendue d’environ 78 mètres. Lorsque, entre midi et 3 ou 4 heures,
* ce mur est frappé parles rayons solaires, il présente le phénomène
* du mirage avec une assez grande intensité. . . .
*      "Le mirage se manifeste aussi très-bien sur les murs des
* fortifications de Paris, surtout du côté du sud. . . . si l’on observe
* les images réfléchies avec une lunette, on peut voir jusqu'à des arbres
* entiers avec leurs branches et leurs feuilles. Si le prolongement de
* la muraille rencontre une route fréquentée, on distingue très-bien
* à la lunette les images réfléchies des passants, des chevaux et
* des voitures, lorsqu'ils se présentent près du prolongement du mur.
* A un degré plus ou moins intense, ces phénomènes ont lieu tous les
* jours, ou du moins toutes les fois que le soleil éclaire les murs des
* fortifications, depuis deux ou trois heures.
*      "Au reste, comme il résulte des faits consignés dans ce Mémoire,
* le mirage se manifeste à Paris, dans beaucoup d’endroits, d’une
* manière permanente, l’hiver et l'été, la nuit et le jour. Lorsque le
* soleil brille avec un certain éclat, on peut l'observer très-facilement
* sur toutes les surfaces planes d’une certaine étendue exposées au
* soleil, sur les parapets des quais, sur les trottoirs, sur les marches
* des églises, etc.; mais c'est à la Bourse, je le répète, que le
* mirage se développe plus énergiquement et plus régulièrement que
* partout ailleurs."
*       This is NOT the well-known astronomer with the same last name.
* The initial "E" is listed in the volume's author index.

H. Emsmann
“Luftspiegelung an der Sonne; beobachtet von Prof. H. Emsmann,”
Pogg. Ann. Phys. Chem. , series 2, 98, 642–643 (1856).

* "Auf einmal bemerkten wir, dass unsere Schatten, die wir vor uns liegen
* hatten, da wir ostwärts gingen, doppelt waren und zwar in der Weise,
* dass über unseren Köpfen im Schatten noch ein zweiter Kopf deutlich
* und scharf hervortrat. Ich sah mich um nach der Sonne, und
* es zeigten sich im Westen . . . zwei klare Sonnen vertikal
* übereinander. Der vertikale Abstand beider Sonnen von einander betrug
* etwas über einen Sonnendurchmesser."

Prof. C. W. Baur
“Ueber Erdrundung und Luftspiegelung auf dem Bodensee,”
Jahreshefte des Vereins für vaterländische Naturkunde in Württemberg 13, 79–86 (1857).

* A good account of mirages seen on the Bodensee ( = Lake Constance)
* with many DRAWINGS and a good description of the DISTANCE EFFECT:
* "Ein in der Richtung nach Constanz fahrender Dampfer bot die bequemste
* Gelegenheit dar, die Erscheinung nach allen Modifikationen, welche die
* zunehmende Entfernung mit sich brachte, zu verfolgen."
* (The description is a whole page long -- too long to quote here.)
* He also notices the slight vertical compression of the inferior image,
* and mentions (but does not cite) a mural mirage "nach den Comptes rendus
* der Pariser Akademie . . . neuerdings an der südlichen sonnenerwärmten
* Aussenwand des Börsengebäudes in Paris . . . ."
* [This seems to refer to Bigourdan's report of 1855.]
* There is a good concluding EXPLANATION of the FANTASTIC SCENES often
* reported: "Wie ist es aber möglich, dass die Luftspiegelung Gegenstände
* darbietet, welche in der Wirklichkeit gar nicht vorhanden sind, Gebäude
* mit Kuppeln, Balkonen, Säulen, Palmenhaine, wo der enttäuschte Reisende
* nichts findet als Felsblöcke, Sandhügel und Gestrüpp? Bringen wir in
* Abzug, was auf Rechnung der Phantasie und der Vergrösserung durch die
* Fama beim Übergang der Beschreibung von Mund zu Mund, von Buch zu Buch
* kommen mag, so bleibt vielleicht folgende natürliche Auflösung des
* Zaubers. Ich sah hie und da eine rundliche Masse wie einen Baum,
* Steinhaufen oder dgl. mit ihren verkehrten Spiegelbild zu einem
* Doppelgebild zusammenfliessen, das an beiden Seiten den Anschein von
* senkrechten Wänden darbot. Hie und da zeigte sich am Seenufer ein
* steiler, senkrecht wie von Erdrissen durchstreifter Absturz, wo ich keinen
* solchen vermuthen konnte, und auch bei der nachfolgenden Betrachtung
* Nachmittags oder von einem höheren Standpunkte aus nur den schmalen Saum
* einer Kiesbank oder eines sonstigen unbewachsenen Bodens vorfand. Wie aus
* einem Felsblock dieser Art ein Gebäude, aus einem kurzen senkrechten
* Fleck eine Säule, aus Gestrüpp ein Wald werden kann, wenn der Wunsch und
* die Phantasie das ihrige dazuthun, mag einleuchten." (cf. Beauford, 1802)
*      This paper makes no sense until you know that the German "geogr. Meile"
* was 1/15 of a degree, or 4 nautical miles.
* This is the only place outside of America where I have seen ' used for
* feet and " used for inches!

“Deuxième note sur le mirage aux environs de Montpellier,”
Mém. Acad. Montpellier (Section des Sciences) 3, 493–504 (1855-57).

* A more direct account of the inferior and superior mirages than the
* following one. Good descriptions of FOG ("nuage").

“Deuxième note sur le mirage aux environs de Montpellier,”
Annuaire de la Société Météorologique de France 7, 125–132 (1859).

* A rather tedious account of inferior mirages seen at Montpellier
* FOG : "La mer la première se couvrait de la vapeur du mirage, vapeur
* blanchâtre qui le signalait toujours."
* TURBULENCE: ". . . un fort miroitement se prononçait dans le région du
* mirage, malgré le calme qui régnait dans toute la contrée; les images
* y flottaient, comme agitées par un vent violent . . . ."
* DEMAGNIFICATION: "Cette précision des images rendait encore un autre
* service: elle permettait de voir que l'image réfléchie était d'un tiers
* au moins plus petit que l'objet." (seen from 37 m height)
* (cited by Mascart)

P. A. Daguin
Traité élémentaire de physique théorique et expérimentale : avec les applications à la météorologie et aux arts industriels, Tome troisième
(Édouard Privat, Toulouse, 1860), pp. 368–378.

* Pierre-Adolphe Daguin's textbook
* A pretty thorough treatment, containing an early version of the
* "PALM-TREE" diagram -- complete with an 18th-Century French soldier
* as the observer (p. 372).      [Cf. A. Ganot (1853).]
*      This is the section on atmos. refr.
* The first volume appeared in 1855. A second edition came out in 1861;
* the third, in 1867; and the 4th, in 1878.
* Title page also lists Dezobry & E. Magdeleine, Paris, as publishers.

E. E. Kummer
“Über atmosphärische Strahlenbrechung,”
Monatsber. Kgl. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 5, 405–420 (1860).

* KUMMER's paper on super-critical refraction in dense atmospheres:
* Multiple complete images of the whole sky and the whole surface of the
* planet, even for an outside observer.
*      Novel treatment of the problem from a mathematical point of view;
* Kummer has fun with PDE's. Note that he correctly describes the
* multiple horizons and the apparent horizon at the top of the duct,
* when the observer is inside the duct-producing inversion, as well as
* the distorted images:
* ". . . das erste Bild [der Sonne] welches . . . zu einer sehr schmalen
* Ellipse abgeplattet erscheinen müßte . . . ."
*      Available at last at
*      The volume for 1860 was published in 1861.  Meeting date: 12. Juli
* [cf. Bouguer (1749), T. Young (1807) and Graaff-Hunter (1913)]
*      See also the 1863 reprint and its English translation (below).

“Mémoire sur la réfraction atmosphérique; par M. Kummer,”
Ann. Chim. Phys. , series 3, 61, 496–507 (1861).

* VERDET translates (?) Kummer's paper
* The section is headed "Mémoires sur la physique publiés a l'étranger.
* Extraits par M. Verdet." Verdet's presentation is somewhat more compact
* than Kummer's; it is not just a straight translation. In particular,
* note that Verdet defines the angle i as the local zenith distance of
* the ray, whereas Kummer uses the same symbol for its altitude (see the
* bottom of p. 498). Consequently, Verdet has sin i where Kummer has
* cos i . Similarly, Verdet's "I" is the complement of Kummer's.
*      There is a typo on p. 500, where Verdet says "I" when he means Kummer's
* small quantity ε. (He was thinking of the special value of i at the
* top of the duct, which he denotes by I a page or so later on.)
* (available from Gallica)

E. E. Kummer
“Über atmosphärische Strahlenbrechung,”
Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik 61, 263–275 (1863).

* An exact reprint of Kummer's original paper:
* (this is the version reprinted in Kummer's collected papers, edited by
* André Weil (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1975) pp.337ff.)
*      Mila Zinkova has discovered an English translation at
* However, this translation is rather awkward, as the translator is not a
* physicist, and adopted peculiar terms instead of conventional terminology:
* thus we see "refraction exponent" instead of "refractive index"; "Kugel"
* is translated as "ball" rather than "sphere" or "globe"; "Luftspiegelung"
* is literally rendered as "air reflection" instead of "mirage"; and the
* niceties of German syntax sometimes become sheer nonsense in English.

E. B. Hunt
“Key West physical notes. 9. A water moonrise,”
American Journal of Science and Arts , series 2, 35, 395–396 (1863).

* Hunt's observation of an OMEGA MOONRISE in Key West
* "When becalmed in a beautiful evening between the Reef and the Key, the
* water being very tranquil, I saw the moon rise over the sea with some
* interesting appearances. The long reflection of the emergent disc on the
* water was well defined, and seemed to be a part of the moon itself. As
* the under semicircle of the disc began to rise above the water, there was
* an appearance of drawing in at the sides of the combined luminous figure.
* As this seeming contraction progressed, the outline showed a curved
* figure, like that made by water in raising a cohering disc from its
* surface. There was no cusp point between the disc and the
* disc-reflection, but a seemingly distinct curve, concave outwards. As
* the disc rose above the water, this curve opened, and a broad connecting
* column seemed to bind the disc and its reflection, just like a coherent
* water column between the lifted disc and the level water surface.
* Instantly this seeming column parted as if broken, when the moon was seen
* to be distinctly above the water by about a fourth of its diameter, as
* nearly as I could estimate. The sudden shock of rupture appeared
* perfectly distinct, and the semblance of a material connection between the
* disc and reflection was perfect, both before and at the instant of visible
* separation. This observation has interest in its relation to the contact
* phenomena of eclipses." So he mis-interpreted what he saw, in spite of
* very accurately recording the details.
* This is a short numbered section at the end of the longer paper called
* "Key West Physical Notes". Am.J.Sci. was also known as "Silliman's
* Journal".

J. Penn
“Chapter VI. South Coast, Banks, Currents, and Winds of the Rio de la Plata,” in The South American Pilot. Part I.
(J.D.Potter, London, 1864), p. 228.

* A paragraph on the mirages in the Rio de la Plata
*      This is a derivative work "compiled by Staff Commander James Penn, R.N."
* and "Published by order of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty"
* But the Advertisement that follows the title page is signed by "G.H.R,"
* at the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, London. It says "The Rio de la
* Plata is from the surveys of Admirals FitzRoy and Suliva, Commander
* Sidney, the French charts of 1833, and the Spanish of 1837, with also
* many additions and corrections by M. Mouchez."
*      The actual paragraph, headed "Mirage or Refraction", says:
* "In the Rio de la Plata there is a great deal of refraction, and
* more so in the tributary rivers. It often happens that objects above
* the visible horizon disappear; others under the horizon rise and are
* clearly seen at great distances. At Buenos Ayres the cerros de San
* Juan, under the horizon, on the Oriental coast, a distance of 36 miles,
* are sometimes seen. When this is the case the atmosphere is extremely
* clear, and it is a most certain sign of bad weather."
* [Here a footnote adds: "Colonia lighthouse, and vessels at anchor there,
* were plainly seen by the naked eye, at a distance of 30 miles. ---
* R. Cook, master, H.M.S. Stromboli , July 1862."]
*      "This extraordinary refraction not only takes place near the horizon
* but also many degrees above it. E. Mouchez, capitaine de frégate,
* gives an instance of a fog rising during the time he was taking
* observations, which hid the sun but slightly, leaving the limbs clearly
* visible. In calculating the hour angles and comparing the different
* series, it was found that the refraction had regularly increased with
* the fog, and that at the last observation, when the altitude was 31°,
* it was higher by 1'25" than that given by the tables."
*      Obviously this is an error in the dip, not the refraction.
* Available at Google Books.

C. T. Ramage
“Fata Morgana in the Japygian peninsula,”
Notes and Queries , series 3, 12, 126 (Aug. 17, 1867).

* C. T. Ramage's report of FATA MORGANA in Apulia
* "In travelling over the Japygian peninsula, . . . I heard the natives
* speak of what they called “Mutate,” and on questioning them as to
* what they meant, I found that this was only another name for what is
* known as the “Fata Morgana.” At Nardo and Galateo, and more
* particularly at Manduria, they assured me that at dawn, when the
* atmosphere is perfectly calm, or when a “scirocco” is just beginning
* to blow, the appearances at times are very remarkable, exhibiting,
* if we can believe them, beautiful representations of castles, plains
* with cattle and flocks, men on horseback, and, what must be striking,
* the edges of the figures are often fringed with the prismatic colours."
*      The mention of DISPERSION in mirages is unusual; cf. Minasi.  But
* as the enumeration of details is close to Minasi's, I wonder if this
* may all be taken from his account. Ramage cites Antonio de Ferrariis
* Galatei De Situ Japygiae (1727). He then adds:
*      "I have observed in another part of Italy some approach to the
* “mirage” which is here described. At early dawn, on my way through
* the Caudine Forks towards Benevento, thick mists rested on the lower
* valleys; as the sun rose and the mist began to be dissipated, the villages
* seemed to be raised by the refracted light into the heavens." This
* may be an observation of the concave appearance of the surface.
*      Cited by Talman (1912).

J. Parnell
“On a mirage in the English Channel,”
Phil. Mag. , series 4, 37, No. 250, 400–401 (1869).

* John Parnell's MULTIPLE-IMAGE MIRAGES at Folkestone, 13 April (1869)
* FOG: "During the morning, and up to 2 o'clock P.M., a dense fog had hung
* over the sea; but apparently it was not very deep, as the sun's rays
* penetrated it pretty freely. At the hour above mentioned the fog opened
* towards the S.E., disclosing the cliffs on the French coast; and in the
* course of a few minutes the fog had disappeared, leaving the atmosphere in
* a state of unusual transparency. The French cliffs were apparently so
* lofty and with every indentation so clearly visible, that one might easily
* have imagined that they were but ten miles distant."
*      CONCAVE SURFACE: "The French coast could be seen from near Calais
* towards the E. to far away and many miles beyond Boulogne towards the
* S.W., the land in the latter direction being ordinarily invisible, as it
* is situated below the horizon. Immediately under the erect image of the
* coast was an inverted one, of about double the height of the former.
* The lighthouse at Cape Gris Nez gave five images in a vertical line: --
* the lowest erect but somewhat magnified; above that and separated from
* it a pair of images of the centre and highest portion of the building
* only, one erect and the other inverted; and over these another pair, the
* inverted image being like the former one, but the erect image showing the
* whole building."
* These are often supposed to be the first observations of more than 3
* images, though Kelly saw 5. However, Parnell reports seeing both 7 and
* 9 : ". . . some fishing-luggers were observed hull down, so that the
* position of the horizon could be ascertained . . . but over these were pairs
* of images of vessels which ordinarily would have been invisible. In some
* instances three and even four pairs could be observed placed in a vertical
* line, the lower image in each pair being inverted. With the exception of
* the uppermost pair, the images seemed to represent the maintopgallant
* sail only, and that considerably elongated; but the highest erect image
* showed the mizzen- and the fore masts and the jib, but in no instance
* could the hulls be seen. In all cases the inverted images were of about
* twice the height of the erect. Soon after 3 o'clock vessels between the
* observer and the horizon began to be affected. The Varne light-ship,
* which is about 8 1/2 miles from the English coast, had her mast-flagstaff
* and stanchions elongated to some three times their proper length: this
* effect lasted for about ten minutes, when they shrank to less than half
* their usual size, and the hull began to rise till it was nearly as high as
* it was long, and formed a most conspicuous object even to the naked eye.
* I then looked towards Dover: the pier seemed completely disorganized;
* it appeared to be divided in half longitudinally, with the sea in the
* midst, and the stone coping moved as if huge waves were agitating it. A
* steam-boat entering Dover harbour was shrunk to less than half her proper
* vertical dimensions, but elongated horizontally. Captain Paull, of the
* S.E.R. steam-boat 'Napoleon III.,' crossed the Channel between the hours
* of 2 and 4; and he told me that he saw Beachy Head during the passage, a
* circumstance which had never previously occurred during the many years
* that he has been on the Folkestone and Boulogne route."
* ". . . wind S.W., very light at 2 o'clock and dropping to a calm . . . ."
* "The place of observation was about 30 feet above high-water mark."
* Observations made "through a small telescope with a 25-power".
* Cited by Garbasso (1907). Cf. the similar report of Latham (1798).
* Available at Google Books

“Extraits des séances de la Société Météorologique: Séance du 14 juin 1870; Communications,”
Nouvelles Météorologiques 3, 197 (1870).

* JANSSEN's first mirage report, followed by Silbermann's comment
* Janssen calls it "mirage inverse qu'il a eu occasion d'observer sur
* la mer Rouge, au moment du soleil levant. Ce phénomène est dû à
* l'influence des côtes élevées qui bordent la mer. Il résulte de
* cette situation qu'au moment où se produit le phénomène observé, la
* température maximum se trouve à une assez grande hauteur au-dessus des
* eaux ; c'est seulement à partir de ce niveau qu'elle décroît
* lorsqu'on s'élève. Ce mode de distribution des températures de l'air
* est très-différent de celui qui a lieu dans une plaine unie ; il
* explique nettement et dans tous ses détails la production du mirage
* inverse au lieu du mirage direct."
* Evidently, this is a superior mirage; unfortunately, no detail is given.
* (For more of his Red-Sea sunset observations, see his 1874 paper.)
* Août 1870, No. 8

“Extraits des séances de la Société Météorologique: Séance du 14 juin 1870; Communications,”
Nouvelles Météorologiques 3, 197 (1870).

* Silbermann's comment on Janssen's mirage report
* (This is the dog-like-a-fish report.)
* "M. Silbermann . . . signale certains phénomènes curieux que l'on peut
* observer à Paris même, dans tous les points où les couches d'air
* voisines du sol peuvent être échauffées exceptionnellement sur de
* grandes étendues. Ce cas se présente assez souvent en été sur la
* place de la Concorde pour un observateur qui place ses yeux tout près
* du sol."
* Then follows a direct quote from Silbermann:
*      «Si un chien passe sur le trottoir à une centaine de mètres, ses
* pattes plongeant au-dessous de la couche d'air qui produit le mirage,
* les parties supérieurs de l'animal sont réfléchies en dessous de
* cette couche. Elles offrent alors l'aspect d'une espèce de poisson
* fantastique qui semble nager à la surface du sol.»
* Août 1870, No. 8

C. Flammarion
in The Atmosphere , James Glaisher, ed.
(Harper Brothers, New York, 1873), pp. 149–150.

* FLAMMARION quotes DIODORUS SICULUS (but gives no detailed reference)
* "An extraordinary phenomenon occurs in Africa at certain periods,
* especially in calm weather; the air becomes filled with images of all
* sorts of animals, some motionless, others floating in the air; now they
* seem running away, now pursuing; they are all of enormous proportions, and
* this spectacle fills with terror and awe those who are not accustomed to
* it. . . . Strangers not used to this extraordinary phenomenon are seized
* with fear; but the inhabitants, who are in the habit of seeing it, take no
* particular notice of it." (p.149)
* "Certain physical philosophers attempt to explain the true causes of
* this phenomenon, which seems extraordinary and fabulous. They say that
* there is no wind, or scarcely any, in this country. The masses of
* condensed air produce in Libya what the clouds sometimes produce with us
* on rainy days, viz., images of all shapes rising on every side in the
* air."
* On the next page, he drops a tantalizing hint:
* "This same phenomenon (of which Quintus Curtius has also spoken) has
* long been remarked by the Arabs, and it is often discussed in the
* treatises of Oriental writers."
* Flammarion has found Büsch's work, but not Gruber's; so he thinks
* Monge was the first to explain it. [Thus, the source of that error.]

J. D. Everett
“On mirage,”
Nature 11, 49–52, 69–71 (1874).

* Joseph David Everett's review article in Nature
*      This appears to be an exact reprint of his Belfast lecture in the
* "Another class of appearances are known (especially among nautical men)
* under the name of looming . Distant objects are said to loom when they
* appear abnormally elevated above their true positions. This abnormal
* elevation not unfrequently brings into view objects which in ordinary
* circumstances are beyond the horizon. It is also frequently accompanied
* by an appearance of abnormal proximity (though this may perhaps be rather
* a subjective inference from the unusual elevation and clear visibility
* of the objects than a separate optical characteristic), and it is further
* accompanied in many, though not in all cases, by a vertical magnification,
* the heights of objects being many times magnified in comparison with
* their horizontal breadths, so as to produce an appearance resembling
* spires, pinnacles, columns, or basaltic cliffs."
*      "In rare instances, two or even three of these images are seen one
* above another, vertically over the real object; but these multiple images
* are usually too small to be seen without the aid of a telescope -- the
* objects whose images they are being so distant as to appear mere specks
* to the naked eye." (p. 49)
*      He then recommends Scoresby's accounts in his "Greenland" and
* "Arctic Regions"; and quotes from Latham's (1798) account of looming
* seen at Hastings.
*      "The circumstance which it is most important to know . . .  in order
* to predict the degree of curvature, is the rate at which the temperature
* changes with height." (p. 50)
*      "An increase of temperature upwards, at the rate of about
* one-sixteenth of a degree Fahr. per foot, would make the curvature of
* rays equal to that of the earth, so that a ray might encircle the globe.
* . . . The visible effect is precisely the same as if the convexity of the
* surface of the earth were diminished. And not only will objects which
* were previously beyond the horizon be brought into view, but objects
* which were previously visible near the horizon will become plainer,
* inasmuch as the rays by which they are seen will not pass so close to
* the intervening surface as before, but will traverse a higher portion
* of the air, which is less liable to be obscured by impurities." (p. 51)
*      He then considers a parabolic temperature profile, so that "A pencil
* of rays diverging . . . from a point . . . will thus converge accurately
* to another point. . . . Such a pair of points may be called principal
* conjugate foci." (p. 51)
*      ALTERNATION of erect/inverted images:
*      "As every point on the surface of an object will thus have its
* conjugates, we shall have a succession of images of the object. The first
* image will be upside down, the second erect, and so on alternately.
* They will be what are technically called `real' images . . . ." (p. 52)
* He ends this part by pointing out the astigmatism of the images.
*      On p. 69, he quotes (in translation) from Monge, and adds:
*      "The only objection which I think can be taken to this explanation
* of Monge, is that it seems to imply not a curvature, but an angle,
* in the course of the rays, just as in the case of what is called
* total internal reflection at the bounding surface of a piece of glass
* when the angle of incidence exceeds the critical angle.
*      "Now, the formation of an angle (even a very obtuse angle) in a ray
* would require a perfectly sharp transition from one degree of density to
* another, instead of the gradual transitions which are more in accordance
* with our knowledge of the properties of air."
*      "As to the propriety of applying the name reflection  to an action
* such as that . . . , it is perhaps just as proper as the application of
* the name refraction to the bending of rays which takes place in the
* atmosphere . . . ." (pp. 69-70)
*      On p. 71, he repeats Wollaston's experiment; but "a much finer
* effect is obtained in the arrangement . . . in which three liquids are
* employed, the middle one having the highest index of refraction, while
* its specific gravity is intermediate between those of the other two.
* The three liquids are -- (1) A strong solution of alum at the bottom;
* (2) pure water at the top; (3) Scotch whiskey mixed with enough sugar
* to make its specific gravity intermediate between those of the other
* two liquids. It is introduced last by means of a pipette."
*      "The arrangement of three liquids just described, which was suggested
* to me by Prof. Clerk-Maxwell, is extremely effective, but requires much
* delicacy in its preparation to ensure success."
*      "With the two-liquid arrangement I have obtained three spectra,
* the middle one inverted, by employing as object a horizontal slit in the
* shutter of a dark room; and very brilliant colour effects were obtained
* by bringing the eye to the conjugate focus of the slit."
* "a Paper read by Prof. J. D. Everett, M.A., D.C.L., before the
* Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society"
* In the Nov. 19 and 26 issues.
* Cited by Humphreys (1919, et seq.) and Wood (1899).

J. Janssen
“On mirage at sea,”
Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Reports of Sections , 26 (1875).

* The English version of Janssen's "mirage at sea" note
* As it is very short, I quote it completely here:
* "Many facts relating to the phenomena of mirages at sea are already
* known; but the author has paid great attention to these appearances in
* all his voyages since 1868, and has made some remarkable observations on
* mirage, especially at sunrise and sunset. He has established: -- 1.
* That the mirage is nearly constant at the surface of the sea. 2. That
* the appearances can be explained by assuming the existence of a plane of
* total reflection, situated at a certain height above the sea. 3. That
* the phenomena are due to the thermic and hygrometric action of the sea
* upon the neighbouring atmospheric strata. 4. That there exist at sea
* direct, inverse, lateral, and other mirages. 5. That these phenomena
* have a very general influence upon the apparent height of the
* sea-horizon, which is sometimes lowered, sometimes raised.
*      "This variation of the apparent horizon is very important to take
* into account, if we consider the use made of the horizon in nautical
* astronomy."
* Note the considerable differences between this and the French version.
* Here we have "a certain height" instead of a variable distance of the
* reflecting layer above the sea; here we have both thermal and
* hygrometric effects, there just thermal; here we have lateral mirage as
* well as direct and inverse. And here, the 1868 trip is made explicit.
* As this was given at the Bristol meeting in August, 1875, it seems to
* pre-date the French abstract -- which may explain the disappearance of
* "lateral mirage" in the latter (below).
* [Thanks to Madame Françoise Launay for information about the date.]

“Du mirage en mer,”
Séances de la Société Française de Physique , 118 (1875).

* Jules Janssen's French summary of mirages at sea
* "D'après mes observations, qui embrassent plusieurs années déjà,
* le mirage en mer est très-fréquent, même dans les mers
* septentrionales. Dans le golfe de Siam et dans le mer Rouge
* [-- remember he observed the 1868 eclipse in India --], j'ai observé
* des cas très-remarquables de mirage direct et inverse . Les
* apparences observées, soit sur le Soleil levant et couchant [-- so no
* wonder Fisher was interested in this work! --], soit sur les objets
* situés à l'horizon, conduisent à admettre un plan de réflexion
* totale situé à une distance variable de la mer. La cause de ces
* effets de mirage et de réfractions anomales réside dans l'action
* thermique de la mer sur les couches atmosphériques voisines. Une des
* conséquences les plus importantes de ces études, c'est qu'elles
* conduisent à reconnaître que le niveau apparent de l'horizon de la mer
* est affecté d'une manière très-notable par ces effets optiques et
* qu'il y aura en tenir compte quand on prendra (pour des mesures
* soignées) la hauteur d'un astre par le moyen de l'horizon de la mer.
* Je construis un instrument pour donner la correction."
* It is almost inconceivable that Janssen had not also seen numerous
* green flashes on these trips, though he says nothing of them here. And
* it is said that Janssen was consulted by Jules Verne for technical
* information while Verne was writing "From the Earth to the Moon." Could
* Janssen be the source from which Verne learned about green flashes?
* I have no volume number for this.

J. Janssen
“Mission du Japon pour l'observation du passage de Vénus,”
Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes pour l'an 1876, 572–588 (1876).

* very brief mention of Janssen's mirage-at-sea observations
* "En outre, . . . études sur le mirage en mer, études qui
* conduisent à l'explication des variations apparentes de la hauteur de
* l'horizon marin, et fourniront des bases plus sûres à l'Astronomie
* nautique." (p. 584)
* [followed by a detailed description of the Revolver photographique ,
* with detailed plates.]
* The Annuaire turns out to be a sort of French World Almanac ,
* rather than another Connaissance des Temps . There are tables
* of foreign exchange rates, conversions between decimeters and
* feet/inches/lines, densities and refractive indices of various
* materials, a list of the principal cities of the world, the areas
* and populations of the Arrondissements of France, etc., etc.
* Reprinted in Janssen's collected works, Tome I, pp.329-332; see p.332.

Prof. Prestel
“Meteorologische Bilder. VI. Die Luftspiegelung, die Kimmung und das Seegesicht,”
Leipziger Illustrirte Zeitung , Nr. 1826, 523–534 (29. Juni, 1878).

* Prof. PRESTEL's mirage review, with many ILLUSTRATIONS
* It includes his own observation of a superior mirage at Borkum.
* Fig. 9 shows superior mirages, and is captioned "Das Seegesicht".
* This is almost surely Michael August Friedrich Prestel (1809-1880),
* who was Prof. of Mathematics and Natural Science at the Gymnasium at
* Emden, and part-time instructor at the Trade- and Navigation School.
* He wrote numerous papers, primarily on meteorology and related
* matters, and many popular articles, according to Pogg.
* A note on the first page indicates that earlier installments were
* in Nr. 1760 and 1761, March, 1877.

P. G. Tait
“On mirage,”
Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 11, 354–361 (1882).

* abstract of the later Phil. Trans. paper, with comments by Everett
* O'C #136a

E. Sang
“A Critical Examination of two cases of unusual Atmospheric Refraction described by Professor Vince,”
Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 11, 581–594 (1882).

* vicious, nit-picking attack on Vince

P. G. Tait
“State of the atmosphere which produces the forms of mirage observed by Vince and by Scoresby,”
Nature 28, 84–88 (1883).

* USEFUL REVIEW of HISTORY, including BIOT's book, and WOLLASTON.
* TAIT explains that VINCE's drawings were only schematic;
* "Scoresby . . . has given numerous careful drawings of these most singular
* appearances. The explanatory text is also peculiarly full and clear,
* giving all that a careful observer could have been expected to record. It
* is otherwise with the descriptions and illustrations in Vince's paper . . . .
* In fact the latter are obviously not meant as drawings of what was seen;
* but as diagrams which exhibit merely the general features, . . . -- the
* details being filled in at the option of the engraver. That such was the
* view taken by Brewster, is obvious from the illustrations in his Optics
* . . . ."
* clearer account of his mirage theory than in the Trans.Roy.Soc.Edinburgh
* O'C #137

P. G. Tait
“On mirage,”
Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 30, 551–578 (1883).

* TAIT's full paper at last
* ". . . I do not think that Wollaston's square bottle with two
* inter-diffusing liquids presents a fair analogy." [p. 552]
* An implied DEFINITION: ". . . only one image: -- not, of course, in the
* true direction of the object: -- but erect, and therefore not properly
* coming under the designation of `mirage.'" [p. 559]
* He also notes that "although aqueous vapour diminishes the refractive
* index of air, the practical effect is so minute at its utmost that we
* neglect it." [p. 564]
* He observes directly a phenomenon closely related to GREEN FLASHes, but
* fails to make the connection: "The middle image . . . coincides with the
* upper image when the eye, gradually moved downwards, reaches the line DB.
* When they meet, both become blue and then disappear by moving the eye
* farther down." [p. 571]
* "It is much to be regretted that Vince's description, like his drawings,
* is of the very roughest character." [p. 576]
*      Tait foresees the multiply-LAYERED STRUCTURE that is so common with
* inversions: ". . . when a trough, in which brine has been diffusing for
* some time into water, is suddenly and roughly stirred for a short period,
* it settles in a few minutes into a large number of strata of different
* densities. Something similar must hold in the case of air irregularly
* heated . . . . In the absence of wind such strata, once formed, would last
* for a long time, in consequence of the very small thermal conductivity of
* air." Then he cites Tissandier's observation of a mirage from a balloon,
* mentioned in Glaisher's Travels in the Air , p.297. "This, of course,
* proves the existence, at a great elevation, of a stratum in which there
* was a comparatively rapid diminution of refractive index with increasing
* height." [pp. 576-577] Cf. Gossard et al. (1985).
*      Finally, he points out an essential difference between inferior and
* superior mirages [which an astronomer would call SEEING]. After quoting
* Scoresby's observation of his father's ship beyond the horizon, where the
* miraged image "was so extremely well defined, that when examined with a
* telescope by Dollond, I could distinguish every sail . . . ", Tait adds,
* "It seems hard to reconcile the clearness of definition in this case with
* any other than a stable state of equilibrium of a transition stratum. The
* mirage of the desert, where the equilibrium is essentially unstable, is
* always exceedingly unsteady."
*      At the very end, he admits that most of his results were already found
* by Biot, in his mirage monograph.
* O'Connell #136b

J. Janssen
“Note sur l'observation du passage de la planète Vénus sur le Soleil,”
C. R. Acad. Sci. 96, 288–292 (1883).

* Jules JANSSEN claims to photograph mirages in Algeria
* Possibly EARLIEST PHOTOGRAPH of mirages? (But not published.)
* Mostly about the transit of Venus; but in the last paragraph:
* "Enfin j'ai pu faire quelques études sur le mirage, dont les
* manifestations sont presque permanentes en ces régions. J'ai pu même
* faire photographier plusieurs de ces manifestations, et constater que
* les causes de ces phénomènes, dans les cas les plus nombreux, sont
* tout autres que celles admises généralement."

E. Sang
“On the impossibility of inverted images in the air,”
Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh 12, 129–136 (1884).

* EARLIEST demonstration of "Fraser's THEOREM" by Edward Sang; he thought
* Vince had seen "a sloop floating on a calm sea with its shadow in the
* water" and imagined the rest.
* FIRST derivation of flat-Earth model: "No sun, moon, or star could have
* been seen at a lower altitude than 1° 22'. All light reaching the
* eye from a lower elevation must have come from some terrestrial
* object. . . ." [But see Biot's 1809 monograph for the magic angle!]
* "Inverted images, then, can only be seen when the air is in an unusual
* condition; there must be unusually light air above. Now, in these, as in
* all investigations on the subject, the air is assumed to be disposed in
* horizontal layers, each of uniform density. . . . The absolute need for
* smoothness of arrangement may easily be illustrated: -- the sun's light is
* certainly reflected from the surface of the sea; yet we do not see an
* image of the sun in the water; we see only a confused brightness."

E. Budde
“Ueber eine Eigenthümlichkeit des Seehorizontes,”
Zs. der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Meteorologie 20, 354–361 (1885).

* Earliest crude OMEGA drawing after Joule's? (cf. Fig. 7)
* An unclassifiable paper, but put here because it deals with the inferior
* mirage at sea. Like Maltézos, Budde discovers the mirage on his own;
* but, unaccountably, he discounts it as mirage because ``wenn über dem
* Meer eine spiegelnde Luftschicht vorhanden wäre, die bis a b Fig. 2
* reichte, so würde der Beobachter unter 5m Höhe unter ihr stehen, könnte
* also, wie leicht zu sehen, nicht das Bild Fig. 2 etc. erhalten." (p.358)
* (I.e., he assumes here that the angular difference between the apparent
* horizon and the vanishing line corresponds to the linear height of the
* mirage reflection above the sea surface.) Nevertheless, he recognizes
* that the inverted image is a "reflection", so he attributes it to the
* sea surface -- much like Venturi's 1889 wave-crest model. This leads
* him to the (correct) conclusion that the apparent horizon is depressed
* and nearer than the geometric one; but he then fails to see that this
* invalidates his reason for rejecting the mirage as the cause.
* I could as well have filed it in the Colton or Ricco files, or under Dip,
* or even with the Floor papers . . . .
* (reprinted in Naturwiss. Rundschau 1, 13 (1886).)

“Curieux mirage,”
l'Astronomie 7, 432 (1888).

* An implausible "distant city" mirage
* ". . . un curieux mirage qui . . . a rendu visible toute la ville de
* Saint-Pétersbourg, qui est située à 180 kilometres de Merexull."

“Mirages?. . . ,”
l'Astronomie 7, 392–393 (1888).

* Possible Biblical mirages: "AEROMANCIE" and aerial INFANTRY
* In the Hungarian plains, a mirage in which
* ". . . on voyait distinctement de nombreuses divisions d'infanterie . . . ."
* "La tradition nous offre des exemples nombreux de ces visions que les
* anciens appelaient l'aéromancie; le spectacle en devient général
* quand le système nerveux des populations se trouve modifié à la suite
* d'événements de la nature de ceux qui y avaient préparé les Hongrois."
*      "On trouve au Livre VII, Chapitre XII, de la Guerre des juifs , par
* Josephe:
*      « Pendant tout le cours de cette guerre, des armées qui manoeuvraient
* et formaient des sièges apparurent dans l'air. »
*      "Au Livre II des Macchabées , Chapitre VII:
*      « Avant que Jérusalem fût pillée une seconde fois par Antiochus,
* tous les habitants de cette ville purent voir dans l'air, pendant
* quarante jours, des chevaliers richement vêtus et des cohortes armées
* de piques; on voyait leurs mouvements, celui de leurs boucliers et une
* grêle de traits lancés de part et d'autre. »"
* [These citations are nonsense. The first may be Book VI, Ch. V, sect. 3;
* there is no Ch. XII in Book VII. See Whiston's translation of
* Flavius Josephus. The second is certainly Ch. V, not Ch. VII. ]
*      After citing some more recent examples of aerial infantry seen during
* or just before wars, he says:
* "L'énumération de faits similaires pourrait fournir la matière de
* plusiers volumes. . . .
*      "Ajoutons qu'il y faut faire beaucoup la part de l'imagination.  Mais
* peut-être, à notre époque surtout, l'imagination n'est-elle pas seule
* en jeu. Le mirage (?) observé cet été in Hongrie est bien bizarre."
* Cf. the final remarks of William Beauford (1802).
* [ Presumably, this is Flammarion. ]

W. Larden
“Mirage in the South American Pampas,”
Nature 41, 69–71 (1889).

* "The land seen just above the lines (α) and (β) was paler than
* that seen just below these lines."

J. Macé de Lépinay and A. Perot
“Sur une reproduction artificielle du mirage et les franges d'interférences qui peuvent accompagner ce phénomène,”
C. R. 108, 1043–1046 (1889).

* Fringes shown experimentally in mirages -- cf. Raman's papers

C.-H. Martin
“Mirage de la Tour Eiffel,”
l'Astronomie 9, 41–42 (1890).

* The Eiffel tower reflection (cf. Tissandier's 1890 review)
* Letter from Charles-Henri Martin to Flammarion, referring to his book
* "l'Atmosphere". The engraving is evidently from the description, not
* from observation. Probably not a mirage. In the Feb.,1890, issue.

J. Janssen
“Note sur des travaux récents exécutées en Algérie,”
C. R. Acad. Sci. 110, 1047–1049 (1890).

* Janssen's mirage photography in Algeria (continued); cf. his 1883 note
* "Un autre objet intéressant a été l'obtention, par la Photographie,
* des images des phénomènes si varie's et si curieux du mirage dans les
* régions des grands chotts qui se trouvent entre le Souf et Biskra, le
* chott Melrir, Merouan, etc. La Photographie permettra de discuter, sur
* documents certains et mesurables, les conditions qui président à la
* production de ces singuliers phénomènes dont les apparences et les
* causes sont beaucoup plus multiples qu'on ne le croit."
* (Cf. his 1892 paper for more details.)
* This is reprinted in Janssen's collected works, Tome II, pp.187-188;
* but the initial page is given incorrectly there as 1067.
* It is the same expedition on which the "Janssen bands" were
* investigated.
*      Unfortunately, the photographs appear to have been lost; neither
* the Academy of Sciences nor the Institute has them today.

A. E. Brown
Nature 41, 225 (1890).

* "The mirage of the reflection of the sun in the sea was, when seen
* through a glass, especially beautiful. It resembled a glorious cataract
* of golden water." (cf. Pekka's photo!)

W. M. Davis
“Mirage on a wall,”
Amer. Met. J. 8, 525–526 (1892).

* W. M. Davis's Harvard mural mirage
* On a NNW-SSE brick wall about 3 pm, Feb.10
*      [This is evidently the same William Morris Davis whose paper on
* rainfall appears in the proceedings of the New England Meteorological
* Society on p. 493. He is given as "Prof. W. M. Davis" on p. 481.]
* ". . . the sunshine was strong enough by noon to melt the snow and ice on
* the streets."
* "On looking closely, I found that when my eye approached within about
* an inch of the plane of the wall, the further extension of the wall
* disappeared, and was replaced by a reflection of distant objects a little
* to the west of its line. . . .      The reflection repeated all the familiar
* forms seen over the surface of the sea, when cold winds blow from the
* land over its warmer waters. . . .      Effects of this kind must be common,
* for on the day in question, all the conditions were such as might easily
* occur again."
* Available at Google Books.
*      The volume spans 1891-1892.  This is No. 11, dated March, 1892.
* The journal was published in Ann Arbor, Mich.

J. Janssen
“Les observatoires du montagne. Un observatoire au Mont Blanc,”
Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes pour l'année 1892, D.1–D.33 (1892).

* Janssen's mirages in some detail! A good OMEGA described
* The first (p. D.9) is a good description of a sunrise of Fisher's type A
* seen in the Gulf of Siam in 1874, en route to Japan for the Venus
* transit. There is no mention of a green flash: "Le lever a débuté par
* un point brillant, lequel, circonstance remarquable, se montrait non pas
* sur la ligne d'horizon de la mer, mais à quelques minutes d'arc
* au-dessus." Then comes the Omega stage: "Puis l'image solaire
* présente, à la hauteur où tout à l'heure le Soleil commençait à
* poindre, un étranglement qui va en ce rétrécissant de plus en plus,
* et l'image ronde ordinaire se dégage enfin.
*      "Mais cette image est toujours accompagnée au-dessous d'elle d'une
* portion de disque qui s'en sépare et s'enfonce de plus en plus dans la
* mer pour disparaître enfin, laissant le disque supérieur dans les
* conditions ordinaires." (But he thinks it is due more to water vapor
* than to temperature.)
*      This is evidently the observation Fisher (1921) tried to find, but
* without success.
*      The mirage photographed in Algeria is also described (p. D.10):
* "En regardant cette photographie, on dirait qu'on a sous les yeux la
* vue d'une plage de la Manche avec ses dunes, ses eaux basses et son
* horizon de mer. Quand j'étais en face du chott, l'illusion était si
* complète que, malgré ma connaissance de la véritable nature du
* phénomène, des doutes traversaient encore mon esprit. Il était alors
* 5h du soir, le Soleil allait se coucher; toute cette plage avait une
* belle couleur bleue et un petit tremblement, qui faisait comme
* frissonner ces eaux, ajoutait encore à l'illusion.
*      "Tout à coup, quand le Soleil eut disparu derrière l'horizon, la
* scène changea brusquement, et, à cette scène d'une belle plage
* maritime succéda celle d'une solitude glacée. Le tableau riant d'une
* rive méditerranéenne avait été subitement remplacé par celui d'un
* paysage d'hiver en Sibérie.
*      "J'ai analysé les causes de ce curieux phénomène, mais cette
* discussion serait déplacée ici . . . ."
* His contribution is Appendix D of this volume, which also contains a
* report by rear-admiral Mouchez on the progress of the Carte du Ciel.
* The passage of interest here appears on pp. 265-266 of Tome II of
* Janssen's collected works. It says there that parts of the paper were
* also reprinted in pp. 92-111 of Janssen's Lectures Académiques (1903)
* but this seems not to include the interesting mirage observations.

A. Perot Macé de Lépinay
“Contribution a l'étude du mirage,”
Ann. Chim. Phys. , series 6, 27, 94–138 (1892).

* Applications of mirage theory to study interdiffusion of liquids,
* and corresponding laboratory simulations of mirages

A. L. Colton
“A mirage in Washington,”
Amer. Met. J. 9, 239 (1892).

* COLTON's street mirage in D.C.
* "On June 25, at about 4 P.M. . . . "
* "I infer that the mirage may not infrequently be seen over pavements
* or other surfaces of sufficient heat-absorbing capacity."
*      Useless; but noted because of Colton's 1895 sunset observations.
* Available at Google Books.
* No.5, Sept. 1892; now published in Boston, Mass. -- see Editorial, p. 98

A. Delebecque
“Note sur les Fata Morgana,”
Arch. Sci. Phys. Nat. , series 3, 27, 358–360 (1892).

* DELEBECQUE's first Fata Morgana note
* Cited and partly quoted by Forel (1895), p. 557
* The BNF says the date is 15 Mars 1892; I have not seen it yet.
* According to Rev. Sci., this was reprinted by Ciel et Terre in 16 Sept. 1892.
* Their copy, titled "La « fata morgana », is on p. 478 of the 1892 volume.

O. Wiener
“Darstellung gekrümmter Lichtstrahlen und Verwerthung derselben zur Untersuchung von Diffusion und Wärmeleitung,”
Wied. Ann. Physik u. Chemie 49, 105–149 (1893).

* GOOD REVIEW of earlier mirage simulations and theory [FILED SEPARATELY]
* "Die Darstellung dieser Sachlage ist in keiner Weise neu,
* doch wohl wenig bekannt."

J. Macé de Lépinay
“Quelques remarques relatives a la théorie du mirage de Biot,”
J. Physique , series 3, 2, 320–327 (1893).

* Comments on Biot's theory

Ch.-Ed. Guillaume
“Les rayons lumineux curvilignes,”
BSAF 8, 226–227 (1894).

* EARLY mention of modeling the SETTING SUN
* Metrologist Charles-Edouard Guillaume was the inventor of Invar, and
* received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1920 for his work.
* He says Kummer first predicted a ray encircling a planet.
* [No mention of Bouguer, though.]
* "L'étude de la marche curviligne des rayons, fort intéressant en
* elle-même, devient très importante lorsqu'on l'applique aux phénomènes
* naturels. La reproduction des formes du soleil couchant offre un exemple
* d'une imitation de cette sorte. Nous pouvons, à volonté, imiter le
* phénomène normal que l'on observe chaque soir en plaine ou au bord de la
* mer, ou bien ces apparences exagérées, qui témoignent d'un équilibre
* particulier des couches d'air, ou même produire des déformations plus
* grandes que celles observées."
* This is the last volume of the old BSAF before it merged with
* l'Astronomie.

F. Koerber
“Atmosphärische Lichterscheinungen,”
Himmel und Erde 7, 127–140 (1894).

* A general introductory discussion of atmospheric optics, including
* rainbows, halos, scintillation, blue sky, refraction, (including mirages).
* The figure from Müller's "Kosmische Physik" was recently reproduced in
* *color* by Vollmer & Tammer (Appl.Opt.37,1557 (1998)).
* Note that volumes and years of H&E don't match up.

W. Upham
The Glacial Lake Agassiz (USGS Monograph 25)
(Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1895), pp. 21–22.

* Warren Upham's mirages on the Minnesota/North Dakota border
*      "In crossing the vast plain of the Red River Valley on clear days the
* higher land at its sides and the groves along its rivers are first seen
* in the distance as if their upper edges were raised a little above the
* horizon, with a very narrow strip of sky below. The first appearance
* of the tree tops thus somewhat resembles that of dense flocks of birds
* flying very low several miles away. By rising a few feet, as from the
* ground to a wagon, or by nearer approach, the outlines become clearly
* defined as a grove, with a mere line of sky beneath it. This mirage is
* more or less observable on the valley plain nearly every sunshiny day of
* the spring, summer, and autumn months, especially during the forenoon,
* when the lowest stratum of the air, touching the surface of the ground,
* becomes heated sooner than the strata above it.
*      "A more complex and astonishing effect of mirage is often seen
* from the somewhat higher land that forms the slopes on either side of
* the plain. There, in looking across the flat valley a half hour to two
* hours after sunrise of a hot day following a cool night, the groves and
* houses, villages and grain elevators, loom up to twice or thrice their
* true height, and places ordinarily hidden from sight by the earth's
* curvature are brought into view. Occasionally, too, these objects,
* as trees and houses, are seen double, being repeated in an inverted
* position close above their real places, from which they are separated
* by a very narrow, fog-like belt. In its most perfect development the
* mirage shows the true upper and topsy-turvy portion of the view quite
* as distinctly as the lower and true portion; and the two are separated,
* when seen from land about a hundred feet above the plain, by an apparent
* vertical distance of 75 or 100 feet for objects at a distance of 6
* or 8 miles, and 300 to 500 feet if the view is 15 to 20 miles away.
* Immediately above the inverted images there runs a level false horizon,
* which rises slightly as the view grows less distinct, until, as it fades
* and vanishes, the inverted groves, lone trees, church spires, elevators,
* and houses at last resemble rags and tatters hung along a taut line."
* So, here we have first a nice account of the HEIGHT and DISTANCE
* dependences of the inferior mirage; then a FOG report connected with
* the superior mirage.
* Quoted (but not cited) in Frazer (1929).

A. Delebecque
“Sur les réfractions extraordinaires observées au bord des lacs et connus sous le nom de Fata Morgana,”
C. R. 123, 387–389 (1896).

* More FATA MORGANA studies, following FOREL
* His telescopic observations indicate that the F.M. is not a simple
* vertical elongation, but a stack of direct and reversed images: "J'en ai
* compté jusqu'à cinq. Comme ces images sont, en général, très
* rapprochées; que parfois même elles empiètent l'une sur l'autre, il est
* très difficile de les séparer à l'œil nu, et elles donnent l'illusion
* d'un objet agrandi." However, there is useful seasonal information:
* "Je ne les ai observées sur le Léman que par des temps calmes, et
* lorsque la température de l'air est notablement plus chaude que celle
* du lac; mars, avril et mai sont les mois où elles sont les plus belles."
*      Reprinted, with a faked "mirage photograph," in "La Nature" 25:1 (1897).
* Cited by C.Abbe in the next item.

(editorial -- presumably written by Cleveland Abbe)
“Atmospheric refractions at the surface of water,”
Mon. Weather Rev. 24, 371–373 (1896).

* Good review article with some references
* Leans heavily on the papers of Charles Dufour and F.-A.Forel;
* follows the latter's classification, and discusses the Fata Morgana.
* He thinks everything is explained in Mascart's Traité d'Optique .
* [Cleveland Abbe edited MWR from 1872 to 1909; later his son, C.A.Jr.
* took over.]

C. Maltézos
“Sur le phénomène de suspension et de subdivision des iles dans le golfe de Phalère,”
Ann. Obs. Nat. Athènes 1, 223–225 (1896).

* A novice discovers mirages
* This seems to be the first of Constantin Maltézos's "tunnels" papers

A. M.
“The mirage [letter 41505],”
English Mechanic 68, 116 (1898).

* A disappearing city; Lord Rayleigh invoked in favor of "total reflection"
* quoted from the "Echo" on 9 Sept.
* "I believe that Lord Rayleigh some time since suggested total reflection
* as affording at least a partial solution of some of these phenomena, in
* preference, or, in addition, to the refraction and simple reflection of
* the older theory."
* No. 1747, Sept.16,1898

R. W. Wood
“Mirage on city pavements,”
Nature 58, 596 (1898).

* ROBERT W. WOOD's excellent EARLY MIRAGE PHOTOGRAPH in San Francisco
* This seems to be the FIRST PUBLISHED MIRAGE PHOTOGRAPH, preceding Alfred
* Wegener's 1907 photograph, published in 1911, by about a decade.
* "The refracting layer is probably only a thin skin of warm air, which
* adheres as it were to the surface of the flagstones, for the mirage is
* unaffected by the strong winds which frequently sweep the top of the
* hill." [cf. McNair, 1920.]
* Oct.20, 1898 issue

A. W. S.
[Query 94348] Photographing a mirage
English Mechanic 68, 244 (1898).

* E.M. 68 series started by Query 94348
* No. 1752, Oct.21, 1898

[Reply to Query 94348] Photographing a mirage
English Mechanic 68, 375 (1898).

* ". . . I possess a photograph of a church spire in Tenby, halfway up which
* appears an inverted image of what was afterwards identified as the gunboat
* Gadfly , then being launched at Pembroke Dock, 12 miles distant. Though
* it was taken so long ago as May 5, 1879, it is possible that copies can
* still be procured if the photographer, Robert Symons, St. Julian-street,
* Tenby -- is still in business. The editor of the Photographic News , and
* chief of the photographic department at Woolwich, said: -- `Mr. Symons
* must be congratulated: he is the first to photograph that most romantic
* phenomenon, the mirage.'"
*      According to Eric Hutton, "Glatton" was the pen-name of Mr. Clement
* Stretton [ref. No. 3105 p327]
* No. 1758, Dec. 2, 1898

“Useful and Scientific Notes: mirage,”
English Mechanic 68, 584 (1899).

* (Report of a talk by Major MacMahon to the Camera Club)
* "One very curious thing about mirage is that it depends very much upon
* the position of the eye: a few inches in the height of the eye may make
* all the difference. On one occasion on the plains of India he observed a
* mirage which was only evident when he was at a particular height; there
* was only a vertical space of two or three inches in which the effect could
* be seen, so that these phenomena may easily escape notice. A singular
* effect may sometimes be observed at a particular spot on the south coast,
* and very likely at other places, when the waves come in on to a very hot
* beach; if you place the eye about a foot from the ground and look parallel
* to the wave fronts you can see an image of the wave two or three feet
* above the real wave."
* No. 1767, Feb. 3, 1899

E. K. [Ernst Krause]
“Luftspiegelung auf den Strassen,”
Prometheus 10, 431–432 (1899).

* Report of R. W. Wood's mirage photography on San Francisco streets
* (not cited, but obviously refers to the 1898 paper in Nature).
* Also, a reference to mural mirages with both direct and reversed images,
* which certainly predates Hillers's report!
* Nr. 495, 5.April

R. W. Wood
“Some experiments on artificial mirages and tornadoes,”
Phil. Mag. , series 5, 47, 349–353 (1899).

* R.W.WOOD's mirage demo essentially repeats Gruber's experiment
* Note that he admits Wiener's writeup (1893) is better
* Cites Everett's 1874 paper.
* [I forgot to copy Plate III but it is only moderately interesting.]

“Mirage over Lake Michigan,”
Mon. Weather Rev. 28, 544 (1900).

* Eastern shore seen from Chicago, Dec. 20, 1900: "The view was elevated
* above the horizon and was enveloped in a pale blue light. It formed
* the lower lining of a maze of darkness that hung over the lake shortly
* after noon and was visible for more than an hour.
* "There was a dark streak between it and the horizon."

C. E. Borchgrevink
First on the Antarctic Continent
(McGill-Queen's Univ.Press, Montreal, 1980), pp. 126–128.

* BORCHGREVINK's Antarctic mirages and Novaya Zemlya observation
*      "On May 15th we had the last greeting from the departing sun.
* The refraction of it appeared as a large red elliptical glowing
* body to the north-west, changing gradually into a cornered square. . . .
* The promising effect of that evening . . . lasted until the returning sun
* again made the peaks and crevasses shine on the 27th July.
*      "Both during the time the sun was low in its descent and when
* it rose again, a strong mirage effect was observed towards the west,
* showing images of icebergs far below our horizon, and Antarctic scenery
* only visible to us through this phenomenon. This strong mirage remained
* after the sun's return late in the summer, and the opening of the ice was
* prophesied to us in the mirage long before the ice-fields near Victoria
* Land broke.
*      "It was very interesting to see the picture of far-away broken
* ice-fields, with their dark channels and towering icebergs, in the
* north-western sky; and on several occasions towards the time when the
* vessel was expected back, members of my staff returned to the camp in
* enthusiasm, thinking to have discovered the masts of the Southern Cross
* in the mirage, so strongly did their hopes confirm the impression made
* by the wonderful creations in the air."
* (Nice to see the WISHFUL THINKING factor made explicit.)
* Mentioned but not cited by Frazer (1929).
* This is the reprint edition; the original was published by George
* Newnes, Ltd., London, 1901.

C. Maltézos
“Phénomènes de mirage dans le golfe du Phalère,”
Bull. Soc. Astron. Fr. (l'Astronomie) 15, 282–284 (1901).

* SUSPENSION of islands; "TUNNELS"
* "FOG": "Parfois, l'île paraît suspendue tout entière, une bande
* laiteuse, brillant, s'interposant entre elle et la surface de l'eau."
* The "tunnels" are the reflected images of dips in the miraged terrain.
* Some data are given on the HEIGHT effect (changes in 40 cm, 2 m).
* He seems a novice at the mirage game, but the observations are good
* and the SKETCHES are accurate.
* Here he quotes Aristotle and Theophrastus.
* cited in Maltézos's 1912 paper

V. E. Boccara
“La Fata Morgana,”
Mem. Soc. Spett. Ital. 31, 199–218 (1902).

* A useful review of the FATA MORGANA in the Strait of Messina!
* Boccara claims to have read everything published on the subject!
* There is a half-page footnote quoting Minasi's etymology of the term
* "Fata Morgana"; it seems far-fetched.
* Unfortunately, so does his explanation of the phenomenon; the paper is
* most valuable for his own observations, and the references.
* He confines his attention to the Strait of Messina (whose local
* geography, he thinks, is responsible); so Forel, etc. are ignored.
*      He dismisses Kircher's explanation, saying: "And with him are put
* together Giardina, [and a host of others], all of whom, not having seen
* the phenomenon, as they say explicitly or make clear by their arguments,
* can only be repetitive, both in the invented descriptions and in the
* puerile explanations." (p. 201)
*      But there are some serious errors: he believes the F.M. is not  a
* mirage, because "the images are erect". He accepts the idea of multiple
* images displaced sideways (i.e., "lateral mirages").
*       A copy of Willem Fortuyn's engraving for Minasi is Fig. 1 (p. 203)
* There is an extensive annotated bibliography at the end.
*      For a summary in English, see Nature 67, 393-394 (Feb.26, 1903).
* Available from Google Books (with OCR text, but a badly aliased version
* of Fortuyn's engraving), and from ADS (no text, but much better figure):
*      See Talman (1912) for a good summary in English.

J. Fényi
“Ueber Luftspiegelungen in Ungarn,”
Met. Z. 19, 507–509 (1902).

* QUANTITATIVE MEASUREMENTS of inferior mirages, showing vertical stretching
* N.B.: Pernter was the publisher of Met.Z.!
* J Fenyi, S.J. (note accent over e: "Fényi")

A. Hofmann
“Eine optische Täuschung,”
Prometheus 13, 700–701 (1902).

* Despite the title, this is not an optical illusion, but a fine
* LATERAL MIRAGE at the surface of a hot smokestack.
* The author's attempt to explain differences between naked-eye and
* telescopic views led to his optical-illusion notion.
* [Cf. Nölke (1917) for the image-location problem.]

G. H. B.
“The Fata Morgana of the Straits of Messina,”
Nature 67, 393–394 (Feb. 26, 1903).

* A Fata Morgana review in Nature, prompted by Boccara's 1902 paper
* in Mem. Soc. Spett. 31, 10. Reproduces Boccara's drawings (see P&E).
*      Is "G.H.B." the "G.H.Baines" who wrote a GF note in 1910?
* Probably not. A more likely choice is George Hartley Bryan, FRS,
* who wrote many items for Nature around this time. Whoever he was,
* "G.H.B." reviewed some more Italian works on mirages in 1908.
* Number 1739

H. E. Wimperis
“A mirage at Putney,”
Nature 68, 368 (1903).

* Early modern observation of road mirage

V. E. Boccara
“La Fata Morgana,”
Bull. Soc. Belge d'Astronomie 8, 143–152, 347–353 (1903).

* FINE REVIEW article on FATA MORGANA in Strait of Messina
* This is a French translation of Boccara's original in Mem.Soc.Spett.
* There is a half-page footnote quoting Minasi's etymology of the term
* "Fata Morgana"; it seems far-fetched.
*      Boccara claims to have read everything  published on the subject!
* Plate VI, mentioned in the second part, appears in the first one.
*      However, some errors have crept into the translation, such as the
* statement in §7 that Capozzo made no additions to Saffiotti's letter.
* Both parts are available at ADS.

G. Costanzo
“La Fata Morgana: Memoria Prima,”
Memorie della Pontificia Accademia Romana dei Nuovi Lincei 21, 101–128 (1903).

* Another great REVIEW ARTICLE on Fata Morganas: GIOVANNI COSTANZO
* Cites everybody (Agrippa, Facellus, Carnevale, Politi, Reina, Kircher,
* Gaspari Schott, Minasi, Pindemonte, Houel, Ribaud, Saffiotti, Boccara).
* He skipped Giovene, and has de Ferrariis only in an addendum. There
* are extensive quotations from unpublished letters, and from newspapers.
*      Costanzo cites the Amsterdam reprint of Kircher's Ars Magna , quoting
* Angelucci's letter -- but with the "Salome" typo corrected -- and
* mentions the Roman editions of 1645 and 1647.
*      A table (p. 123) compares the various observations.
* The dateline at the end says "Napoli, marzo, 1903".

G. Costanzo
“La Fata Morgana: Memoria Prima,”
Atti della R. Accademia Peloritana 18, 1–35 (1904).

* Costanzo's revised version
* Here a few more observations are added to both the text and the table.
* The addendum "SULLE MUTATE DI TERRA D'OTRANTO" has been removed.
* The dateline at the end says "Napoli, Maggio, 1903".

C. Maltézos
“Phénomènes de mirage dans la mer et plaques de calme,”
Bull. Soc. Astron. Fr. (l'Astronomie) 17, 450–452 (1903).

* Maltézos discovers the oil slick???
* This starts out with a mirage report, and then refutes Lazzaro's
* criticisms that the mirages reported earlier were only optical illusions.
* Then he goes off on a tangent:
* "Tandis que la surface de la mer présentait une agitation due à une
* multitude d'ondulations différents, coexistant, la surface des plaques ne
* présentait qu'une seule espèce d'ondulations, de plus grande longeur
* d'onde."
* ". . . le phénomène est dû, pour les uns à des souillures de l'eau par
* diverses matières étrangères . . . ."

W. Krebs
“Atmosphärische Sprungflächen und Spiegelungserscheinungen,”
Das Weltall 4, 181–184 (1904).

* "BLACK LINE" (der schwarze Strich) discussed (cf. his distorted-sunrise
* paper in Met.Z. earlier in 1904; this issue is No.10, but dated Feb.15)
* Wilhelm Krebs argues that the horizontal black line seen in the mountain
* sky is due to reflections at an inversion layer, not an aerosol
* boundary. (cf. his distorted-sunrise paper in Met.Z. earlier in 1904;
* this issue is No.10, but dated Feb.15)
* He also argues that multiple features in the rising Sun could be due to
* WAVES on an inversion, thus prefiguring Fraser's 1975 suggestion;
* (cf. Garnier, 1899, for a less definite, but similar, suggestion).
* Citing von Wrangell's observation: "Bei Beginn der Morgendämmerung sah
* er am östlichen Horizont den schwarzen Strich in der scheinbaren Form
* einer grauen Wolkenbank von etwa 1° Höhe." (cf. FOG file)

P. Gast
“Ueber Luftspiegelungen im Simplon-Tunnel,”
Zs. f. Vermessungswesen 33, 241–271 (1904).

* Detailed study of mirages and refraction in tunnel

E. F. Bigelow
“A mirage,”
St. Nicholas 32, 1038 (1905).

* The importance of FIELD-GLASSES in a first-hand report
* In response to a boy's letter reporting "a ship upside down in the sky",
* the writer (editor?) says:
* "Not long after I received this letter I was riding in a fast
* express-train across the sandy plains of New Mexico, where the only
* vegetation was a few low scattered shrubs and some tufts of coarse
* grass. On the nearer parts of the lake there were beautiful islands
* with trees and shrubs . . . and I remarked to a fellow-passenger: `. . .
* Perhaps there may be interesting water-birds that have nests among those
* tall grasses and shrubs. It seems to be a better home for the pelicans
* than on those muddy banks by that small river a few miles back.'
*      "He smiled.  He had been over the road half a dozen times, he told
* me, while this was my first trip.
*      "`Try your field-glass,' he merely remarked.
*      "I did; and, like a beautiful dream that is lost on waking, the lake
* disappeared when viewed only through the glass. Later, as the train
* came nearer, I saw that it was only sand and scattered shrubs and
* grass."
* Edward F. Bigelow's "Nature and Science for Young Folks" column runs
* from p. 1032 to 1039; only the "mirage" section is cited here.

v. S.
“Luftspiegelung und Strahlenbrechung auf See,”
Ann. Hydrog. Maritim. Met. 36, 86–87 (1908).

* Two separate reports from different ships
* The first reports "SURF" all around the horizon, after a
* water-temperature drop of 3 C with constant air temp., near 41 N, 54 W.
* The captain changed course from WNW to SW.
* "Ich glaube, daß dieses Phänomen eine Fata Morgana
* (Seeluftspiegelung) gewesen ist. Wahrscheinlich haben wir die Küste
* von Neufundland etwas nördlich von Kap Race gesehen."
* The second reports "land" ahead and on both sides: "Deutlich vermochte
* man Höhenzüge, sogar einzelne Bäume zu unterscheiden, und so
* überzeugend was die Erscheinung, daß Kapitän Bodmann das Schiff über
* den anderen Bug auf östlichen Kurs legte, um vorläufig, der Sicherheit
* halber, von diesem verwirrenden Phänomen wegzuliegen. Da nun aber nach
* der ziemlich gut festgestellten Position des Schiffes wirkliches Land gar
* nicht in Sicht kommen konnte und die Erscheinung nach und nach auch am
* östlichen Horizont auftrat, überzeugte sich der Kapitän von der Bramrah
* aus, daß es sich nur um eine Luftspiegelung handelte. Daraufhin wurde
* der westliche Kurs wieder aufgenommen." (near 56 S, 66 W)
* "v.S." is probably von Schrötter. (Feb. issue)

G. H. B.
“Theory of the mirage,”
Nature 77, 356 (Feb. 13, 1908).

* "G.H.B." on Italian mirages again
* This time he reviews Garbasso's papers, and Rolla's lab simulation
* of Parnell's observations.
* Number 1998

W. Parr
“Coloured optical phenomenon,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 37, 274 (1911).

* Claimed mirage of a rainbow, but impossible at 45° altitude
* (Some halo arc is a more likely explanation.)

C. F. Talman
“The Real Fata Morgana,”
Scientific American 106, No. 15, pp.335, 345–349 (April 13, 1912).

* C. Fitzhugh Talman's Fata Morgana article, summarizing Boccara and
* Costanzo, and citing Forel and Ramage as well. A good summary of the
* observations, with a decent copy of Fortuyn's engraving for Minasi.
* (Thanks to Eric Frappa for a good PDF copy!)

D. Manning
“A St. Lawrence River mirage,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 40, 1757 (1912).

* Typical mirages on St. Lawrence River, seen from Alexandria Bay, N.Y.
* ". . . seen during the spring and autumn months . . . when cloudy skies
* prevail, and soon after northerly winds have set in and the weather
* is growing colder . . .      several small islands, about 2 miles away, . . .
* appear as though they were situated on a snow-covered ice field with the
* trees standing out in strong relief, giving the appearance of a dead
* calm . . . . in reality the wind is strong and the water quite rough,
* for north winds blow against the river current.
*      "The most interesting feature is that if one ascends a nearby bluff
* about 25 feet high, the illusion disappears entirely, and the islands,
* surrounded by the rough, blue waters, and the trees take on their
* natural look."
* (Cf. Büsch, 1800; Abbot, 1854; and Forel, 1895.)
* Nov. issue

C. Maltézos
“Les phénomènes optiques en mer,”
BSAF 26, 514–515 (1912).

* Maltézos summarizes his mirage studies, and quotes Aristotle again
* The quotations from Aristotle turn out to be:
* "Problems" XXVI. 53: "Why, when the east wind blows, do all the things
* seem larger?" and
* "Meteorologica" III. IV (p.253 of the Loeb Library edition):
* "Distant and dense air does of course normally act as a mirror . . . ,
* which is why when there is an east wind promontories on the sea appear to
* be elevated above it and everything appears abnormally large;. . . "
* and unfortunately Aristotle then drags in the Moon illusion.

V. Stefánsson
My Life with the Eskimo
(Macmillan, New York, 1913), pp. 72–73.

* VILHJÁLMUR STEFÁNSSON's astute remarks on "suggestion" in the Arctic
* After a brief description of the deceptive-appearing mirages, he says:
* "I think it is David Hanbury who tells of mistaking a lemming for a
* musk-ox, and Lieutenant Gotfred Hansen speaks of being astounded by
* the courage with which his dogs attacked a polar bear, and of being
* dumbfounded not only at seeing them killing the bear but more especially
* at one of the dogs bringing the bear back in his mouth. It turned out,
* of course, that the polar bear had been an Arctic fox. In things of
* this sort there is always a certain amount of suggestion; Hanbury had his
* mind centered on musk-oxen, and Hansen was expecting to see a polar bear."
* He then tells of seeing a grizzly bear that turned out to be a marmot.
*      "The main reason for such cases of self-deception is that one sees
* things under circumstances that give one no idea of the distance, and
* consequently one has no scale for comparison. The marmot at twenty
* yards occupies as large a visual angle as a grizzly bear at several
* hundred, and if you suppose the marmot to be several hundred yards away
* you naturally take him for a bear. There is, under certain conditions
* of hazy Arctic light, nothing to give you a measure of the distance,
* nothing to furnish a scale to determine size by comparison."
* (available on Google Books)

W. Hillers
“Ueber eine leicht beobachtbare Luftspiegelung bei Hamburg und die Erklärung solcher Erscheinungen,”
Unterrichtsblätter Math. Naturwiss. 19, 21–38 (1913).


W. Hillers
“Die erste photographische Aufnahme einer ständigen Luftspiegelung bei Blankenese,”
Kosmos (Stuttgart) 10, 37–39 (1913).

E. Wiedemann
“Über die Fata Morgana nach arabischen Quellen,”
Met. Z. 30, 246–248 (1913).

* Eilhard Wiedemann's additional Arab mirage refs. to supplement Erdmann
* Unfortunately, he uses "Fata Morgana" for inferior mirages here.
*      Eilhard was a son of Gustav Heinrich Wiedemann, who assumed the
* editorship of Ann. Phys. after Poggendorff's death.

W. Hillers
“Bemerkung über die Abhängigkeit der dreifachen Luftspiegelung nach Vince von der Temperaturverteilung,”
Physik. Zeitschr. 14, 719–723 (1913).

* Hillers applies his model to Vince's observations
* He shows that an inflection point in the temperature profile is required

W. Hillers
“Nachtrag zu einer Bemerkung über die Abhängigkeit der dreifachen Luftspiegelung nach Vince von der Temperaturverteilung,”
Physik. Zeitschr. 15, 303–304 (1914).

* Hillers generalizes his model, removing a restriction to small T changes
* Note that he comes up with the "magic number" of 1° 20'

W. Hillers
“Einige experimentelle Beiträge zum Phänomen der dreifachen Luftspiegelung nach Vince,”
Physik. Zeitschr. 15, 304–308 (1914).

* Hillers compares theory with observation in nature as well as in his
* laboratory simulation.
* He discovers the interference fringes later seen by Raman (1959).
* [see also J.Macé de Lépinay and A.Perot (1889).]
* This is a fine piece of work!

W. Hillers
Theoretische und experimentelle Beiträge zur Aufklärung des dreifachen Bildes einer Luftspiegelung = Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Naturwissenschaften 20, No.2, 1-55 (1914)
(L.Friedrichsen & Co., Hamburg, 1914), pp. 1–55.

* This is Hillers's complete, detailed work
*      "Wie es scheint, liegt aber noch nirgends ein Vergleich der Theorie
* mit der Erfahrung vor; noch niemals ist es bisher geglückt, die zur
* dreifachen Bildentwickelung notwendige anormale Dichteänderung der
* Atmosphäre gleichzeitig mit der Beobachtung der Luftspiegelung
* durchzumessen." (p. 3)
*      "Ferner muß nach theoretischen Erwägungen die Winkelgröße des
* Gesamtbildes stets recht klein bleiben, es wird bei normaler Entwicklung
* niemals über 20 Bogenminuten hinausgehen können. Eine gewöhnliche
* photographische Aufnahme wird deshalb von dem Schauspiel auch kaum
* etwas zeigen. Handzeichnungen, denen man öfter begegnet, sind stets
* nach Fernrohrbeobachtungen ausgeführt und lassen leicht die Größe
* und die »Bildmäßigkeit« überschätzen." (pp. 3 - 4)
*      On carrying out the desired comparison, he finds that "der ganze
* Vorgang der Abbildung sich in überraschend dünnen Schichten abspielt."
*      He discusses the ASTIGMATISM of the image, pp. 42-44.

G. Isely
“Optique atmosphérique,”
BSAF 28, 270–271 (1914).

* THREE SUNS, one above the other, about 2 degrees apart (cf. Hevelius!)
* This short paragraph precedes his GF report.
* O'C #223

E. Kleinen
“Luftspiegelung in Straßen,”
Z. physik. chem. Unterricht 27, 339–340 (1914).

* Pedagogical treatment of street mirage
* Mirages appear DARK:
* ". . . dann findet man bald eine Stelle, die ganz dunkel erscheint."
* ". . . erscheint es einem ganz sonderbar, daß man diese Strasse
* jahrelang zu jeder Tageszeit begangen hat, ohne diese Luftspiegelung zu
* bemerken."

G. E. Hubbard
From the Gulf to Ararat
(William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh and London, 1916), pp. 60–61.

* Hubbard was a participant in the Mesopotamian campaign
* There are two parts here: the eyewitness account on p. 60:
*      "Our caravan . . .  straggled over two or three miles of country,
* and to anyone riding somewhere near the middle the head and tail of
* the procession seemed always to be marching through a smooth, shallow
* lake; occasionally, for some unfathomable cause, the mules and men would
* execute a bewildering feat of `levitation' and continue their progress
* in the sky. Often we saw a lake spread out on the horizon, stretching
* a long arm towards us to within a few hundred yards; at other times
* a clump of palms or a group of mounted men appeared in the distance,
* only to resolve themselves, as we approached nearer, into bushes of low
* desert scrub or a grazing flock of goats."
*      Here there is a footnote on the "curious incident . . .  reported to have
* happened . . . at the beginning of the Mesopotamian campaign:
*      "Our men, after a particularly courageous attack across the open
* desert (which at the time was such a sea of mud that they had to advance
* at the walk), reached the Turkish trenches and put the Turks to flight.
* The enemy were now in the same predicament as the British had been in
* just before, and provided a splendid target for our artillery as they
* floundered through the mire. A gunboat was lying in the river, and the
* men in the tops were watching the proceedings when they were surprised to
* see our guns suddenly stop firing, although the Turks were still easily
* within range. It transpired later that, to the eyes of the gunners on
* the desert level, the target had disappeared into the mirage ."
*      Quoted by Hurd (in the 1937 Pilot Chart article)

A. O. Holcroft
“A strange sunset,”
English Mechanic 104, 389 (1916).

* "houses and trees with writing underneath" at sunset
* "People living in the Karroo are accustomed to see mirages in the veldt,
* but not at sunset nor during wet weather, as far as my own experience
* goes."
* might be a cloud miraged?

“Turks lured into a trap. Successful move in Mesopotamia.,”
Times (London) , p.8 (16 April, 1917).

* This seems to be the original account of the battle stopped by mirage
* "Fighting had temporarily to be suspended owing to the mirage, but
* upon this lifting our offensive continued." [on April 11, 1917.]
* Presumably this is the dispatch from Lt.-Gen. Sir Stanley Maude.

R. de C. Ward
“Weather controls over the fighting in Mesopotamia, in Palestine, and near the Suez Canal,”
Scientific Monthly 6, 289–304 (1918).

* quotes but does not cite the previous item, mis-dating it the 10th
* (April issue; See p. 294 for the quote.)

R. de C. Ward
“Weather controls over the fighting during the summer of 1918,”
Scientific Monthly 7, 289–298 (1918).

* Story of Turkish retreat caused by mirage "in the early days of the
* Mesopotamian campaign."
* Seems to be taken from Mrs. Eleanor Franklin Egan's stories in the
* Saturday Evening Post .
* (Oct. issue; see pp. 295-296.)

C. P. Du Shane
“The road mirage,”
Scientific American 119, 335 (Oct. 26, 1918).

* ROAD MIRAGE between Canton and Alliance, Ohio: SMOOTH SURFACE required
* Two letters from a resident of New Castle, Pa., with the Editor's
* explanation between them. The first reports: "On July 24th, while
* traveling in an easterly direction between Canton and Alliance, Ohio, I
* noticed a car about half a mile ahead apparently perfectly reflected in
* the roadbed, as if the latter was flooded with water. . . . the road in
* front was straight almost to the horizon and an exceptionally fine
* cemented brick surface. When I came up to the `given point' I found the
* road perfectly dry and the car ahead again showing a reflection in a
* perfectly mirror-like surface about the level of the bottom of the spare
* tire. I called the attention of the rest of the party to the
* reflection, they seeing it very plainly, then and several times later
* when similar stretches of roadway offered, but each time only above the
* heated brick surface.
*      "I have traveled the roads in this section since the high wheel days
* of 1885 but have never been favored with any such phenomena."
* The second letter says, "Since receiving your reply . . . , I have been
* out mirage hunting with some friends and have been successful in bagging
* some beauties as well as establishing a list of requirements . . . .
*      "The requirements are a very hot, dry, clear day, and a smooth hard
* road (brick gave the best reflections) . . . ." He adds sketches that
* illustrate the need for the observer's eyes to be "just above the level
* of the level piece ahead." This usually requires the observer to be in a
* slight dip. "The best point of observation I have found is the stretch
* between Canton and Alliance, but any similar road should give equally
* clear reflections."
* [NOTE: When I was a small boy, I remember this part of the Lincoln
* Highway was still paved with bricks.]
* This was when Sci.Am. was "bedsheet" size -- hard to copy!

M. S. Harloe
“Note on a mirage at sea,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 47, 453 (1919).

* Looming and mirage at sea
* "with air at 63° F and sea surface at 53° F, "Strong mirages
* noted all around. Four other ships . . . appeared at times to be steaming
* along at the top of a hugh [sic] wall of ice; at other times the bodies
* of the ships seemed to rise out of the water at least twice their height.
* Horizon had all the appearance of a long, rugged coast line.''
* July issue

A. A. Knowlton
“An unusual mirage,”
Science 50, 328 (1919).

* Inferior mirage seen over a road "just after dusk"
* Oct. 3 issue

W. M. Davis
“A wall-side mirage,”
Science 50, 372 (1919).

* A mural mirage reported in Garden St., Cambridge!
* Cf. his 1892 note in Am. Met. J.
* cites Knowlton (above)

F. W. McNair
“A sidewalk mirage,”
Science 52, 201 (1920).

* ought to mention R.W.Wood, but doesn't

H. H. Platt
Science 52, 290–291 (1920).

* Two responses to McNair:
* Platt mistakenly thinks it is a grazing-incidence reflection . . .

F. F. Burr
Science 52, 291 (1920).

* . . . but Burr suggests these mirages "may serve in part to account for
* ideas of temporary disappearance, or dematerialization, of solid
* objects, and for occasional accounts of apparent hallucination."

S. R. Williams
Science 52, 291 (1920).

* A report of large lateral displacement that needs detailed
* investigation: 6 degrees -- probably a misidentification.

P.-L. Mercanton
“"Les Phénomènes d'optique atmosphérique" in "Ergebnisse der Schweizerischen Grönlandexpedition, 1912-1913", A. de Quervain & P.-L. Mercanton, eds.,”
Neue Denkschriften der Schweizerischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 53, 192–198 (1920).

* Mercanton's mirage DRAWINGS and HEIGHT EFFECTS in Greenland, in 1912:
*       [actually FILED with green flashes]
* The mirage observations are on pp. 196-197.
* 1. On 15 April 1912 in the Davis Strait, "un beau mirage d'«eau chaude»"
* 2. On 27 May, a superior mirage of icebergs; "vent faible"
* 3. On 2 June "nombreux isbergs visibles au loin apparaissaient tous
* étirés verticalement et surmontés de leur image renversée et
* ratatinée. Une fine ligne sombre courait parallèlement à l'horizon
* marin, représentant, sans doute possible, [!] l'image réfléchie de
* la nappe liquide." (So, he's not always reliable.) He took a telephoto
* picture, but it wasn't good enough to reproduce.
* 4. On 10 Sept., "j'ai vue sur quelque trente kilomètres de côte
* se développer une fatamorgana très belle. Elle se présentait sous
* l'aspect d'un ruban horizontal, strié de lignes verticales floues
* correspondant aux linéaments du paysage recouvert par le dit ruban.
* Celui-ci était nettement limité en haut et en bas. Son bord inférieur
* se découpait sur la mer, sa lisière supérieure sur le paysage côtier.
* Devant de Hjortetakken il marquait le 1/6 de la hauteur apparente de
* cette montagne, soit les 200 m inférieurs. . . .      Quelques isbergs . . .
* apparaissaient très nets et dans leur position normale mais étirés
* et coiffés dès le tiers supérieur de leur image renversée, limitée
* par ailleurs strictement au bord supérieur de la zône floue.
*      "La largeur verticale de la dite zône variait d'ailleurs en sens
* inverse de la hauteur de l'œil au-dessus des flots."
*      The title pages are given in both German and French; I give only the
* German here, as de Quervain (despite his name) writes only in German
* and was the expedition's leader; and this was published in Zürich.
* Dated 1. Dezember 1920; abstracted by Brooks in MWR, 1923.

“Royal Meteorological Society,”
Obs. 43, 420–421 (1920).

* Account of a meeting of the Roy. Met. Soc.
* "A paper on the Mirage, by Dr. W.H.Steavenson . . . . The visibility
* of the mirage was found to be dependent solely on the distribution of
* temperature near the ground . . . not necessarily associated with hot
* weather, and had, in fact, been well seen when the shade temperature
* was below 50° Fahrenheit. Investigations had shown that the old
* reflection theory was untenable, and that the phenomenon was purely a
* refraction effect. . . . The paper was illustrated by actual photographs
* of the mirage, taken by Dr. Steavenson with a telephoto lens." (p.421)
* [The published paper is the next item (1921).]
* Dated Dec. 1920. Available from ADS.

W. H. Steavenson
“Note on the mirage, as observed in Egypt,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 47, 15–21 (1921).


R. Forbes
The Secret of the Sahara: Kufara
(George H. Doran Co., New York, 1921).

* Use of mirage for DESERT NAVIGATION (cf. Hassanein Bey, 1925)
* Rosita Forbes (1893-1967) nearly died in the North African desert.
* "On clear mornings, about an hour after dawn, when the desert is
* very flat, a mirage of the country about a day's journey distant
* appears on the horizon. For a few minutes one sees a picture of
* what is some 50 kilometres farther on. The Arabs call it `the
* country turning upside down.'" (p.135)

C. P. Du Shane
“The sidewalk mirage,”
Science 53, 236 (11 March, 1921).

* Another note by Du Shane, commenting on McNair (1920)
* He mentions but does not cite his earlier observation.

(anonymous report from H. M. S. "Cleopatra")
“Mirage on the Gulf of Finland, May 1st, 1919,”
Met. Mag. 56, 40 (1921).

* Fine example of LOOMING
* accompanied by detailed temperature and wind data
* "sea 1 . . . air 43 F, sea 39 F"
* "The ice presented a curious mirage effect, being reflected upwards.
* When first sighted with the sun on it, it looked very like a continuous
* line of chalk cliffs in a slight haze; with the sun behind it, small
* detached pieces appeared as dark blurred objects which might be anything,
* and might be mistaken for land. On closing, it was found to be floating
* not more than a foot or so above water."
* LOOMING and STOOPING of other ships reported as well.

D. C. Bates
“Mirage across the Bay of Plenty,”
Met. Mag. 56, 41 (1921).

* Fine example of LOOMING and "FOG"
* originally cited as "Bay of Plenty Times" of Dec.6, 1920
* "All this time there was a dark grey-blue band on the horizon . . . .
* Soon after 4:30 this bank appeared to condense from the surface of the
* sea towards its upper margin, till it resembled a thick dark-coloured
* cable stretched from island to island."
* Note the Editor's WRONG explanation of the "black band", which confuses
* radiance and irradiance !!

A. F. Odell
“Sidewalk mirages,”
Science 54, 357 (14 Oct., 1921).

* More comments on the previous letters to Science

V. Stefansson
The Friendly Arctic
(Macmillan, New York, 1922), p. 490.

* Arctic "CLIFFS" mirage that sets like a heavenly body
* Vilhjalmur Stefansson is following Storkerson's trail:
* "Beyond Cape Grassy we found that Storkerson had struck away from the
* land in a direction 22 degrees west of north which is the proper course
* for Cape Murray . . . . But four miles from Cape Grassy we found a place
* where the sledges had stopped briefly by the way, to judge by the tracks
* of men and dogs. After this the trail led for eleven miles in a
* direction 20 degrees east of north. . . . But after eleven miles of this
* course the party had turned back to their previous one, heading again
* for Cape Murray. I learned later that the reason had been one of the
* remarkable mirages or `appearances of land' that have deceived so many
* arctic explorers. Storkerson told me later that the fog had suddenly
* lifted, showing a land with bold cliffs apparently only fifteen or
* twenty miles away. This surprised him, but after consulting his
* companions, both Eskimo and white, and studying the land carefully
* through the glasses he made up his mind that they could probably reach
* it that day and that he might as well strike it first at this cape and
* follow it westward. But for two or three hours as they advanced the
* land kept receding and getting lower, until finally without becoming
* obscured by any fog or mist it sank beneath the horizon as if it had
* been some heavenly body setting."

(editorial news item)
“An Exceptional Mirage,”
Met. Mag. 57, 337 (1923).

* Met.Mag.'s brief account of the next item

D. Brunt
“A double vertical reflection mirage at Cape Wrath,”
Nature 111, 222–223 (1923).


K. Sinclair
“Mirages and similar phenomena,”
John O'Groat Journal , (26 Jan., 1923).

* Several mirages and other phenomena (Kenneth Sinclair, Maughold Head
* Lighthouse, I.O.M.) "ORKNEY WITCH" original report
* ". . . I remember the remark of a Highland fisherman made to his fellow
* boatman after directing his attention by a sweep of his massive hand to
* the northern sky. . . . `there's Margaret, the Orkney witch, going to meet
* the sun.' and there, sure, hung, as if suspended by invisible threads, a
* stretch of the Orkneys mapped in the sky. I remember the sea was smooth
* and the sun glaring."

[K. Sinclair]
“Surging mirage,”
Met. Mag. 58, 12–13 (1923).

* ". . . in the Pentland Firth the superior mirage is sometimes referred to
* by the name of `Margaret, the Orkney Witch'. . . ."
* ". . . as sure as the timely rise and fall of a fountain ball, so did this
* strange sight rise and fall as if governed by the movement of some sighing
* bosom."
* "Such direct evidence for Helmholtz waves in the transition layer
* between a warm current and the cold air beneath it is valuable."

A. Réthly
“Fata Morgana on the Nagyhortobágy,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 51, 312–313 (1923).

* NOT a FATA MORGANA (according to Bonnelance, 1929) but an inferior mirage
* decent photograph reproduced

J. H. Gordon
“Mirage in Lower California,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 51, 313–314 (1923).

* pretty standard mirage story (stapled with the previous paper)

Val. Thomas
“Mirage sur la Manche,”
BSAF 37, 314–315 (1923).

* "absolutely characteristic" FATA MORGANA (according to Bonnelance, 1929)

“Travaux astronomiques récents,”
BSAF 37, 487–489 (1923).

* NOT a FATA MORGANA (according to Bonnelance, 1929) but an inferior mirage
* This is a repeat of one published in Mon.Wea.Rev. for June 1923 (above)

P. Neame
“An Alpine mirage,”
Times (London) , p.10, col.6 (May 11, 1923).

* Report in the Times by "P. Neame, Lieutenant-Colonel, Royal Engineers"
* [quoted in full in the QJRMS report, so not copied.]
* "Mr. F. S. Smythe and I were climbing the Finsteraarhorn in the Bernese
* Oberland on May 2. . . .      Suddenly at 11.55 a.m. the image of a ship
* appeared in the sky just to the east of the Eiger peak, floating in
* a blue shimmer just beyond the visible horizon. This lasted for a
* minute or so, and then vanished. Very soon after a line of five ships
* appeared farther east, funnels and masts clearly distinguishable. This
* image lasted for some fifteen minutes, and varied in its clearness from
* time to time. The ships appeared of course greatly exaggerated in size,
* and were right way up, not inverted."
* "On reference to an atlas, this brings their position on the nearest sea to
* approximately the eastern exit of the English Channel into the North Sea, a
* distance of some 400 miles."

E. V. Newnham and F. J. W. Whipple
“Correspondence and Notes: An Alpine Mirage,”
Q. J. R. Met. Soc. 49, No. 208, 278–281 (Oct., 1923).

* This is hard to classify: first, Neame's report in the Times is quoted;
* then comments on it by Newnham and Whipple. I'll isolate Neame's item
* as a separate entry (above), and attribute just the comments here.
*      However, note that in April, 1924, MWR indexed this under "Neame".
* Newnham just gives the synoptic situation. But Whipple says:
*      "The illusion of distant ships would seem to be explicable by the
* presence of an inversion of temperature. . . .      The illusion of the ship's
* masts is comparable with that of reeds growing by the edge of water in the
* 'inferior' mirage of the desert. A similar drawing out of a small object
* can often be observed through a windowpane of poor glass." (p. 281)
* Saved as "AlpineMirage1923.pdf"

N. Korzenewsky
“Ein seltener Fall abnormer Strahlenbrechung,”
Met. Z. 40, 374–375 (1923).

* Hard to believe they saw mountains 750 km away,
* ". . . jedoch ließen sich die mächtigen Schneegipfel und ihre von
* Klüften zerfurchten Abhänge überaus deutlich wahrnehmen."
* The feet of the mountains couldn't be made out, so maybe the long
* path is explicable by the great height (4560 m) of the peaks.
*      A garbled footnote refers to Jessen's (1914) mistaken observation.
* Cf. Garner (1933).

A. M. Hassanein Bey
The Lost Oases
(Century Co., New York, 1925), pp. 124–125.

* Use of mirage for DESERT NAVIGATION (cf. Rosita Forbes, 1921)
* On p. 124, after mentioning the ordinary (inferior) mirage, he says:
* "Another kind of mirage comes sometimes in the early morning. Then the
* country far ahead of one appears in the sky at the horizon, as the
* Bedouins say, `upside down.' This is not, as the other variety of
* mirage is, entirely an illusion. It is really the reversed reflection
* of the country thirty or forty kilometers ahead of where the observer
* stands." He also says, "Sometimes . . . a small pebble the size of a
* cricket-ball seen from a mile away might assume the appearance of a big
* rock, standing like a landmark. The skeleton or part of the skeleton of
* a camel or a human being may take on the most fantastic shapes on the
* horizon, but the Bedouins know it well."
* and: "The seasoned desert traveler knows a mirage when he sees one. It
* is entirely possible indeed that the `upside down' variety may be a
* positive assistance, since it can suggest what kind of country lies ahead."

C. Maltézos
“Observation de la Fata Morgana en Grèce,”
BSAF 39, 202 (1925).

* FATA MORGANA with LATERAL MIRAGE (according to Bonnelance, 1929)

C. F. Brooks
“Looming and multiple horizons,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 53, 313 (1925).

* textbook example of MULTIPLE HORIZON due to INVERSION
* Seen at Hampton Beach, Mass., June 17, 1925.
* Sounds like Forel's "FATA MORGANA" displays. 8' HEIGHT.
* "The Isle of Shoals looked like a city of skyscrapers of uniform
* height. . . . The loomed horizon joined with the other farther and farther
* northward in the course of the hour from 10 to 11 a.m. The extending
* upper line of the loomed horizon became visible first in rather regularly
* spaced spots (marking air waves?) which developed columnar connections
* with the lower sea level as the top line became continuous. A rough
* angular measurement indicated the looming to be about eight minutes
* of arc.
*      "Over the ocean there was the normal cool cushion of air, represented
* by the moderate sea breeze at 59° F. blowing in from the ocean (shore
* water 54.5° F.), over which was beginning to run a warm southwesterly
* wind, which became strong by mid-afternoon at points a few miles inland."
*      [The islands are about 20 km from the beach.]

E. Oddone
“Sulla fotografia di un miraggio,”
Boll. Bimens. Soc. Met. Ital. 44, 51–54 (1925).

* A mirage photograph discussed, not very informatively

A. Wegener
“Die prognostische Bedeutung der Luftspiegelung nach oben,”
Ann. Hydrog. u. Maritimem Met., Köppen-Heft , 93–95 (1926).

* WEGENER's statistical support for superior mirage predicting warmer
* weather

P. A. Bonnelance
“Note sur les réfractions anormales,”
Bull. Obs. Lyon 8, 17–20 (1926).

* MIRAGE CLASSIFICATION (preliminary version; see his 1929 paper in BSAF)
* This is on the first leaf of No.2; the title says "Tome IX" but that
* must be an error, as the title page of the *volume* says Tome VIII (1926)

A. R. Hassard
[account of meeting]
JRASC 20, 102–104 (1926).

* Mirages across Lake Ontario; random reports in discussion
* Available from ADS.

N. Ivanov
“A propos de la `Note sur les réfractions anormales' de M. P. A. Bonnelance,”
Bull. Obs. Lyon 8, 218–219 (1926).

* Ivanov reports miraged sunsets from Anapa (Northern Caucasian coast of
* the Black Sea) and cites Wright's experiments with colored filters.
* He shows crude MIRAGE DRAWINGS of setting Sun (all Omega type)

C. Maltézos
“Les réfractions anormales,”
Bull. Obs. Lyon 8, 218–220 (1926).

* Maltézos reports his work as well, in response to Bonnelance's note
* The page numbers overlap with the previous item, as Ivanov's drawing
* is placed on p.219, in the middle of Maltézos's letter.

A. Wegener
“Photographien von Luftspiegelungen an der Alpenkette,”
Met. Zs. 43, 207–209 (1926).

* PHOTOGRAPHS of SUPERIOR MIRAGES in the Alps, by A. Vaupel
* Commentary by Alfred Wegener (June issue)

B. M. Varney
“A striking case of looming over the sea,”
Bull. Amer. Met. Soc. 7, 109–110 (1926).

* Nice observation of HEIGHT effect, and "SURF"
* "From a rowboat, the low, rocky coast of one of the outlying islands was
* seen to alternate rapidly between its normal shape and that of splendid
* `cliffs.' The alternations synchronized with the rising and falling,
* respectively, of the boat over the slight swells of a glassy sea. So thin
* was the refracting layer of air, that when the boat was on top of a swell,
* the distant coast appeared in its true character to a person sitting in
* the boat. When the boat was in the trough, up popped the `cliffs' to form
* a fine palisade along the whole visible length of the island. From the
* deeper troughs the looming very nearly went over into full mirage, the
* normal form of the island shore then shooting out horizontally bottom up,
* over the true shore. . . .      The most spectacular feature of the display was
* the magnificent `surf' made by the very moderate swell when its breaking
* coincided with the dips of the boat into troughs. The spray would at such
* times shoot upward in a brilliant white column as high as the `cliffs'
* produced by the momentary looming."
* Aug.-Sept. issue

E. A. Mills
Romance of Geology
(Doubleday, Page & Co., Garden City, NY, 1926), pp. 1–31.

* Lengthy but fanciful descriptions of mirages in the manner of James Gordon
* Mentions "FOG" on p.7. Also:
* "A mirage is the reflection of something; sometimes the mixed
* reflection of several things. It appears that an object or a landscape
* is lifted, perhaps by reflection, projected afar, and then set down in
* another place as a mirage. . . . It may be photographically clear, or
* vague and cloudy, or a confused mixture. This confusion may be due to
* several reflections mingling in the same picture . . . ." (pp. 7, 8)
*      "The mirage shows many ambiguous images.  Desire often insists we are
* seeing the thing we want." (p. 9)
*      "The turning of my field glass upon a mirage often changed it into
* nothing -- or formless light and shadow." (p. 12)
*      There is a nice description of how a mirage made a couple of stalks
* of grass appear to be distant spruce trees in snow (pp. 16-17): "Before
* me, two slender grass stalks stood above the snow. I circled back to
* where I had first seen the spruces. They were in view again, but this
* time they were upon a snowy rim of a cañon -- the magnified
* overlapping snowshoe tracks that I had made by the grass stalks."
*      There is a good description of a "breathing" or waving mirage on
* p. 18: "Up and down they rose and sank, teetering as though upon an
* invisible support laid across the peninsula. Sometimes they balanced or
* swung back and forth slightly as they seesawed."
*      Peary's "Crocker Land" is on pp. 21-22.
* "During the Franco-Prussian War a number of scattered and independent
* observers in northern Sweden and Norway saw mirage armies marching
* through the air, equipped like the real ones that were fighting a few
* hundred miles to the south." (p. 23) [but no references!]
* "A vague or confused mirage . . . often reveals something in the mind of
* the onlooker." (p. 25)
* "Generally, the image shown is not moved to one side, but just
* uplifted above the horizon's rim. That these mirages often are directly
* above the real, I have proved with islands in the Pacific by taking a
* compass course and sailing directly to the real island." (p. 27)

P.-A. Bonnelance
“Etude sur les réfractions anormales,”
Bull. Obs. Lyon 9, 143A–155A (1927).

* Bonnelance's detailed statistical study of the frequency of different
* forms of refraction during the year and their relations to temperature
* gradients. He finds a rough relation to temperature difference between
* air and water, but not to humidity or barometric pressure. Comments on
* the importance of a trained eye.

W. G. Emmett
“A sideways mirage,”
Met. Mag. 63, 15–16 (1928).

* Dubious lateral mirage of mountains
* The explanation proposed by R.Corless does not seem plausible.

H. E. Wimperis
“Road mirages,”
Met. Mag. 63, 16 (1928).

* Wimperis calls attention to his 1903 note in Nature:

H. L. Pace
“Mirage at sea,”
Met. Mag. 63, 16–17 (1928).

* "The shapes of these ships are distorted when the temperature of the sea
* is higher than the temperature of the air . . . wind force makes no
* difference . . . ."

H. A. Rogers
“Sea and road mirage,”
Met. Mag. 63, 138 (1928).

* Comments from an unobservant reader:
* "I have not observed any road mirage in my time and am an octogenarian . . . ."

W. H. Bigg
“Road mirages,”
Met. Mag. 63, 138–139 (1928).

* Report of persistant inferior mirage on a tarred road at airport
* ". . . it was visible both in winter and summer (although less intense in
* the former season) under most conditions of wind, weather and temperature.
* . . . Even with a damp road and drizzle falling one was considerably
* surprised to find that, on approaching what appeared from a distance to
* be a puddle of water, the puddle vanished." (Cf. Ashmore, 1955)

A. Mallock
“Mirage: natural and artificial,”
Nature 122, 94–95 (1928).

* Describes LABORATORY DEMONSTRATION of mirages (syrup + water; hot-plate)
* Curious terminology: "hot" and "cold" mirages, as the surface layer is
* (compared to those higher up). He also makes a hot-wire refraction,
* with no mirage counterpart: a shadow zone around the wire, with
* "brightly coloured interference bands."
* July 21 issue.

P. M. Millman
“Two optical phenomena observed. I. A mirage seen near Victoria, B.C.,”
J. R. A. S. C. 22, 94 (1928).

* "The day was hot and clear with a temperature of about 65°."
* Available from ADS.

L. G. Vedy
“Sand mirages,”
Met. Mag. 63, 249–253 (1928).

* Mirages studied on sandy beaches
* Notable for observations in the LAMINAR layer.

T. H. Applegate
“Sun pillar,”
Met. Mag. 64, 67 (1929).

* DOUBLE SUN, compared by F.J.W.Whipple in the following comment (p.68)
* to Hevelius's observation in 1682. He points out that it does not
* appear to be 2 images of the Sun separated by a blank strip; I am not so
* sure. This is the observation invoked by Botley (1935).
* "In the path of the pillar there was an image alike in all respects to
* the sun, the distance between the two balls being equal to the diameter of
* either. It was quite impossible at that time to say which was the object
* and which the image but this was decided when, two minutes later, the
* upper `sun' quite suddenly faded."
* cf. Emsmann, 1856, as well as S&T, 1980.

C. Frazer
“Ups and downs of the horizon,”
Popular Mechanics 52, 242–246 (Aug., 1929).

* Calvin Frazer's mirage article
* Despite the title, this is about mirages, not variable dip. Contains
* several interesting references (but not citations) to Bonnefont (1837);
* Warren Upham (1895); Lt. Wilkes; Borchgrevink; Bottineau. Alas, the
* "accompanying illustration" by Arctowski was not published.

P.-A. Bonnelance
“Les réfractions anormales,”
BSAF 43, 489–501 (1929).

* SUPERB treatment of mirages observationally; much improved classification
* scheme compared to his 1926 paper. Schiele's review missed this.
* Many comments on FOREL's work; good FATA MORGANA discussion:
* "La Fata-Morgana . . . atteint et déforme des objets plus ou moins hauts
* et donne continuellement l’impression que l’on regarde le paysage à
* travers la longueur d’uneplaque de verre qui en donnerait une image
* confuse, étirée ou multiple." (p. 497)
* Useful comments about "FOG", which he seems to equate to the Fata-Brumosa.
* Useful comments on earlier reports in BSAF, too; see notes elsewhere here.
* EXCELLENT ADVICE to observers (cf. Nijland's list for GFs)
* He also notes the unexplained nature of "lateral mirage" reports.

H. T. Smith
“Abnormal refraction and mirage at sea,”
Marine Obs. 7, 133–135 (1930).

* Interesting review of mirages at sea, with many examples

H. Jameson
“Inferior mirage at Sunrise?,”
Met. Mag. 65, 138 (1930).

* badly drawn OMEGA sketch

A. A. Justice
“The passing of the mirage locally,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 58, 414–416 (1930).

* Claims that mirages in Kansas are less frequent than before farming of
* the plains, due to the effects of more plant cover. Several anecdotal
* accounts of mirages there.
* (cf. Fingado, 1932)

J. Reger
“Spiegelung an einer Diskontinuitätsfläche,”
Beitr. Physik d. freien Atmos. 18, 190–195 (1932).

* impossible balloon sounding explained by abnormal refraction at inversion

C. L. Garner
“Seeing things at a distance,”
The Scientific Monthly 36, 71–74 (1933).

* LOOMING and cases of LONG VISUAL RANGE due to refraction
* Cites examples of long triangulation baselines: 192 miles [309 km]
* from Mt. Shasta to Mt. St. Helena, and 183 miles [295 km] in Utah.
* Then, on p. 73, there are examples of seeing great distances: the
* Explorer , in 1911, is said to have seen the Fairweather Mountains
* at 330 miles [531 km]. Other examples of looming on land are given.
* Cf. Korzenewsky (1923).

C. F. Talman
“The magic called mirage,”
Yachting (NY) 50, pp.47–49, 100, 102, 106 (April, 1932).

* CHARLES FITZHUGH TALMAN's article in Yachting
* An EXCELLENT popular review! Mentions Justice's note in MWR, 1930; the
* mirages of Mt. Canigou seen from Marseille; mirages near Chicago on Lake
* Michigan; Thomas Jefferson's "canoe" mirage; and many classical examples.
* Very clear on terminology -- a specialty of his, according to the obit.
* Explicitly says: "When abnormal refraction increases the apparent
* elevation of distant objects -- often lifting above the horizon things
* normally below it -- the process is described as `looming.' Because we
* associate a certain apparent altitude with a certain distance, this
* phenomenon generally makes the objects seem nearer than they really are."
*      Excellent advice: "The yachtsman who wishes to become better
* acquainted with mirage . . . if he knows enough German, . . . will read the
* appropriate sections of Pernter and Exner's Meteorologische Optik , and
* his best guide in English will be W. J. Humphreys' Physics of the Air .
* . . . A good pair of binoculars or other optical aid will be found necessary
* for making out details, especially in the observation of superior mirage,
* as great distances are usually involved . . . ."
* Much of the wording is borrowed from his earlier works.
*      This mag has had a varied history.  Founded in 1907 by Yachting
* Publishing Inc., it made its way to Z-D, then to CBS Magazines, who sold
* to Diamandis Communications, bought by Hachette Magazines c. 1987; then
* they sold it to Times Mirror Magazines, Inc.. In 2000, they sold it to
* Time, Inc. In 2008 it was acquired by Bonnier Magazine Group. It is
* still publishing 2 volumes/year in an unbroken series.
* I have a *very* poor photocopy -- can anyone provide a good one?

H. L. Page
Met. Mag. 68, 167 (1933).

* Mirage of Isle of Man from Holyhead, with looming

J. Pinkhof
“Fata Morgana te Zandvoort,”
Hemel en Dampkring 31, 252–254 (1933).

* SKETCHES of mirages, reproduced in Minnaert's book
* The drawings are about as reduced as is tolerable, here; but they were
* reduced still further, to illegibility, in Minnaert's book.
* [For larger versions, see ten Kate (1951).]
* Fig. 6 is a nice superior mirage of a ship beyond the horizon, like
* the drawing with the Sun in M.O. 37, 18 (1967).
* I don't think Pinkhof's argument against the supposed mirage of the
* cliffs of Dover holds water; he forgets that towering can magnify the
* image -- cf. Met. Mag. 56, 40 (1921), where again "chalk cliffs" were
* imagined. But he may well be right that this interpretation was wrong.

W. H. Hobbs
“Visibility and the discovery of polar lands,”
Geografiska Annaler 15, 217–224 (1933).

* Nice REVIEW of mirages and looming in mistaken claims of polar discoveries
* See some other of his papers in the "Lehn/Novaya Zemlya" file, esp. the
* 1937 paper for an update of this topic.

J. Boyer
“Curieuses apparences du mirage,”
La Nature 62:1, 385–387 (1934).


W. Findeisen
“Über Beobachtungen von Luftspiegelung auf dem Neuwerker Watt,”
Ann. Hydrog. u. Maritimem Met. 62, 423–426 (1934).

* Good PHOTOGRAPHS of mirages (Tafel 46)
* Okt. 1934

H. C. Freiesleben
“Luftspiegelung nach oben,”
Ann. Hydrog. u. Maritimem Met. 62, 426 (1934).

* DOUBLE HORIZON; DEVELOPMENT of the superior mirage above 3 boats in 5
* minutes, from masts downward.

E. W. Barlow
“Deceptions of vision due to atmospheric conditions at sea,”
Marine Observer 12, 14–19 (1935).

* GOOD REVIEW of mirage phenomena, with discussion of terminology, and a
* mention of Diodorus Siculus at the end (probably via Flammarion).

W.-E. Schiele
“Zur Theorie der Luftspiegelungen, insbesondere des elliptischen Falles,”
Veröff. Geophys. Inst. d. Univ. Leipzig , series 2, 7, 101–188 (1935).

* Thesis -- good references
*      This is a good guide to the mirage literature.  There is a good
* review of the classical treatments -- particularly, a fine appreciation
* of Biot's monograph, Wegener's theory, etc.
*      The second part develops the ellipsoidal case in series, using
* perturbation theory. Today, it would be easier to just do the
* numerical integrations, as van der Werf has done.
*      Cited by Humphreys (1940) in connection with the mention of Japanese
* Fata Morganas on p. 107; however, the ellipsoidal theory is never really
* applied to that situation.

R. Meyer
“Die Entstehung optischer Bilder durch Brechung und Spiegelung in der Atmosphäre,”
Meteorologische Zeitschrift 52, 405–408 (1935).

* Rudolf Meyer FIRST DISCOVERED the Mock Mirage ("intermediate mirage")
* too many good quotes to give here!
* Rudolf Hans Wilhelm Meyer (1880-195x?) was educated in Warsaw and
* Berlin, after being a student at Dorpat Meteorol. Obs. He was born in a
* suburb of Riga, and often contributed to the Korrespondenz-Blatt there.
* O'C #88

W. G. Burt and H. D. Pim
“Mirage. Portuguese waters.,”
Marine Obs. 13, 92 (1936).

* Good DRAWINGS showing a DOUBLED image with one part TILTED
* July issue

L. W. Wilson
“Mirage. Gulf of Mexico.,”
Marine Obs. 14, 11 (1937).

* Good DRAWINGS and FOG description
* "The appearance of a fog bank lay on the horizon, the angular height of
* which was 2° 10'." This complex display needs work.
* Jan. issue

G. van den Bergh
“Fata Morgana in de Wieringermeer,”
Hemel en Dampkring 38, 259–260 (1940).

* Not a Fata Morgana, but a spectacular case of LOOMING,
* in which a farm appears (and a town is reported to have appeared)
* at "less than 10% of the real distance." Not even a drawing.
* Observed on 20 May.

W. J. Humphreys
“How Moses crossed the Red Sea,”
Scientific Monthly 63, 82 (1946).

* Humphreys was probably the inspiration for Fraser's "Theological Optics"
* This note also mentions the incident of April 11, 1917 reported by
* General Maude. [see London Times for April 16.]

K. Class
“Beobachtung einer seltenen Luftspiegelung,”
Zeitschrift für Meteorologie 1, 152 (1947).

* From Donnersberg (835m) mirages described in abstract as "Fata Morgana"
* were seen of Fichtelberg (1214m) and Keilberg (1244m), 71 km away.
* "Fichtelberg und Keilberg sowie sämtliche Bergkuppen bis herüber zum
* Wieselstein (Entfernung = 26 km NW, h = 856 m NN) standen auf sich selbst
* Kopf, nach oben begrenzt durch eine messerscharfe, waagrechte Linie."
* "Sämtliche Berge verloren ihre ursprüngliche Form. Vor allem der
* Oedschloß-Berg im Duppauer Gebirge (Entfernung = 70 km SWzW, h = 925 m
* NN) machte alle Stadien von Klumpen, feinst zugespitztem Kegel bis zu
* einem sonderbar geformten Zylinderhut durch. Auch das Riesengebirge
* (Entfernung 130 km E, h = 1400 bis 1600 m NN) zeigte, wenn auch nicht in
* so deutlich wahrnehmbarer Form, die im Westen so ungewöhnlich stark
* auftretenden Luftspiegelungen."
* Mountains were about 15 C warmer than valleys; "Der Temperatur- und vor
* allem der Feuchtigkeitssprung (Donnersberg nur 3% rel. Feuchte!) lag bei
* rund 750 m NN."

R. L. Ives
“Meteorological conditions accompanying mirages in the Salt Lake desert,”
J. Franklin Inst. 245, 457–473 (1948).

* Ives had degrees in geography and geology, but had a minor interest
* in meteorology, which led to a few publications on mirages.
*      This paper is particularly interesting in describing some rare mirage
* phenomena, esp. on pp. 468-469. The inversion of 15°F in one inch of
* height reported on p. 468 exceeds the 1°C in 5 cm inversion of Balsley
* et al. (2003) by an order of magnitude.
*      Superior mirages are discussed on pp. 469-471, including association
* with inferior mirages. Miraged nocturnal lights are treated on p. 470.
*      Fata Morgana mirages are on pp. 471-472.  They "not infrequently have
* peripheral color fringes" -- cf. Minasi! -- and are complicated "in many
* instances" by "wisps of steam fog".

R. L. Ives
“Climate of the Sonoran Desert region,”
Ann. Association of American Geographers 39, 143–187 (1949).

* More remarks on mirages by Ives, with climatology
* The brief mirage discussion is just pp. 175-176. After mentioning
* the common inferior mirages (and accompanying turbulence), he says:
* "Less common in this area are superior and multiple mirages, occurring
* when the lower layers of air are thermally stratified. These are
* particularly common over the Gulf of California, and on the west side of
* Baja California, where the California Current (Fig. 17) chills the lowest
* stratum of air, producing great stability, and leading to stratification.
*      "Near the sea, particularly in areas where high mountains are quite
* close to shore, Fata Morgana mirages are not unknown, and lead to annoying
* or serious misobservations by navigators and pilots."
* [no hard copy filed.]

G. E. Mitchell
“Mirage, Gulf of Cadiz,”
Marine Obs. 21, 81 (1951).

* GOOD DRAWINGS showing the change in mirage with DISTANCE of ship

R. L. Ives
“Recurrent mirages at Puerto Peñasco, Sonora,”
J. Franklin Institute 252, No. 4, 285–295 (Oct., 1951).

* Ronald L. Ives describes mirages in the Gulf of California
* while working as an engineer at Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory.
*      This is a VERY THOROUGH OBSERVATIONAL REVIEW of many kinds of mirage,
* with clear drawings of 3-image and other superior mirages, looming,
* and descriptions of CONCAVE appearance of the sea, truncated images and
* false horizons, etc.; "False sea horizons, due to refraction, are a
* standard midday condition . . . . Fata Morgana is a common occurrence
* when cold air drainages from high mountains reach the warm waters of
* the Gulf of California." (from Abstract!)
*      The section on "False Sea Horizons" is on p. 287:
* "On hot clear days, which are frequent near the Gulf of California, the
* sea horizon acquires a peculiar appearance in midmorning, the visible
* horizon being 10' to 15' of arc higher than its sunrise position.
* This condition persists until very late afternoon, at which time the
* "upper horizon" dissolves, not always regularly. Onset of this false sea
* horizon is contemporaneous with the development of a thin warm surface
* stratum of water. Neither the warm surface stratum nor the false sea
* horizon develops when the wind speed is much more than 5 mph.
*      ". . .  inferior mirages commonly develop over flat land areas 15
* minutes to two hours before formation of the false sea horizon. On very
* hot summer afternoons, the inferior mirages over land may merge with
* the false horizons over water.
*      "Although deceptive to the unaided eye, so that its presence
* complicates accurate marine navigation, the false sea horizon can be
* distinguished from the true horizon by use of a deep red viewing filter,
* such as a Wratten "A" or "F."
*      "When winds of small areal extent blow over the sea surface, they
* remove the false sea horizon locally and temporarily, in much the same
* manner that dust devils "eat holes" in inferior mirages on land.
*      "In a great majority of observed instances, objects at sea
* considerably nearer the observer than the apparent horizon have an
* entirely normal appearance during the middle hours of the day, whether
* or not a false horizon is present. As these objects recede from the
* observer, they will cross the horizon and disappear below it in a normal
* manner if no false horizon is present; but will sail off into the sky,
* undergo great vertical distortion, or partake of more complicated visual
* transfigurations when a false sea horizon is present."
*      On the next page: "The shallow northern part of the Gulf of
* California, roughly from Latitude 27° north to the mouth of the Colorado
* River, is noted for its mirages, which, in one form or another, are of
* almost daily occurrence at all seasons." Fig. 2 (p. 288) shows the
* progressive changes in appearance of a ship steaming away from the
* observer as it crosses the horizon. "If . . . mirage conditions exist,
* as is usually evidenced by a false horizon at sea, and by inferior mirages
* over adjacent lands, the appearance of the vessel will not remain normal
* after it reaches the apparent horizon." (p. 289)
*      "Never reported from Puerto Peñasco, but common in the narrow
* channels between islands farther south, is the Fata Morgana , a weird
* mélange of diffuse and ever-changing images, perhaps magnified and
* distorted views of objects on the shore. These annoyances to mariners . . .
* are most commonly seen in the early morning, when the air is very cold
* relative to the water, and are usually accompanied by steam fogs."
*      "Where study of air conditions has been possible during Fata Morgana
* displays, a thin layer of relatively cold air, in turbulent motion, has
* been present over the surface of relatively warm water. Above the
* thin cold air stratum, which usually results from local air drainage,
* is a layer of much warmer air. Other stratifications aloft are sometimes
* present.
*      "Observed colors in the main body of the mirage are always
* degradations of those present in the local environment. Occasionally
* spectral hues are present, as "rainbow glints," adjacent to steam fogs
* associated with the Fata Morgana ." (p. 290) [Cf. Minasi!]
*      Next comes a discussion of "looming" of distant mountains:
* "On any ordinary clear day, when air temperatures are substantially
* normal for the season, and wind speed is below about 15 miles per hour,
* dim shapes, that might be distant mountains shrouded in desert haze,
* appear on the western horizon at about noon . . . [A]bout an hour before
* sunset, . . . the images sharpen . . . . A few minutes before sunset, the
* images tower and sharpen still more, . . . This image lasts for about
* half an hour, until very shortly after sunset, at which time it darkens,
* and rapidly falls below the horizon.
*      "After an abnormally hot still day, the image towers to a much
* greater height, and the sea appears to have a concave surface from the
* observer to the base of the range, with "embayments" of mirage extending
* up valleys in the distant mountains." (p. 291)
*      On p. 292 he describes loomed images of distant islands to the south,
* as seen from a height of 250 ft. (76 m). They appear in midmorning or
* later, "snapping into view" about a minute of arc above the horizon.
* [This means the images appear at the inferior-mirage fold line.] "The
* images slowly rise as the day progresses," -- or, more likely, the dip
* of the apparent sea horizon increases as the mirage grows stronger.
* "Appearance of the upper images changes with each minor change in
* the position of the observer, and the actual changes in appearance
* with changes in the height of the observer's eye above sea level are
* disproportionate to the change of elevation." So, here again,
* we have an inferior mirage at the surface, with inversion (superior)
* mirages above. The similarity to Forel's account is striking.
*      Thanks to Eric Frappa for an excellent PDF of this!

H. ten Kate
Hemel en Dampkring 49, 91–94 (1951).

* Big reproductions of Pinkhof's (1933) drawings
* GOOD DEFINITION: "What is a mirage? One should be able to define this
* as the phenomenon whereby we see objects at a sufficient distance in the
* open air not singly, but double or sometimes multiple, from which it is
* obvious that the light rays that leave an object come to our eyes along
* different paths. Then the light rays are not all propagated
* rectilinearly but sometimes also along curved paths . . . . The question
* is now more how it is possible that the rays become bent."
* He is one of very few writers who contrasts the astronomical and
* terrestrial refractions; but he supposes that straight rays are possible,
* or even common; and that superior mirages are rarely seen because the
* thermal gradients there tend to be weaker, not because of the restricted
* height from which they are perceptible. However, he does emphasize the
* importance of eye height.

H. ten Kate
“Fata Morgana,”
Hemel en Dampkring 50, 32–34 (1952).

* FATA MORGANA discussed
* Cites his mirage article in the previous volume: "The Fata Morgana are
* also mirages, but of a much more complex form than we have described in
* the cited article."
* He correctly connects the phenomenon with air-water temperature
* differences, and especially those near land; but thinks the F.M. is due to
* CURVATURE of the isopycnic surfaces.

J. C. Goverde
“Over het waarnemen van luchtspiegelingen,”
Hemel en Dampkring 50, 34 (1952).

* on the last page of the previous item.

W. Weigel
“Beobachtung von Luftspiegelungen auf dem Fichtelberg im Erzgebirge,”
Zs. f. Met. 6, 94 (1952).

* MOUNTAIN MIRAGES and nocturnal inversion data
* Comments on inadequate resolution of soundings (200 - 300 m)
* Werner Weigel, Met. Station auf dem Fichtelberg i. Erzgebirge

G. Kohl
“Erklärung einer Luftspiegelung nach oben aus Radiosondierungen,”
Zs. f. Met. 6, 344–348 (1952).

* Gerhard Kohl tries to explain Weigel's observation
* Notable as the FIRST paper to consider the MOCK-MIRAGE geometry
* explicitly: "Einmal handelt es sich um eine Luftspiegelung eines weit
* entfernten Objektes (rund 165 km), zum anderen lag der Beobachtungspunkt
* einwandfrei oberhalb, aber nicht unterhalb der Grenzfläche zwischen
* Bodenkaltluft und der darüberliegenden, bedeutend wärmeren Luftmasse."
* -- though he tries to force Wegener's model onto it, and
* mistakenly asserts that "die Lichtstrahlen [werden] von der totalen
* Reflexion betroffen." But at least the radiosonde profile shows an
* 8-degree inversion close to the peak-to-peak line of sight.
* Many other circumstantial details are given, as well as a tell-tale
* drawing of the mirage (Abb. 4) supplied by Weigel.

P. W. Kidd and A. D. Terras
“Mirage and temperature fluctuations, Mediterranean Sea,”
Marine Obs. 23, 77 (1953).

* a series of M.O. mirage reports -- NOT ALL indexed here!
* HOT, DRY GUSTS -- cf. M.O.24,13(1954).
* "In one of these gusts (at 0820) the dry bulb rose to 89 F and the wet
* bulb fell to 71 . . . ." "Sea temperature remained 76 throughout . . . ."

P. P. Ainsworth
“Abnormal refraction, Cabot Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence,”
Marine Obs. 23, 77–78 (1953).

* Fine DRAWINGS of 3-image mirages

J. D. MacMillan
“Abnormal refraction, off Cape Town,”
Marine Obs. 23, 78–79 (1953).

* NOVAYA ZEMLYA (leaky-duct) display of great duration
* Surface-based DUCT phenomena (cf. ATY's April 23, 1995 ducted sunset)
* "The upper limb of the sun appeared elongated and remained above the
* horizon for approximately two minutes." [This is the flattened image
* above the duct.] "Three minutes later a bright red light appeared,
* intermittently, in the sea about two-thirds of the distance to the
* horizon. The light was rectangular in shape, 40' of arc in length and 3'
* wide, and lasted for eight minutes." [This is the Sun seen through the
* duct. Note the long visibility -- a fine Novaya Zemlya display!]
* Evidently the observer mistook the top of the duct for the horizon
* (cf. Le Gentil's "whale" remark). The Editors were completely baffled
* by this report: "It is not possible to give any simple explanation of it. . . "

P. W. Hodges
“Abnormal refraction, North Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 23, 202–203 (1953).

* "Before finally setting the planet appeared elongated to a vertical
* white streak which immediately turned a bright green. All these changes
* were visible to the naked eye."
* [cf. Biot's "petite colonne de feu", and M.O.24,13(1954)]

J. Y. Kerr and D. K. Bhattacharya
“Abnormal refraction, Off Port Okha (West coast of India),”
Marine Obs. 23, 203 (1953).

* DRAWINGS of distorted sunrise
* (belongs in "DISTORTED" file but on same page as above)

S. Keenan and G. Griffiths
“Abnormal refraction with gusts of dry air, Western Australian waters,”
Marine Obs. 24, 13 (1954).

* Seems to be a CREPUSCULAR RAY from VENUS
* ". . . gusts of hot, dry breezes were encountered, readings of the dry and
* wet bulbs then noted were 88 and 64 F . . . " [cf. M.O.23,77(1953).]
* "During the phenomena Venus was observed setting. Just before setting
* a column as of fire shot up from it to a height of a few degrees and
* remained visible for 30 sec while the planet set."
* [cf. Biot's "petite colonne de feü!]

W. Weigel
“Luftspiegelungen auf dem Brocken,”
Zs. f. Met. 9, 58 (1955).

* MOUNTAIN MIRAGES - identified as superior mirages
* Strong inversions (15 C in 540m)
* Werner Weigel, Brocken

S. E. Ashmore
“A North Wales road-mirage,”
Weather 10, 336–342 (1955).

* ASHMORE's road-mirage observations: almost unaffected by clouds
* Ashmore's by-line reads "Hon. Meteorologist to Wrexham Borough".
*      Observations made by an observer sitting on the "kerb" at Wrexham,
* and using binoculars. No info on the road surface!
*      Visibility in RAIN:
* "It became evident that the mirage can be formed during favourable
* conditions at any time the sun's altitude exceeds 24½° and that it is
* almost always present, whatever the conditions, with a solar altitude
* of 29° or more. . . . cloudiness may have a slight effect, but in
* general, the only conditions which prevent it are snow lying, rain heavy
* enough to produce considerable splash, or visibility less than about
* 150 yards . . . ." (p. 338) [cf. Woltman 1796, 1798, 1800, and Bigg, 1928.]
*      By measuring the ray curvature (using Vedy's method), ". . .  it
* appears that the temperature gradient lies mainly in a layer of air
* about ¾ in. thick, and since even the strongest winds do not upset the
* gradient, it is probable that most of it is confined to a portion much
* shallower even than that." (p. 341)
*      At the end, he comments: "This work was not always easy ; the road is
* often busy, chiefly with pedestrian traffic. Naturally the activities of
* the observers, involving prone lying in the roadway, aroused curiosity;
* occasionally expressions of commiseration were overheard as passers-by
* receded from the scene."
*      Cites Vedy's 1928 paper, and Miss Botley's in Weather  (1952).
* (kept only as a PDF)

C. S. Durst and G. A. Bull
“An unusual refraction phenomenon seen from a high-flying aircraft,”
Met. Mag. 85, 237–242 (1956).

* SUPERIOR MIRAGE of cumulus cloudtop from airplane
* "Such phenomena as described in this paper do not appear to have been
* previously reported from aircraft in flight, unless some of the reports
* of 'flying saucers' may have been due to this effect."

H. Gäbler
“Beobachtung einer Luftspiegelung nach oben,”
Zs. F. Met. 12, 219–221 (1958).

* MOUNTAIN MIRAGE - identified as superior mirage; but the stretched zone
* looks like Wegener's Nachspiegelung (viewed from above).
* The mirror image is drawn equal in size to the erect one.
* Milleschauer (835m) seen from Fichtelberg (1214m) above "Nebelmeer" at 750m.

[newspaper clipping, dated in ink] , (1 July, 1958).

* A 1958 Dutch newspaper clipping found by R. H. van Gent in a copy of
* Flammarion's "l'Atmosphère":
* Besides giving the wrong date ("1708" !) for Monge's observations, and
* exaggerating the French army's reactions to the desert mirages ("the
* men thought the end of the world had come"), there are a couple of
* tantalizing hints of mirages seen from AIRPLANES:
* "The pilot Martin flew into a mountain peak 30 years ago [this is dated
* 1958] when he tried to evade a mirage. Lindbergh himself said that he
* had seen strange shores in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean."

J. H. Gordon
“Mirages,” in in Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, (1959)
(U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1960), pp. 327–346.

* James H. Gordon's mirage summary
* Useful remarks on the difference between ASPHALT and DIRT surfaces,
* despite his ignorance of the literature and optics. Cf. his 1923 paper.
* Good line: "Mirages are definitely not photogenic."
* Penny Porter tells me James Gordon was Janet Gordon's father.

E. Trautmann
“Über Luftspiegelungen der Alpen, gesehen vom Bayerischen Wald,”
Mitt. Deutsch. Wetterdienstes 3, Nr. 21 , (1960).

* Trautmann's attempt to interpret mirages of the Alps
* This is a useful but problematic report. The mirages are merely
* described (no drawings). But the observations are accompanied by
* balloon soundings from Munich, roughly on a line between the observers
* on Gr. Falkenstein and the miraged mountains. Unfortunately, only
* Wegener's simplified theory is used, so the comparison of theory with
* experiment is not exact (although he does demonstrate that ducting
* conditions existed in 2 of 3 superior mirages). Worse, he supposes that
* "reflections" can occur at the inversion layers seen below eye level;
* so the attempts to interpret these supposedly "inferior" mirages are
* nonsense. The resulting disagreements are "explained" by some
* hand-waving arguments of little merit.
* Obviously, this needs to be re-done properly.
* [Cited by Löw in his "Luftspiegelungen" book.]

N. P. Austin and M. Edward
“Abnormal refraction, North Pacific Ocean,”
Marine Observer 32, 22 (1962).

* good drawings

M. J. Downie
“Abnormal refraction, North Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Observer 32, 182–183 (1962).

* DISTORTED MOONRISE with multiple MOCK MIRAGES (Filed in GF file!)
* good drawings

C. M. Botley
“Mirages — What's in a name?,”
Weather 20, 22–24 (1965).

* BOTLEY mixes up mirages and other phenomena

J. H. Gordon
“It's only a mirage,”
Ford Times , 16–17 (July, 1966).

* James H. Gordon's short note
* "These road mirages are a comparatively modern development, almost
* unknown on the old dirt roads, and rarely seen today over dirt surfaces."
* Ford Times was a travel mag put out by Ford Motor Co.
* Thanks to Penny Porter for providing a copy!

R. L. Ives
“The mirages of La Encantada,”
Weather 23, 55–60 (1968).


H. Ramforth
“Abnormal visibility at sea,”
Mariners Weather Log 17, 300–301 (1973).

* Visual and radar looming compared; "FOG" observed
* During the "fog" episode, the air was 2.5 deg. warmer than the water;
* apparently the inversion then lifted and became inaccessible.
* "A star fix taken by two officers from seven stars came out with useless
* results, although stars and horizon appeared good visually. While
* searching for the error that might have caused the useless results, it
* was found that if 10 min were added to the height of each observation,
* the results would have been correct." [Cf. Koss's footnote, 1901]
*      [Note observation of CONCAVE surface:]
* A lighthouse with normal range 15 miles was seen at 75 miles.
* This appears to be a clear case of NEGATIVE DIP (cf. Hasse's
* "Kimmfläche") caused by a strong inversion overhead. The editor's
* comments are mostly wrong and should be disregarded.
* N.B.: There is no apostrophe in the title of this publication.

J. Collins and A. J. Bairstow
“Abnormal refraction, Mediterranean Sea,”
Marine Observer 49, 23 (1979).

* TRIPLE-IMAGE mirage within "yellow band . . . thought to be dust or haze.
* The yellow colour was very distinct and it may have been significant
* that the sun was setting over mountains around the coast at the time."
* A miraged ship was seen at 12 n. mile radar range; "the effects
* persisted until each observed target came within seven nautical miles . . .
* On two occasions the inverted image was observed before the true
* object." Air temp. 17.1 C, water 15.2, wind force 2.

A. B. Fraser
“Simple solution for obtaining a temperature profile from the inferior mirage,”
Appl. Opt. 18, 1724–1731 (1979).

* Fraser's parabolic profile
* He mentions the more correct logarithmic profile, but does not use it.

R. Brownbill, R. Owen, and M. Harris
“Abnormal refraction, Mediterranean Sea,”
Marine Observer 50, 23–24 (1980).

* Interesting DRAWINGS of superior mirages, with ships towering
* Radar distances of targets given.

K. W. D. Shears
“Abnormal refraction, North Sea,”
Marine Observer 50, 74–75 (1980).

* Inferior (?) mirage effects on HORIZON, 4 April 1979
* A vessel "was observed fine on the port bow. At a range of 8 n. mile it
* was seen to be in a normal position on the visible horizon, but when at a
* range of 12 n. mile it appeared in very clear detail to be in a position
* above the visible horizon.
*      "At the same time a small fishing vessel, at a range of 9 n. mile and
* approximately 4 points on the port bow, was producing a wake on the
* horizon which appeared to the observer as a mountainous sea, see . . .
* sketch. This phenomenon persisted until the range had decreased to 7 n.
* mile." Air 5.5° C, sea 6.3; wind calm.

W. A. Murison, M. J. Power, and D. J. Izzard
“Abnormal refraction, Tasman Sea,”
Marine Observer 50, 115 (1980).

* LOOMING of trees on shore, despite inf.-mir. temps.
* ". . . there appeared to be a layer of shimmering haze above the land
* . . . the trees were estimated to be 7 n. mile distant from the vessel."
* The DRAWING shows 2 separate layers at least.
* "HAZE" is drawn dark, despite Sun's altitude of 30-40°.
* Air 11.7° C, sea 14.1. A complex and puzzling observation!

I. O. Williams
“Abnormal refraction, Little Minch,”
Marine Observer 51, 117–118 (1981).

* Interesting DRAWINGS of superior mirages, with SMOKE MIRAGED
* The measured altitude of the boundary at 51' is unusually large.

R. Fullagar and J. L. Meade
“Abnormal refraction, North Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Observer 51, 183 (1981).

* An otherwise undistinguished inferior-mirage observation, which calls
* attention to the irregular waves on the apparent horizon. At 11.5 n.
* mile range, a vessel appeared miraged (usual drawing). "As the vessel
* drew closer the fo'c'sle, masts and accommodation appeared to hover above
* the horizon, seemingly separated from the rest of the vessel, which could
* not be observed at the time. Although the sea was calm with only small
* ripples, the waves at the horizon appeared magnified." Air 10.8 C, sea
* 13.2; wind, light airs. Position 39 20 N, 73 18 W (i.e., probably in
* Gulf Stream).

P. Day, P. C. Dyer, and R. P. Swinney
“Abnormal refraction, Tasman Sea,”
Marine Obs. 52, 26–27 (1982).

* DRAWING of multiple beach images
* "Initially an apparent line of haze or mist was observed, extending from
* the horizon to an altitude of 0° 10' - 0° 13' and presenting a false
* horizon. The ship's funnel smoke was then observed trapped on a level
* with this, indicating an inversion . . . . As the vessel closed with the
* coast the land was noticed to be apparently sitting on top of the
* inversion level, with the line of beach repeated two or three times in the
* shimmering air below (Figure 2). Sometimes water could be seen between
* the layers of the beach . . . . The top layer did not remain solid-looking.
* At intervals sections would dissolve into narrow vertical blocks that
* resembled single trees before disappearing altogether (see Figure 3); this
* resembled a wave-like motion, with the top layer gradually dissolving from
* right to left, then re-forming from left to right with waves of varying
* thickness forming in the top layer, and ripples moving along the top."
* Air temp 21.0° C; sea 19.5; wind force 2.

D. N. Roberts and J. G. Pearce
“Abnormal refraction and mirage, South Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 52, 27–28 (1982).

* DRAWINGS of superior mirages and miraged ship
* "Shortly after departure from Cape Town a superior mirage was observed
* to extend around two-thirds of the visible horizon. Throughout the
* following 2 1/2 hours very vivid inverted images could be seen. It
* was noted at 1300 GMT and again at 1630 that there were quite marked
* discontinuities of the reflected horizon. The two most distant images
* were observed at 1300 and 1400 GMT, the first being Dassen Island, which
* at the time of observation lay 13 n. mile to the north (the visible
* horizon being 7.85 n. mile distant); the height of Dassen Island is 19
* metres." Air temp. 22.9° C, sea 18.1, wind force 3 increasing to 4.

P. D. Cullen and I. Buckley
“Abnormal refraction, Straits of Labrador,”
Marine Obs. 52, 78–80 (1982).

* Many interesting DRAWINGS of superior mirages, with radar ranges
* "As the Strait of Belle Isle was approached a thick, low band of
* refraction was observed to stretch across the entrance to the Strait."
* Air, 5.9; sea, 4.1 C.

A. H. White and R. E. Lough
“Abnormal refraction, South Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 52, 78–80 (1982).

* Drawings of looming of a ship.
* Enlargement of image claimed with no distortion.

K. Lenggenhager
“Luftspiegelungen über unsern Seen (Fata Morgana),”
Z. Meteorol. 32, 187–190 (1982).

* Nice photos. This guy had a whole series of interesting papers for
* several years in Z.Met., all nicely illustrated, on halos, subsuns, the
* shapes of icicles, etc.
* This paper has beautiful illustrations of inferior mirages over lakes.
* The author doesn't understand Fraser & Mach's paper in Scientific
* American, though; he insists on "reflection" without refraction.

E. E. Gossard
“Formation of elevated refractive layers in the oceanic boundary layer by modification of land air flowing offshore,”
Radio Sci. 17, 385–398 (1982).

* This really belongs in BLM file, but is in my mirage file because of photo
* ". . . conditions such as these are common in southern California, as
* evidenced by the well-known distortions of the solar limb as the sun sets."
* [Cf. O'Connell's book.]

N. R. Pryke, C. M. Billington, I. Foster, M. O'Gorman, and T. Rowland
“Abnormal refraction, Strait of Belle Isle,”
Marine Observer 53, 128–129 (1983).

* Interesting DRAWINGS of towering and superior mirages of icebergs
* at 38 - 43 nautical mile range
* ". . . all the bergs observed at a distance of 18 n. mile and over were
* seen to be abnormally refracted."

R. Spencer and M. G. Welsh
“Abnormal refraction, Bass Strait,”
Marine Observer 53, 203–204 (1983).

* ". . . what appeared to be land features were observed on the horizon; at
* the same time the horizon ahead of the vessel became distorted and gave
* the impression that the vessel was approaching a solid wall of water. . . .
* The nearest land at this time was 85 n. mile away."
* Air varied from 25.6 to 21.6 C, sea temp. 18.8 C; wind force 2, sea
* slight. "Exceptional radar detection" to 45 n. miles.

J. G. Reeve, C. P. R. Clarke, and C. Purser
“Abnormal refraction, South African coastal waters,”
Marine Observer 54, 79–81 (1984).

* radar ranges from 8.0 to 17.5 n.miles; dry bulb 22.0 C, sea 15.8,
* wind force 1

J. P. Ayling
“Abnormal refraction, South-west Australian waters,”
Marine Observer 54, 126–127 (1984).

* Mirage of coasts described, but the sketch "cannot be reproduced"!
* Many interesting details; a puzzling report.

M. Sams and B. W. Watson
“Abnormal refraction, North-west Australian waters,”
Marine Observer 54, 127–128 (1984).

* GOOD DRAWINGS of superior mirages with vertically stretched zone
* Air temp. 30 C, water 26; wind force 3.

J. C. S. Yeo and J. A. C. Pearce
“Abnormal refraction, Gulf of Mexico,”
Marine Observer 56, 193–194 (1986).

* Strong inferior-mirage near Grand Bahama Island, with DRAWING
* Ship at 16 n. miles ahead seen miraged. "Slowly, this effect diminished
* until . . . at a range of 12 n. mile, the ship's hull touched the horizon."
* Air 21.2 C, sea 27.0; wind force 3. "The sea state was slight, with no
* swell." The background land was also miraged.

A. D. Matthias and N. Ferguson
“Superior-mirage photographs: evidence of complex air temperature profiles in Sonoran Desert valleys,”
Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 67, 1266–1271 (1986).


A. von Chamisso
A voyage around the world with the Romanzov exploring expedition in the years 1815-1818
(U. of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1986), pp. 83–84.

* Adelbert von Chamisso's 1816 mirages in translation
* A very clear explanation of both the appearances and their causes:
* "I saw a surface of water before me in which a low hill was reflected
* that extended along the opposite shore. I went toward this water. It
* disappeared before me, and I reached the hill with dry feet. When I had
* covered about half the distance, I seemed to Eschscholtz, who had remained
* behind, to have been submerged up to my neck in the reflecting layer of
* air, and, shortened the way I was, he said I looked more like a dog than a
* human being. As I strode onward, toward the hill, I emerged more and more
* from the layer of air, and I appeared to him, lengthened by my reflection,
* to get taller and taller, gigantic, slender."
* "When land rises above the horizon, as seamen are wont to express it,
* the line that is taken to be the horizon is the edge of a reflecting
* surface formed by the lower layer of air and closer to the eye; a line
* that really lies below the visible horizon. I believe that this illusion
* in some cases can have an influence on astronomical observations and can
* cause an error in these of five and perhaps more minutes."
* He also mentions Flinders, Ross, and Scoresby.
* NOTE: Johann Friedrich Eschscholtz was the physician and naturalist who
* accompanied Kotzebue's expedition, along with writer/botanist Chamisso
* and the artist L. A. Choris. Chamisso produced the first scientific
* description of California's golden poppy (now the state flower) on this
* expedition, and named it in honor of his friend Eschscholtz.
* The best biography of Chamisso I have seen is in the DSB.

K. H. Milne and R. Duff
“Abnormal refraction, Mediterranean Sea,”
Marine Observer 57, 112 (1987).

* Good DRAWINGS of towering of ship; another "yellow band" within 1 hr.
* of sunset; cf. Marine Observer 49, 23 (1979).
* ". . . a low, yellow-coloured sand layer was observed, originally thought
* to be haze or fog." Air temp. 25.5 C; sea decreased from 20 to 15,
* then increased to 18 C.

R. G. Greenler
“Laboratory simulation of inferior and superior mirages,”
JOSA A 4, 589–590 (1987).

K. R. Lown
“Mirage over Thames estuary,”
Weather 42, 393 (1987).

* drawing of triple-image mirage
* with standard commentary by Ken Bignell

A. Mayor
“Marine mirages,”
Sea Frontiers 34, 8–15 (1988).

* Adrienne Mayor's fair popular review: Tape, Greenler & Fraser are cited
* Besides the standard examples, several less-common ones are mentioned:
* accounts from Giraldus Cambrensis's Topography of Ireland (1187),
* literary passages supposedly inspired by mirages (Wordsworth;
* Coleridge); Wilkes and J.C.Ross; Borchgrevink.
* Jan.-Feb. issue

C. Sturcke and G. R. Jackson
“Abnormal refraction, Western North Atlantic,”
Marine Observer 58, 68–69 (1988).

* SUPERIOR MIRAGE DRAWINGS and descriptions, including land seen
* inverted beyond horizon (25 n. mile range). The mirage of land at 18
* miles was slightly magnified. Wind: force 4.

W. G. Rees
“Reconstruction of an atmospheric temperature profile from a 166-year old polar mirage,”
Polar Record 24, 325–327 (1988).

* INVERSION of SCORESBY's drawings
* See Lehn & Rees (1990) for correction.

C. Bohren
“Simple experiments in atmospheric physics: Highway mirages,”
Weatherwise 42, 224–227 (1989).

* REALLY GOOD piece on inferior mirages by CRAIG BOHREN!
* (with 3 fine color photographs of hot-road mirages.)
* First sub-head is: A Mirage Is Not an Illusion (Thanks, Craig!)
* "I shudder when I see or hear mirages referred to as optical illusions.
* . . . these optical phenomena are no more illusions than are images
* in a mirror." (He offers the Moon Illusion as a real example: "An
* enlarged moon is a creation of the mind; a mirage is a creation of the
* atmosphere.")
*      "When images formed by the refracting atmosphere depart markedly from
* what they would be in its absence, they are called mirages."
*      "Before considering the consequences of atmospheric refractive
* gradients, I must dispose of the notion that water vapor plays an
* essential role in the formation of mirages. This misconception dates to
* antiquity and persists today, evidence that no misconception ever dies."
*      But, alas, he equates inferior mirages with images below the geometric
* position. Despite this single flaw, a fine article.

P. R. Barker, P. R. M. Crofts, and M. Gal
“Apparatus Notes: A superior "superior" mirage,”
Am. J. Phys. 57, 953–954 (1989).

* Nice Wollaston-style demo using HEAT LAMPS and water
* "When the lamps are switched on, the beam immediately begins to deflect
* . . . . After 30 s a deflection of 6 cm is observed on the screen. . . .
* The deflection rapidly returns to zero when the lamps are switched off."
* Unfortunately they define inferior and superior mirages in terms of
* image displacement, blaming this on Greenler's 1986 OSA abstract. But
* at least they say mirages "are caused by gradients in the temperature"
* and not temperature differences -- still, no second derivatives.

W. G. Rees
“Mirages with linear image diagrams,”
JOSA A 7, 1351–1354 (1990).

* Rees never read Biot's book, though it is his first reference!
* ". . . inverted mirages . . . are not included in Biot's analysis . . . ."

W. H. Lehn and W. G. Rees
“The Scoresby ship mirage of 1822,”
Polar Record 26, no. 158, 181–186 (1990).

* Lehn corrects the old Rees (1988) inversion
* This deals with the UNIQUENESS problem, in part.

W. G. Rees, C. M. Roach, and C. H. F. Glover
“Inversion of atmospheric refraction data,”
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, No. 2, 330–338 (February, 1991).

* Rees et al. introduce the Runga-Kutta forward model

J. F. Davis and T. B. Greenslade , Jr.
“Computer modeling of mirage formation,”
Physics Teacher 29, 47–48 (1991).

* A worse-than-average account by ignorant physicists
* "Monge . . . was the first to give an explanation . . . . The coordinates at
* which zero slope is reached can be approximated . . . ." A crude empirical
* approximation for the temperature profile over a hot surface is used (with
* no physical basis); the index of refraction "must approach a constant" (!)
* at heights "greater than about 2 m"; and of course the Earth is flat.
* They touch on the horizontal-ray paradox. Pretty dismal.
* 5 papers, all in Am. J. Phys., are cited from 1974 to 1982.

S. Mak
“Showing the light path of a mirage,”
Physics Teacher 31, 476–477 (1993).

* A glorified version of Wollaston's demo
* The use of a pinch of Coffee-Mate to make the beam visible is a nice
* contemporary touch. And as "alcohol is not benign to most transparent
* plastic containers," he recommends a strong (0.5g/ml) sugar solution.

A. T. Young, G. W. Kattawar, and P. Parviainen
“Sunset Science. I. The Mock Mirage,”
Appl. Opt. 36, 2689–2700 (1997).

* our MOCK MIRAGE paper (Paper I)

G. Horváth, J. Gál, and R. Wehner
“Why are water-seeking insects not attracted by mirages? The polarization pattern of mirages,”
Naturwissenschaften 84, 300–303 (1997).

* Mirages, polarization, and insect vision
* Shows a photograph of a Tunisian mirage
* Thanks to Gábor Horváth for supplying a PDF copy!

G. Horváth, J. Gál, and R. Wehner
“Erratum: Why are water-seeking insects not attracted by mirages? The polarization pattern of mirages,”
Naturwissenschaften 85, 90 (1998).

* Mirages, polarization, and insect vision (erratum)
* This shows a corrected version of Fig.1
* Thanks to Gábor Horváth for supplying a PDF copy!

C. H. Tape
“Aquarium, computer, and Alaska Range mirages,”
Physics Teacher 38, 308–311 (2000).

* All qualitative, but good photographs

T. Kosa and P. Palffy-Muhoray
“Mirage mirror on the wall,”
Am. J. Phys. 68, 1120–1122 (2000).

* MURAL MIRAGE well photographed
* But much of the discussion is confused: the erect image is described as
* "real"; Hillers is wrongly credited as being the "first" to study "the
* wall mirage"; the ray trajectory is assumed to be parabolic, or circular;
* the refractive-index and temperature profiles are arbitrarily assumed,
* with no reference to the relevant boundary-layer literature; etc.
* Dec. issue

P. Porter
“Mirages: Heaven in the sky and other sightings,”
Arizona Highways 77, No. 7, 22–25 (July, 2001).

* Penny Porter's Fata Morgana Arizona observation, plus quotes from Gordon
* The observation was made at 7 am in April 1981
* "A city afloat on a vast blue ocean . . . . doorways on dwellings framed
* in timber and ladders stretching from the ground up to occasional arched
* windows of the upper levels -- suggesting the architecture of the
* pueblo-builders of Arizona or Mexico. Garden plots on upper terraces
* blazed with fiery flowers. Chickens scuttled around courtyards. Two
* heavily laden burros tied to hitching posts were clearly visible, and
* people strolled down quiet, peaceful streets. . . .
* "Finally it broke into sections. Huge fragments collapsed, and in
* slow motion they sank one by one into the sea."

J. D. Pettigrew
“The Min Min light and the Fata Morgana,”
Clinical and Experimental Optometry 86, No. 2, 109–120 (2003).

* distant lights seen at night via inversions -- fine MIRAGE PHOTOS in color
* Notable for a good section ("Animation and human factors") that
* discusses the perceptual issues. The colors reported remind me of
* the Biot-Arago observations. Cites my mirage page.
*      Formerly available on the Web at
*      Presently available on the Web at

E. Darack
“Unlocking the atmospheric secrets of the Marfa Mystery Lights,”
Weatherwise 61, No. 3, 36–43 (May/June, 2008).

* Ed Darack's article on MARFA LIGHTS featured on cover
* Nice COLOR PHOTOS of inferior and superior mirages of lights, including
* Fata Morganas. Cites my mirage page.

M. Zinkova
“Fata Morgana in coastal California,”
Weather 64, 287 (2009).

* Mila Zinkova's good Fata Morgana picture of glitter (see cover!)
* Contains comments by ATY. Nice mock-mirage GF shown, too.
* No. 11 (Nov. issue)

S. Y. van der Werf
“Noninverted images in inferior mirages,”
Appl. Opt. 50, no. 28, F12–F15 (2011).

* Siebren's 2011 paper on inferior-mirage wiggles
* He understands the cause of the alternation, but uses a bad temperature
* profile.

J. Blanco-García and F. A. Ribas-Pérez
“Mirages above the sea waters,”
J. Phys. : Conf. Ser. 274, 012001 (2011).

* Good examples of the main types, including FM; shows effects of height.
* But: "Although there are descriptions of mirages since the Classical
* Antiquity, the first scientific explanation was given by Gaspard
* Monge, who accompanied Napoleon Bonaparte in the Egypt campaign . . . ."
* doi:10.1088/1742-6596/274/1/012001

J. Blanco-García, B. V. Dorrío, and F. A. Ribas-Pérez
“Photographing mirages above the sea surface,” in Proc. 8th International Conference on Hands-on Science,Focus on multimedia , M. F. M. Costa and S. Divjak, eds.
(Copissauro Repro, Portugal, 2011), pp. 78–85.

* Good examples of the main types, including FM; shows effects of height.
* ISBN 978-989-95095-7-3

D. M. Farmer, L. Armi, and A. T. Young
“Mirages across the Salish Sea,”
Weather 69, No. 8, 215–220 (Aug., 2014).

* DAVID FARMER's excellent mirage of Mt. Rainier, with my ray-traces

S. Y. van der Werf
“Hafgerðingar and giant waves,”
Appl. Opt. 56, No. 19, G51–G58 (July 1, 2017).

* Siebren van der Werf's nice paper on "sea fences", with waves and animations
* This is a close match to the next item; read both together with the
* Lehn & Schroeder papers (1981 and 2003).

A. T. Young and E. Frappa
“Mirages at Lake Geneva: the Fata Morgana,”
Appl. Opt. 56, No. 19, G59–G68 (July 1, 2017).

* my paper with Eric Frappa
* Explains the FM with valley-circulation model (thick inversion)
* many photographs, and a real-time video
* Should be read together with Siebren's paper, just above.
* [Note observation of CONCAVE surface.]

M. Zinkova
“Sunset mirages involving ducts,”
Weather 72, No. 12, 372–375 (2017).

* Mila ZINKOVA's "Sunset mirages" paper in "Weather"


A. de Humboldt
Relation historique du Voyage aux Régions équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent
(Dufour, Paris, 1814).

* This also has the title:
* Voyage de Humboldt et Bonpland. Première partie. Relation Historique.
* The various editions and many translations divide the "books" into
* volumes in various different ways.
* MIRAGES and TERRESTRIAL REFRACTION are mentioned occasionally; one needs
* an edition with an index to find them.
* Note the flowery dedication: "A L'Illustre Auteur de la Mécanique
* céleste, P. S. De La Place, comme un faible hommage d'admiration et de
* reconnoissance."

A. de Humboldt
Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the New Continent
(Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, London, 1818).

* Helen Maria Williams's translation, often reprinted. Lacks an index.
* This is a rather crude, literal translation, but at least it is
* unabridged. I have found mirages mentioned in Vol. 1, p.187;
* Vol. 2, p.189 (the footnote citing Hooke); Vol. 3, pp. 542-554
* (the famous Note D); Vol. 4, p. 292; Vol. 4, pp. 299, 325, 327-329.
* The last of these is the passage referring to the Sanskrit phrase, and
* to "the Indian, Persian, and Arabic poets".
*      On p. 542 is a reference to "Gruber, (Ueber Stralenbrechung und
* Abprallung des Lichts, 1793)." This may be a later offprint of his
* 1786 work?
*      The translator has the quirk of invariably writing "it's" for "its".

Al. de Humboldt and A. Bonpland
Voyage aux Régions Équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent, fait en 1799, 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804, par Al. de Humboldt et A. Bonpland; rédigé par Alexandre de Humboldt. Tome Premier
(Chez F.Schoell, Paris, 1814).

* Humboldt's detailed mirage report (see Note D, p. 625)
* This is the original, now available from

A. von Humboldt
Relation historique du Voyage aux Régions équinoxiales du Nouveau Continent
(Brockhaus, Stuttgart, 1970).

* This is the republication sponsored by the Humboldt Foundation:
* "Neudruck des 1814-1825 in Paris erschienenen vollständigen Originals,
* besorgt, eingeleitet un um ein Register vermehrt von Hanno Beck"
* By far the most interesting passage is Note D on pp.625-631 of Band I.
* It contains quantitative measurements of zenith distance (though
* mostly on the scale of his quadrant, which contained 96 degrees, each of
* which corresponds to 56' 15") of several fixed points on islands, and of
* the sea horizon. He thus was able to observe the VARIABLE DIP and its
* relation to air and water temperatures, and to the color of the sea (p.
* 628). He cites Aristotle, Theophrastus, Büsch, Gruber, Monge, Brandes,
* Wollaston, Tralles, Woltmann, Biot. He mentions the Sanskrit phrase
* "mriga-trichná". He cites his own demonstration that, in the tropics,
* the water is nearly always 1 to 1.5 degrees warmer than the air, as the
* cause of the miraging. Most impressive!
* The Hooke citation is on p. 296 here.


J. Glaisher
“An account of meteorological and physical observations in three balloon ascents made in the years 1865 and 1866,”
Report of the Thirty-Sixth Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science , 367–401 (1867).

* Glaisher's 1865 Oct. 2 ascent, confirming NOCTURNAL INVERSIONS
*      [Cf. Brandes (1806), who may have been the first to notice them.]
* ". . . an accidental descent just at the time of sunset showed very
* little or no difference of temperature for a height of nearly half a mile.
* The question then arose as to whether it was possible that at night the
* temperature might increase with elevation, and not decrease as always
* heretofore had been considered . . . ." (pp. 367-368)
*      "The results of this first night experiment are very valuable; and,
* so far as one experiment can give, indicate that, on a clear night,
* the temperature, up to a certain elevation, increases with increase
* of elevation."      (p. 370)
* Comment on REFRACTION:
*      "Certain it is, from the very remarkable results obtained from the
* night ascents, which might, with sufficient number of observations,
* have important bearing both on the theory of astronomic refraction and
* on the theory of heat, that nocturnal observations deserve repetition
* and extension."      (p. 373)
* These remarks are repeated, without the tabular data, in his part of
* "Travels in the Air"
*      Google Books has several scans of this, but only the Harvard one
* is complete.

J. Glaisher, C. Flammarion, W. de Fonvielle, and G. Tissandier
Voyages Aérienes
(L.Hachette et Cie., Paris, 1870).

* Tissandier's part of this 19th-Century ``coffee-table'' book contains
* his brother's woodcut of the mirage over the English Channel, facing
* p.408, in "Troisième Partie: Voyages de MM. de Fonvielle et Tissandier":
* "Nous cherchons les falaises de Douvres et nous nous étonnone bientôt
* de ne pas voir les côtes de l'Angleterre qui ne sont pas bien distantes
* de notre aérostat; elles sont cachées par un immense rideau de vapeurs
* plombées, qui s'étend vers ce côté de l'horizon. Je lève la tête
* pour chercher la limite de cette muraille de nuages, et quelle n'est pas
* ma stupéfaction quand j'aperçois dans le ciel une nappe verdâtre qui
* ressemble à l'image de l'océan; bientôt un petit point semble se
* mouvoir dans cette plage céleste, c'est un bateau, gros comme une
* coquille de noix, et en y fixant avec soin mes regards, je ne tarde pas à
* constater qu'il navigue à l'envers sur cet océan retourné; ses mâts
* sont en bas et sa quille en haut. Un moment après je vois l'image du
* bateau à vapeur qui vient de partir de Calais pour l'Angleterre, et, avec
* ma lunette, je distingue la fumée qui s'échappe de son tuyau. Voici
* bientôt deux ou trois autres barques qui apparaissent au milieu de cette
* mer magique, tableau vraiment saisissant, d'une éblouissante
* fantasmagorie du mirage."

G. Tissandier
Histoire de mes ascensions
(Maurice Dreyfous, Paris, 1878).

* The popular summary of Tissandier's 24 balloon flights
* The first chapter (pp.119-127) contains a textbook example of the
* SEA-BREEZE circulation (see diagram, p.125) with a capping inversion at
* 600 m. It alludes to the mirage over the English Channel, but says the
* first 7 flights were described more fully in Hachette's "Voyages
* aériens" (1870).
* Drawings of distorted Sun- and Moon-rises are on pp. 260 & 261.
* There is a 2-page bibliography of aeronautics at the end.

G. Tissandier
“Le mirage de la Tour Eiffel,”
La Nature 18:1, 195–198 (1890).

* Tissandier's review of "mirages" -- some may be snowflake reflections?
* (The Eiffel-tower reflection is from l'Astronomie 9, 41-42 (1890), q.v.)
* Here is where he quotes extensively from his earlier work, but
* mis-attributes it to "Histoire de mes ascensions". The illustration by
* his brother Albert, showing the inverted images of ships on the North Sea,
* accompanies this article. As this illustration was based on his
* "crude sketch" made after the flight, it can hardly be regarded as an
* accurate observation.
*      NOTE: Gaston Tissandier was the founder, in 1873, of "La Nature".
* Eric Frappa tells me this is "Semestre 1".


W. H. Smyth
Sketch of the Present State of the Island of Sardinia
(John Murray, London, 1828), p. 80.

* (mostly minor references to mirage phenomena)
* N.B.: Admiral Smyth was the father of Charles Piazzi Smyth, q.v.
* "The deceitful phenomenon so well known in Barbary by the name of
* `sarab ,' is very frequent in the lower grounds of Sardinia; and while
* at Villa-Cidro, I one morning saw the whole Campidano appearing like a
* vast lake, with the hills of Cagliari in the distance resembling islands."

W. H. Smyth
The Mediterranean, a Memoir Physical Historical and Nautical
(J.W.Parker and Son, London, 1854).

* Discussion of mirages, pp. 288-291
* The Fata Morgana "is said to occur in sultry, calm weather, when the
* tides, or streamed-up waters, are at their highest, and when the sun
* shines from that point whence its incident rays form an angle of about
* 45° on the water. At such times, they tell us, multiplied images of
* all the objects existing on the two lines of coast -- as castles, arches,
* towers, houses, trees, animals, and mountains -- are presented in the air
* with wonderful precision and magnificence. Padre Minasi assures us that,
* in addition to obvious appearances, numberless series of pilasters,
* superb palaces with balconies, armies of men on foot and horseback, and
* many other strange figures, are seen in their natural colours and proper
* action, as in a catoptric theatre; and there exist paintings and
* engravings of the wonderful phenomenon. Still, on the whole, I cannot but
* repeat the conviction to which inquiry led me, and which I published as
* far back as 1824 ( Sicily and its Islands, page 109): -- `I much doubt,
* however, the accuracy of the descriptions I have heard and read, as I
* cannot help thinking that the imagination strongly assists these dioptric
* appearances, having never met with a Sicilian who had actually seen
* anything more than the loom or mirage, consequent on a peculiar state of
* the atmosphere; but which, I must say, I have here observed many times to
* be unusually strong.'"

W. H. Smyth
The Sailor's Word-Book
(Blackie and Son, London, 1867).

* Here is his famous "What's in a word?" discussion


Joh. Georg Sulzer
Johann Jacob Scheuchzers . . . Natur-Geschichte des Schweitzerlandes, Zweyter Theil
(David Geßner, Gbdr., Zürich, 1746), pp. 338–343.

* See also Kritzinger (1914), Vogel (1940) in Green Flash file.
* Johann Jacob Scheuchzer is sometimes regarded as the "father of
* paleobotany" because of his early work on plant fossils.
* Sulzer edited Scheuchzer's works and translated them from the Latin
* edition published at Leyden by Peter van der Aa in 1723, adding later
* material from Scheuchzer's contributions to Breßlauer Sammlung as well
* as some of his own speculations on the origins of the Alps (he thought
* they were produced by the Earth's center of gravity having shifted!) and
* the fossils in their sedimentary rocks (which he explained by Noah's
* Flood). He attempts to combine the physical evidence with a literal
* interpretation of Scripture.
* There are many amusing bits in this work, from the editor's railing
* against people who only buy books for the pictures ["Viele Leute lieben
* die Kupferstiche weit mehr, als eine Beschreibung der Sachen; ja einige
* kauffen die Bücher nur deßwegen. Diesen verständigen Liebhabern zu
* gefallen, hat der dienstfertige Verleger der Holländischen Ausgabe eine
* Menge Kupfer beygelegt, welche aus Merians Topographie genommen sind.
* Stücke, davon oft in dem Texte kein einiges Wort stehet. Diese hat man
* hier weggelassen, und vielleicht in eben der Absicht, in welcher sie Hr.
* van der Aa dazu gethan hat. Wer diesen Abgang nicht vertragen kan, der
* hat die Freyheit, die Holländische Ausgabe oder Merians Werck zu
* kauffen."] to the description on p. 238 (the wrong page number happily
* supplied by "M" in Gilberts Annalen) on how to tell real dragons from mere
* snakes: "Bochart . . . unterscheidet . . . die Drachen von den Schlangen durch
* nachfolgende Kennzeichnen: 1) Die Grösse. 2) Den Bart unter dem Kinn.
* 3) Eine dreyfache Ordnung der Zähnen. 4) Eine schwarze, feuer-rothe oder
* aschenfarbe. 5) Eine sehr grosse Oeffnung des Mundes. 6) Daß sie durch
* das Anziehen der Luft nicht diese allein, sondern auch vorbey fliegende
* Vögel an sich ziehen. 7) Ein erschreckliches und auf gewisse Weise
* trauriges Zischen, daher sie im Hebraischen Tannin genennt werden."
* (Some 20 pages are devoted to these supposedly real creatures.)
* Of more interest here is his observation (p. 42) of a "Phænomenon an
* der Sonne": ". . . da sie einen gantz neuen Habit angezogen, (zum wenigsten
* habe ich sie in solchem noch niemal gesehen). Abends um 5. Uhr ist bey
* neblichtem Himmel dieses sonst so hellglänzende Gestirn, zum wenigsten
* einige Augenblicke, in Mitten dem Nebel, in einer angenehmen purpur-blauen
* Farbe erschienen." As this is seen through "fog", I take it to be a
* "BLUE SUN" and not a bluish sunset flash, despite the "few moments"; as
* the date was July 29, 1703, this would be several hours before sunset.
* The solar after-images are nicely described under the heading "Von
* ungewöhnlichen in der Schweiz A. 1719. im Heumonat aus der Luft
* gefallenen Bläßgen oder Bullis " with a footnote: "Sihe gedachte
* Breßl. Sam~lung im Julio 1719, Class.IV. Art.IV." The classical
* particulars are there: a hazy sky, in which people could look at the Sun
* without discomfort; a series of images drifting across the sky; a variety
* of colors seen; the "bubbles" vanish into insubstantiality on falling to
* the ground; etc. "Es ist dieses völlig die gleiche Luft-Geschicht von
* Bläßgens oder Bullis , die A. 1553 den 21. Brachm. zu Sculs im
* Engadin ist angemerckt, und in unsrer Meteorol. Helv. p.96 beschrieben
* worden . . . ." Pfarrer Judas Uttiger in Lichtensteig sends him a detailed
* account, of which he writes that "er seye um dieser sehr seltsamen
* Luft-Geschichte willen zum drittenmal spazieren gegangen, und habe sich
* nicht genug verwundern können, daß die bey ihme stehende ihme gleichsam
* mit dem Finger die fliegenden und fallenden Luft-Kugeln gezeiget, deren
* er doch keine mit seinen eignen Augen sehen können." But those who lived
* on higher hills above the fog had seen nothing; "daraus sich schliessen
* läßt, die unterste Gegend der Athmosphaer seye sonderheitlich mit
* dicken Dünsten angefüllet gewesen, da hingegen die obere hell geblieben.
* Diese ganze Luft-Geschicht endlich scheinet es, könne als ein optisches
* Gesichtspiel, oder als ein Betrug unserer Augen, angesehen, und mit
* demjenigen verglichen werden, da einer, der die Sonne mit starren Augen
* anschauet, hernach, ob er die Augen gleich zuschliesset, das Bild der
* annoch scheinenden Sonne siehet oder zu sehen vermeynt, und sie zwaren
* siehet durch verschiedne Farben als roth, blau und so ferner, untergehen,
* bis sie völlig verschwindet."
* This is followed by two more very similar reports, in the last of which
* Scheuchzer himself finally gets to see the "Bläßgen" and confirms his
* opinion: ". . . so wie nemlich das dem Aug eingedruckte Bild der Sonne,
* welches eine Zeitlang, wann man auch gleich die Augen von der Sonne
* abwendete, bliebe, eine mehr oder minder stärckere Bewegung in den
* Augen-Nerven verursachte."
* The whole book is printed in old-style Fraktur, with little e's over
* the letters for umlauts. The Courier-like Roman type used is a poor
* match to the Fraktur. A much wider, different face is used for display
* type (still a Fraktur face). It's amazing that anyone would actually
* send this treasure out to another library; perhaps the dowdy 19th-Century
* re-binding deceived them into thinking it worthless.

“Notizen aus dem 17ten Jahrhundert von einigen merkwürdigen Meteoren,”
Gilb. Ann. Physik 30, 105–112 (1808).

* A collection of 17th-Century oddities, collected by "Landmesser Weise"
* taken from the Theatro Europaeo .
* Pp. 106-107 relate a double-Moon crescent of 15 July 1633.
* The SOLAR AFTERIMAGES are on pp. 107-108 and 109-110.

E. Acharius
“Besynnerligt Meteor-phenomén,”
Stockholm Acad. Handl. 29, 215–218 (1808).

* Erik Acharius's second-hand solar afterimage reports
* As Gilbert's German translation appears to be complete and satisfactory,
* see the next item for it.

E. Acharius
“Beschreibung eines besondern Meteors,”
Gilb. Ann. Phys. 52, 235–239 (1816).

* An early SOLAR AFTERIMAGE report (see next item for explanation)
* Also a good example of "mass hysteria" or mutual brainwashing by
* the inhabitants of a village: everybody came to believe "eine Menge
* Kugeln oder sphärische Körper nach einander mit Geschwindigkeit
* aufsteigen, die dem blossen Auge von der Grösse eines Hutkopfes
* erschienen, und eine dunkelbraune Farbe hatten." The mysterious
* "balls" vanished soon after falling to earth. One person saw them
* first, "und als es so lange dauerte, wurden nach und nach alle
* Dorfbewohner darauf aufmerksam, so dass es keine Täuschung seyn konnte,
* die bloss bei einem und dem andern Individuum hätte möglich seyn
* können." The Sun had been dimmed by a haze so "dass man ohne
* Unbequemlichkeit mit blossen Augen in sie hinein sehen konnte."

“Eine Bemerkung über das besondere, von Herrn Acharius beschriebene Meteor, welches vor einigen Jahren in Schweden gesehen worden ist,”
Gilb. Ann. Phys. 52, 342–343 (1816).

* The above phenomenon explained: ". . . der Grund der Erscheinung in einer
* Blendung der Augen durch die Sonne liege." The anonymous correspondent
* in Göttingen points out some earlier examples: "Dasselbe Phänomen
* erwähnen frühere Schriftsteller beinahe mit denselben Worten."
* Certainly true; but he gives the wrong page number (238 for 338) in
* Scheuchzer's Natur-Geschichte.

K. P. Jessen
“Neobyknovennoe yavlenie refraktsii, nablyudennoe v Yaponskom morye,”
Izvestiya Imperatovskogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva 50, 95–100 (1914).

* Admiral K. P. Jessen's odd account: afterimage or bleached areas?
* After establishing himself as an experienced observer of phenomena at
* sea in "my numerous navigations, carried out in all nearly 40 years,"
* with a brief account of mirages and looming seen in the Baltic in June,
* 1895, he gets to his main theme: an observation made at sunrise on 25
* Feb., 1902, 12 miles off "Cape Boltin, on the eastern coast of Korea."
*      "Standing on the command bridge together with the senior and junior
* navigating officers and the officer of the watch, I observed the rising
* sun: the horizon was perfectly clean, free of clouds and the rising
* sun appeared to us, as always, in the form of a continually increasing
* bright segment. Suddenly I, and behind me also the aforesaid officers,
* noticed on the perfectly clean disk of the sun a dark spot, continually
* increasing just like the rising sun above the horizon and little by
* little taking on the obvious form of a high mountain. In a few seconds
* a new spot appeared on the left beside this peak, gradually changing into
* another such summit, but lower, separated from the first by a deep pass.
* Finally, the entire disk of the sun was covered from limb to limb by
* a whole mountain massif, reaching to the very lowest limb of the sun as
* it rose. Just as the whole solar sphere separated from the water horizon,
* the whole phenomenon instantly vanished."
*      The accompanying drawings, based on sketches made as soon as he
* returned to his cabin, show two steep mountains appearing to rise together
* with the Sun, so that their image remains fixed with respect to its disk.
* (Considering the latitude of over 40°, this is impossible.) The
* Sun's disk is shown round, with no distortions.
*      "Obviously, those mountains which we saw so clearly on the solar
* disk had to be on a line between us and the rising sun. And, indeed,
* by constructing on a chart the aforementioned azimuth of the sun at the
* moment of its rising, it turned out that this line passed just through
* the high mountain Tonvumi-yama , located on the north-western part of the
* Japanese island of Nippon [sic -- he means Honshu], at north latitude
* 39° 5' and east longitude 140° 10', not far from the city of Akita.
* The distance from the cruiser to that mountain was 480 sea miles."
* An accurate calculation gives 897 km or 490 nautical miles.
*      He later gives the height of the mountain as 7130 feet.  The only
* mountain of this height near this location is Chokai-San; I cannot find
* any place in Japan with the peculiar name of "Tonvumi-yama" (which he
* repeats later); it might be a mistake for the lower peak Tokami-Yama.
* Photographs of Chokai-San show it has shallow slopes, like Mt. Fuji,
* quite unlike the "mountain" in the drawings. (As the Sun appears
* undistorted, the mountain should, too -- if it were real.)
*      His sunrise azimuth of 77° 40' E from S (or 102.3° by the usual
* astronomical convention) agrees well with calculation for the stated
* date and coordinates. He gives the time of sunrise as 6h 4m but fails
* to state whether this was LCT or zone time; predicted sunrise for the
* ship's position is indeed 6:04 zone time, however. As "The state of
* the weather was most ordinary: a light breeze and calm sea" and the
* accompanying table of meteorological data shows the water and air to
* have the same temperature within a few tenths of a degree, the most
* reasonable conclusion is that there was no mirage at all, and that the
* "mountain" was illusory. His drawings show the *lower* limb of the Sun,
* even where it should be occulted by the "mountain" if it were real!
*      I conclude that the "dark spots" were either afterimages or bleached
* areas on the observers' retinas. We have no direct accounts from the
* other officers present; they would be unlikely to contradict their
* commanding officer, I suspect.
*      Note that Korzenewsky (1923) says the distance claimed here was 1177 km
* but the actual value is just under 900 km.
* The title translates as:
* "Unusual phenomena of refraction observed in the Japanese Sea."
* "Read at the I.R.G.O. session for the sections of mathematical and
*                               physical geography, March 11, 1914"
*             Reports of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society
*      Of course the pre-Revolutionary alphabet and spelling are used:
*      К. П. Іессенъ
*      Необыкновенное явления рефракціи, наблюденное въ Японскомъ морѣ
*      Известія Императорскаго Русскаго Географическаго Общества


“The Peary expedition to the North Pole,”
Times (Lond.) , p.6 (20 July, 1908).

* Early mention of "Crocker Land" in the London Times
* "Crocker Land" appears 5 times, in passing.
* Dateline is "from our correspondent", New York, July 7 (1908)

“The Crocker Land Expedition under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History and the American Geographical Society,”
Science 35, 404–408 (1912).

* Plans for the "Crocker Land Expedition"
* "It is estimated that not less than fifty thousand dollars ($50,000)
* must be provided for the absolute needs of the expedition, in order to
* enable it to accomplish the valuable results that have been outlined
* above . . . . Subscriptions to the fund are invited."
* At this point, the expedition was to have been led by George Borup,
* then only 5 years out of Yale, with Donald B. MacMillan.

“The Crocker Land Expedition,”
Science 38, 120–121 (1913).

* The start: it is now "George Borup Memorial" with MacMillan leader
* "The original program of work for the expedition contemplated two
* years or three summer seasons in the Arctic, but supplies have been
* taken north which will enable the party to remain three years or even
* longer . . . ."

“Crocker Land eludes explorers,”
New York Tribune , pp.1, 4 (Nov. 25, 1914).

* The New York Tribune announcement that "Crocker Land" was a mirage
* "The news that the land was not seen . . . where Peary sighted it eight
* years ago, was received yesterday by the American Museum of Natural
* History. The news was relayed . . . through the courtesy of Knud
* Rasmussen" who is quoted from an interview. The word was received
* second-hand from Ekblaw, who met Rasmussen's men while hunting.
* MacMillan's full report "will wait until spring at Upernavik for the
* first Danish boat to convey it to Copenhagen. The report will then be
* cabled to the Tribune . . .      probably in April or May. . . ."

“The Crocker Land Expedition,”
Scientific American 111, 489 (Dec. 12, 1914).

* Scientific American reports that the N.Y.Tribune is the "mouthpiece"
* of the Expedition, and reports that the news that "Crocker Land does
* not exist" was in the Nov. 25 issue of the Tribune .

D. B. MacMillan
“In search of a new land,”
Harper's Mag. 131, 651–665, 921–930 (1915).

* Donald B. MacMillan's report on the expedition, in HARPER'S
* Contains the first-hand MIRAGE reports.
* There's not much of interest in the first installment, except for a
* discussion on p. 654 in which he mentions that he made a point of
* getting rid of "the older and more influential Eskimos, who seemed to
* be very much afraid of walking home in case their dogs should die. In
* a discussion of this kind as to what they should do, the younger men of
* the party listen respectfully to the opinion of their elders and do as
* they advise. Young Eskimos on a long and dangerous trip are much to be
* preferred, for they are fond of adventure and willing to take a chance,
* while the older men wish to make certain of getting home." He then
* says, "From the sixteen Eskimos I picked out seven who appeared to me
* to be of the right stuff and who, I thought, would go the limit."
* The second installment tells of reaching "Crocker Land" and contains
* the various well-known (but usually uncited) quotations. Page 924:
* "April 21st was a beautiful day; all mist was gone, the clear blue of
* the sky extending down to the very horizon. Green was no sooner out of
* the igloo than he came running back, calling in the door, `We have it!'
* Following Green, we ran to the top of the highest mound. There could be
* no doubt about it. Great heavens, what a land! Hills, valleys,
* snow-capped peaks extending through at least 120 degrees of the horizon.
* Anxiously I turned to Pee-ah-wah-to, asking him toward which point we
* had better lay our course. After critically examining it for a few
* minutes, he astounded me by replying that he thought it was `poo-jok'
* (mist). Ee-took-ah-shoo offered no encouragement, saying, `Perhaps it
* is.' Green was still convinced that it must be land. At any rate, it
* was worth watching. As we proceeded it gradually changed its appearance
* and varied in extent with the swinging around of the sun, finally at
* night disappearing altogether. As we drank our hot tea and gnawed the
* pemmican we did a good deal of thinking. Could Peary with all his
* experience have been mistaken? Was this mirage which had deceived us
* the very thing which deceived him eight years ago? If he did see
* Crocker Land, then it was considerably more than one hundred and twenty
* miles away . . . ." On the next page he mentions "our almost constant
* traveling companion, the mirage. We were convinced that we were in
* pursuit of a will-o'-the-wisp, ever receding, ever changing, ever
* beckoning." He then quotes from Peary's "Nearest the Pole" book (but
* gives no page reference.)
* On the return trip (p. 927): "Throughout the day the mirage of the sea
* ice, resembling in every particular an immense land, seemed to be
* mocking us. It seemed so near and so easily attainable if we would
* only turn back." On p. 928, he is standing on "the very spot" where
* Peary "saw what resembled land. The day was exceptionally clear, not a
* trace of a cloud or mist; if land could ever be seen, it could be now.
* Yes, there it was! It could even be seen without a glass extending
* from southwest true to north-northeast. Our powerful glasses, however,
* brought out more clearly the dark background in contrast with the
* white, the whole resembling hills, valleys, and snow-capped peaks to
* such a degree that, had we not been out there for one hundred and fifty
* miles, we would have staked our lives upon it. Our judgment then as
* now is that this was a mirage or loom of the sea ice."
* Oct. & Nov. issues

C. A. Reeds
“A perplexing phenomenon — Mirage,”
American Museum Journal 16, 512–524 (1916).

* a MIRAGE review article
* A popular and not very critical review, prompted by the article in
* Harper's Magazine debunking Peary's "Crocker Land". The images are
* drawn in both inferior and superior mirages at exactly the same
* distance from the observer as the object. He thinks the intermediate
* images in multiple mirages are all inverted, with only the top and
* bottom ones erect. (p. 519)
*      The striations of the Fata Morgana are supposedly "parallel with the
* axes of cylindrical air fields." [sic!] (p. 520)

“The Crocker Land Expedition,”
Science 45, 609–610 (1917).

* The rescue (3rd attempt!)
* Dr. Hunt has made it back, but MacMillan et al. are still isolated in
* northern Greenland. "Direct news" from MacMillan said "that he and
* his companions had only enough supplies to last them until August of
* this year" and that "both relief vessels sent to his aid, the
* George B. Cluett and the Danmark , have failed to reach him and urges
* that a third be sent . . . . This third effort to reach the party will
* cost at least $40,000, provided that the Neptune is able to reach the
* base at Etah . . . . The Committee hopes that in view of the extraordinary
* expenses it will receive substantial financial aid from the public."
* June 15 issue

“The Crocker Land Expedition,”
Science 45, 655–656 (1917).

* Further reports from Dr. Hunt
* The Danmark is stuck in 6 feet of ice and low on coal.
* June 29 issue

D. B. MacMillan
Four years in the white North
(Harper & Brothers, New York, 1918).

* Donald B. MacMillan's book
* This is the full text of the manuscript excerpted by Harper's in 1915.
* Some editor has now tidied up the prose a bit, restraining the somewhat
* breathless pace of the magazine version.

H. J. Hunt and R. H. Thompson
North to the Horizon: Searching for Peary's Crocker Land
(Down East Books, Camden, Maine, 1980).

* Dr. Harrison Hunt's story, assembled by his daughter, Ruth Hunt Thompson
* Apparently, the Expedition came near mutiny because MacMillan traded
* necessary supplies to the Eskimos for furs; see p. 71.
* According to Dr. Hunt, MacMillan was irresponsible and had
* "hoodwinked" the Museum. His view was shared by Captain Comer [of the
* Neptune ], who told Hunt's wife that "The whole expedition was founded
* on selfishness. Peary reached a little too far, wished to see land,
* thought he did, and claimed it, resulting in the Crocker Land fiasco . . .
* MacMillan used the expedition as his plaything . . . Dr. Hovey was
* penny-wise and pound-foolish . . . The Cluett was a sailing vessel, not
* fit for a relief ship, and not properly prepared . . . The last two years
* were the hardest, and they were unnecessary." (p.107)


“Observation faite a l'île d'Ouessant sur le coucher du soleil du 22 juillet 1854,”
C. R. Acad. Sci. (Paris) 39, 409–410 (1854).

* See also p. 207 of T.Forster (1824) for a double lunar crescent
* Probably an early BLEACHING observation
* "La journée avait été superbe, le ciel était sans nuages et
* la mer tranquille comme un lac. Le soleil, fort près de l'horizon,
* était rougeâtre comme dans les couchers ordinaires, et son disque
* paraissait à l'oeil nu parfaitement bien terminé. Le bord inférieur
* toucha d'abord l'horizon de la mer, puis le disque s'y enfonc,a peu à
* peu sans se déformer et en conservant sa netteté. Au moment où le
* centre de l'astre atteignait la ligne parfaitement définie qui limitait
* l'horizon de la mer, la partie supérieure du disque, la seule qui fût
* encore visible, se teinta subitement en bleu. Cette teinte nous sembla
* uniforme; elle rappelait exactement le bleu des liquides renferme's dans
* les bocaux que l'on voit ordinairement sur les devantures des pharmacies.
* Ce phénomène persista tout le temps qu'on vit la partie supérieure
* du soleil. Aussitòt après le coucher, l'horizon présenta son aspect
* ordinaire. On distinguait encore, à quatre ou cinq degrés au-dessus
* du point où le soleil avait disparu, trois petits nuages sous-tendant
* chacun un angle d'un ou deux degrés : encore éclairés par le soleil,
* leur lumière était, comme avant le coucher, d'un rouge cuivre très-vif.
* Je n'était pas seul à observer ce curieux spectacle . . . . A quelques
* détails près, nous avons tous été d'accord quand nous avons rassemblé
* nos souvenirs."
* Thanks to Luc Dettwiller for finding this!

Prof. Dr. Reimann
“Spiegelungen der Mondsichel,”
Met. Zs. 4, 144–145 (1887).

* This is the MULTIPLE LUNAR CRESCENT mirage reproduced by Minnaert!
* cf. Clark et al., M.O.1964, and Fultz, 1951.

J. Mintern
“A kaleidoscopic Sun,”
Met. Mag. 58, 10–11 (1923).

* Iridescent corona? Or what?

A. Hofmann
“Interessante Beobachtung einer Sonnenspiegelung,”
Met. Z. 49, 439–440 (1932).

* A curious observation -- not exactly a mirage, though.

D. Fultz
“An unusual double-refraction at high levels in the tropics,”
Bull. AMS 32, 102 (1951).


P. J. E. Marshall
“Abnormal refraction, North Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 22, 125 (1952).

* Probably not "abnormal refraction" at all, but an AFTERIMAGE report
* "The sun was setting, and about one minute after the sun's upper limb
* had completely disappeared below the horizon five completely circular
* images of the sun were seen to shoot up into the sky at about five
* second intervals."
* The Editor's comment that "it is obviously due to some peculiar form of
* abnormal refraction" is obviously wrong.

R. Richard
“Phénomène optique remarquable,”
La Météorologie , series 4, 32, 301–302 (1953).


E. Vassy
“Quelques remarques sur un phénomène de mirage du disque solaire,”
La Météorologie , series 4, 32, 302–303 (1953).

* ?? Off-base comment on the preceding report

E. G. O'Driscoll and F. G. Gurney
“Abnormal refraction, Van Diemen Strait, Japanese waters,”
Marine Obs. 24, 210 (1954).

* Would be an ordinary inf.-mir. sunrise, but 1st drawing makes no sense.
* N.B.: later drawings use circles; so drawings may not be accurate.

A. E. Williams
“Abnormal refraction, North Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 24, 210 (1954).

* "The moon also appeared to be changing colour from the normal yellow to
* green and deep red, and then back again, with a frequency of about 5 sec
* for the complete cycle."
* Otherwise, this would simply be a distorted moonrise.

O. Springett and G. Lowery
“Double Moon, South Pacific Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 25, 34 (1955).

* The colors seen here suggest a grating image. There had been heavy
* rain; could this be a wet grating on a window?

L. Poncelet
“Un curieux phenomene de refraction atmospherique,”
Ciet et Terre 71, 350–351 (1955).

* Surely this can't be right! Because it was taken with a short (45mm)
* lens, and the photo shows cloud strips, I suspect this is simply an
* overexposed image divided by a strip of cloud. It seems impossible to be
* a refraction effect as claimed, at 7 deg. 20 min. above the horizon!

J. K. Currie and J. Isbester
“Double Moon, Indian Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 26, 9 (1956).

* another fishy-sounding report:
* ". . . disappeared when viewed through a telescope . . . "

C. Rowntree
“Abnormal refraction, North Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Observer 27, 84–85 (1957).

* "The image was to the right of the true sun, there being no distortion
* of either. This phenomenon persisted for 2 min, after which the image
* gradually elongated in the direction of the true sun, eventually merging
* with it within 1/2 min."
* I think the editor's remarks are off the mark ("lateral mirage").

S. Gordon
“A green sun after sunset,”
Met. Mag. 87, 277–278 (1958).

* Certainly NOT a GF report; the colors sound like mother-of-pearl clouds,
* but the sharp outline is a puzzle.
* The editor's comments, which continue on p.278, are certainly off the mark.

G. W. B. Lloyd
“Abnormal refraction, South Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 29, 177–178 (1959).


L. G. Williamson
“Abnormal refraction, South Pacific Ocean,”
Marine Obs. 29, 178 (1959).


D. H. Clark, P. J. Morgan, and P. Dawson
“Abnormal refraction, Eastern Mediterranean,”
Marine Obs. 35, 122 (1965).

* The drawing is impossible -- something fishy here.
* (A crescent Moon cannot be seen when line of cusps is vertical.)

M. Minnaert
“Unusual or neglected optical phenomena in the landscape,”
JOSA 58, 297–303 (1968).

* Minnaert's review in JOSA
* Minnaert accepts the multiple images as real, largely because of
* Richard's photograph.

J. Richmond, W. Downing, R. Jones, R. C. Corbett, and R. Bush
“Abnormal refraction, South Pacific Ocean,”
Marine Observer 46, 172–173 (1976).

* These multiple images appear to be caused by reflections between glasses
* and eyeball? They are CERTAINLY SPURIOUS, as "This phenomenon could not
* be observed through binoculars or a telescope, it was, however, seen
* through `Polaroid' sunglasses. The phenomenon was also observed, though
* to a lesser degree, on the next five nights."
* The appearance also changed with position of the head, etc.

New Scientist 173, no. 2334, p.ibc (16 March, 2002).

* Several disparate phenomena are reported, but treated as if they
* were identical. The original report sounds like a reflection, but too
* few details are provided to identify it. The "answer" provided by John
* Richfield "explains" the report as a mirage, which it cannot be (because
* of the duration of over an hour). Richfield also seems to confuse
* inferior and superior mirages, and understands neither. The second
* "answer", supplied by Hector McDonnell, is clearly a sundog report;
* but he attributes it to "reflection of the Moon and Sun at particular
* angles off the water droplets", which is bizarre nonsense.
* Thanks to Storm Dunlop for the reference!

H. Gudiksen
New Scientist 173, no. 2336, p.ibc (30 March, 2002).

* A photograph that most likely shows a ghost image in the camera;
* certainly *not* an atmospheric phenomenon.
* Thanks to Storm Dunlop for a scan of the image!

*** "FOG" / DARK BAND --> this is the FOG FILE ***

C. N. Brown
“Mirage after sunset,”
Mon. Weather Rev. 33, 323 (1905).

* cf. photo in Gossard & Strauch book
* For early mentions of "fog", see Marra (1775?), Dickenson (1793),
* Mureau (1798, 1799), Beauford (1802). Kelly (1832), Parnell (1869),
* and Upham (1895).
* also: Schnippel; Bonnelance 1929; P&E pp.184-186 give a bad discussion.
* Many lights seen (looming?) from Staten Island at 8 pm, Aug.16
* "All this was seen right side up, and you can imagine how keenly we
* enjoyed it all and longed to reproduce it with a camera. After ten
* minutes during which time we went down to the beach (fourteen feet to
* sea-level), the vision passed suddenly away. At that moment the mirage
* cloud, which was before invisible, was seen. Then we saw in the usual
* place the real lights of Coney Island. This cloud was entirely
* horizontal, very narrow, black, and stationary."

F. J. W. W(hipple)
“The false horizon,”
Met. Mag. 55, 256 (1920).

* "The objects of this note are two: the first is to inquire whether there
* is any popular name for the phenomenon, which is, I am told, well known to
* sailors; the second is to ask for references to any measurements of sea
* and air temperatures in conjunction with observations of this character."

R. H. Jenkins
“Mirage at Skegness,”
Met. Mag. 56, 290 (1921).

* "At about mid-day peculiar cloud effects were noticed on the horizon,
* giving the appearance of a well-wooded tropical coast line. This became
* somewhat indistinct until 16 h. 30 m., when a faint darkness appeared on
* the horizon, increasing in density and in its liquid appearance until
* objects were noticed in an inverted position at an altitude of about two
* degrees [!] above the horizon."

W. Ullrich
“Starke Luftspiegelung im Golf von Tschili,”
Ann. Hydrog. Maritim. Met. 55, 352–353 (1927).

* "FOG" and STRIPES and mirages; TEMPERATURE of air about 4 deg. above water
* ". . . über dem ganzen Horizont ein mehr oder weniger starker
* Dunstschleier,. . . " followed by mirages of ships and looming of lights.
* "Gegen Abend bildeten sich in geringer Höhe über der Kimm die bei
* Luftspiegelungen gewöhnlich auftretenden Streifen, besonders am
* westlichen Horizont, also gegen die Sonne . . . ."
* N.B.: The Gulf of Chihli is the NW arm of the Yellow Sea, usually
* denoted as Bo Hai today, where the Yellow River has its mouth.
* November issue

J. R. Sherwood
“Mirage off Newfoundland,”
Met. Mag. 67, 259 (1932).

* Might be REAL FOG in the Straits of Belle Isle?
*      "At 8h. on August 17th, . . .  although it was perfectly clear and
* sunny where I stood on the shore, there was an extensive layer of fog
* at the scene of operations, about three miles out, and only the smoke
* of the Empress was visible above the layer. . . . I was startled to
* see the Empress above the fog completely upside down with her hull
* pointing skywards and her masts apparently resting on the layer of fog.
* The illusion lasted for about one minute and was perfectly clear in
* every detail when it finally disappeared and the ship came out of the
* fog in its normal position.
*      "On a previous occasion I saw three mountains on the Newfoundland
* coast, fifteen miles distant; their summits appeared to be resting on
* the water while the bases were pointing skywards."
* Dec. issue; cited in Hurd's review

W. E. Hurd
Refraction and mirage (on reverse of Pilot Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean)
(Hydrographic Office, Washington, DC, 1937).

* Willis Edwin Hurd's mirage review speaks of "MOCK FOG"
*       [Filed separately, because of bulk]
* A review of observations, mostly from the later 1920s and a few from
* the early 1930s; most taken from Marine Observer, but a few "from the
* Hydrographic Bulletin, published by the U.S. Hydrographic Office."
* There is a clear explanation of the terminology, but the observations
* are sometimes misinterpreted, and he seems to count looming in with
* mirages. He unfortunately also says the visibility of objects above
* the horizon when they are geometrically below "is of course an optical
* illusion." [middle of 4th paragraph]
*      In the middle of col. 3, he first says ". . .  along the line of
* sharpest density change . . . " and then later ". . . a further line of
* density discontinuity." Could this be where O'Connell got the notion
* of "surfaces of discontinuity"?
*      The lower part of Col.4 discusses the effects of height of eye, and
* distance to the miraged objects.
*      The end of col. 5 discusses "mock fog and haze bands".  The "fog"
* aspect is emphasized throughout the paper. He also uses the phrases
* "simulation of fog" and "optical haze".
*      The bottom of col. 6 mentions "waterfalls" that are apparently
* either discontinuities in the "horizon", or Lehn's "sea fences".
* Cites Barlow (1935, in "Mirage File"), as well as several other
* sources. Because of the large size, this is printed in 8 columns.
* This is known to have appeared on the backs of many Pilot Charts;
* I have seen references to ". . . of the Central American Waters" as
* late as 1944.
* THANKS to many people for finding this elusive item! Brenda Corbin
* was instrumental in getting in touch with the NIMA people, who
* eventually came up with it. I had references in the 1930s and '40s;
* but the last paragraph is a post-script saying that Barlow's article
* had appeared "Since preparation of the present . . . article". So the
* writing was evidently done by early 1935. According to Howard J. Cohen
* at NIMA, this was actually published in 1937. Finally, the chart was
* found in a *bound* volume by Albert E. "Skip" Theberge, Jr., at NOAA!
* But, as the format was about 3 ft by 4 ft (that's 75 x 100 cm for the
* metric part of the world), it was too big to photocopy. . . .
* He finally managed to get it photographed and scanned (as a 214 MB
* TIFF file!) Thanks to all these people for their Herculean efforts!

W. S. Skelton
“Nebraska mirages,”
Nature Mag. 34, 479 (1941).

* "When a gray, rather smoky and unnatural-appearing cloud lies along the
* horizon in the early morning, it is generally mirage material. Such a
* cloud will usually form into a clear cut mirage before the morning passes."
* "One fresh morning last autumn . . . a smoky, unnatural cloud graced the
* horizon to the southwest."
* "In the atmosphere at each end of the display the scenery feathered out
* into a misty cloud, which in turn extended ever dimmer into the clear
* sky."

R. Leeds
“Mirage, Spanish coast,”
Marine Obs. 17, 12–13 (1947).

* "The apparent bank of fog was probably an effect of mirage of the horizon."
* Air was 4 F warmer than sea.
* Note: this is shortly after M.O. resumed publication after WW II.

H. L. Holland and C. R. Kelso
“Abnormal refraction, Bay of Fundy,”
Marine Observer 22, 125 (1952).

* "From afar, it appeared as if the whole coastline was engulfed in a belt
* of fog with the higher land showing clear."
* "Air temperature 60 F, wet bulb 57, sea 55. The wind was light and
* variable."

S. L. Hoare, J. L. Blanch, and J. L. Chapman
“Abnormal refraction, South African Waters,”
Marine Observer 22, 125–126 (1952).

* "Approaching Cape St. Francis, a white mist appeared to creep under the
* land and apparently divided it from the sea." See Plate 2, facing p.128

J. McP. Pratt
“Abnormal refraction, Gulf of Aden,”
Marine Observer 24, 142 (1954).

* Here the band is described as a "DUST STORM"
* DOUBLE IMAGES appear in the "dust" band (with its "sharp top outline"!)

K. D. Billinghurst
“Abnormal refraction, South African waters,”
Marine Observer 25, 100–101 (1955).

* EXCELLENT detailed account of "FOG"
* flanked by rather ordinary mirage reports.
* ". . . what at first appeared to be a fog bank proved to be a mirage.
* With the coastline on the starboard side, distant 15 miles, a dark-blue
* mass, having every appearance of land with undulations as of hills, was
* seen on the port bow from about 4 points to 1 point off the bow where it
* faded into a white band above the horizon."
* ". . . the smoke from these whalers and from our own ship did not rise
* above mast height, but flattened out and hung in the atmosphere in a great
* band about 100 ft above sea level."
* Many nice details of observation, including the effect of eye height.

A. S. M. Jamieson and D. G. Whiteley
“Abnormal refraction, Tasmanian waters,”
Marine Observer 27, 83 (1957).

* ". . . a greenish fog or smoke bank . . . "

D. G. Whiteley
“Abnormal refraction, Strait of Gubal,”
Marine Observer 27, 83 (1957).

* ". . . a heavy whitish mist . . . "

B. P. Telfer
“Abnormal refraction, South Pacific Ocean,”
Marine Observer 27, 83–84 (1957).

* RED LINE MOONRISE (filed in wrong file here; on same page as previous)
* Seems to be also an example with a dark strip of sky at horizon (false hor.)
* ". . . was obviously in, not on, the water. . . . The moon then rose and the
* red, flame-like light disappeared, to be replaced by two half-moon shaped
* glows in the water."
* Probably belongs in "distorted" file?

B. G. Turner
“Abnormal refraction, Marguerite Bay, Antarctica,”
Marine Observer 30, 16–17 (1960).

* ". . . the lower ridges were obscured by a grey haze in which appeared
* many inverted icebergs. . . ."

R. J. Craddock
“Abnormal refraction, off Cape Finisterre,”
Marine Observer 30, 65 (1960).

* "All round on the seaward side, there was what looked like a high thick
* bank of fog, which at times resembled a mountainous coastline. This was
* found to have no real existence as it continued to recede as the ship
* advanced."

J. B. James
“Abnormal refraction, South Atlantic Ocean,”
Marine Observer 30, 66 (1960).

* ". . . towards sunset, when the sun's upper limb was still well above the
* horizon, an inverted image of this limb, but smaller in area, appeared
* beneath a narrow band of Sc lying very low on the western horizon."
* (Dwg. says "layer of stratocumulus not formed by the spreading of cumulus"
* and it is drawn absolutely flat -- blank strip?)

C. H. P. Brown and A. H. Hodgson
“Abnormal refraction, Australian waters,”
Marine Observer 30, 66 (1960).

* "The presence of a heavy grey-brown mist for much of the day gave rise
* to the impression that there was a double horizon. . . .      Cliffy Island
* and other small islands appeared very clearly on the `upper' horizon while,
* projecting downwards from them, was a mass of wavy-looking grey-green mist
* and haze." (triple images, a pair between the horizons)
* "Air temp. 81 F, sea 69."

J. M. Connoly and A. D. Fraser
“Abnormal refraction, South African waters,”
Marine Observer 30, 133–134 (1960).

* (belongs elsewhere, but is filed here because of the next item)

D. A. Hunt, A. O. Proudfoot, and B. G. Gouldthorpe
“Abnormal refraction, Australian waters,”
Marine Observer 30, 134 (1960).

* "During the afternoon the horizon was elevated by between 7 and 10
* minutes of arc above what appeared to be the normal sea horizon.
* All round the horizon there was a band of what looked like fog or mist
* but, on approaching the land, this mistiness disappeared."
* [Note observation of CONCAVE surface.]

J. Ratcliffe, T. V. Kinley, and R. J. Carty
“Abnormal refraction, Great Bank, Newfoundland,”
Marine Observer 32, 62 (1962).

* DOUBLE DARK BAND sketched -- just sup. mirages of the ocean?
*      ??? This seems to call for a weak duct inside a stronger one.
* "Around the horizon there appeared to be a large bank of fog, topped by
* two thin layers of low stratus. Beneath each layer of cloud there was an
* inverted image of the tanker. . . ."

J. Pilling and D. L. Smith
“Abnormal refraction, South Australian waters,”
Marine Observer 34, 18–19 (1964).

* ". . . the horizon appeared to become raised above the sea and separated
* from it by an indistinct misty band. . . . (opposite to the sun) the
* appearance was that of a bank of fog."

J. J. Gomez
“Abnormal refraction, Western North Atlantic,”
Marine Observer 35, 122 (1964).

* ". . . a layer of haze, dark grey in colour and with a clearly defined
* upper surface, was seen all round the horizon. One ship appeared to be
* completely inverted and an iceberg which was not visible to the naked eye,
* seemed to be hanging upside down from the top of the layer."

D. H. Clark, P. J. Morgan, and P. Dawson
“Abnormal refraction, Eastern Mediterranean,”
Marine Observer 35, 122 (1964).

* DOUBLED CRESCENT MOON like the one shown in Minnaert (Reimann, 1887)
* (same page as above; belongs in STRANGE PHENOMENA file)

*** LAPLACE, EXTINCTION, and AIRMASS FILE (see also LINK, below) ***

de Mairan
“Memoir sur la Cause generale du Froid en Hiver, & de la Chaleur en Eté,”
Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. 1719, 104–135 (1721).

* JEAN JACQUES D'ORTOUS DE MAIRAN's first paper on extinction
* He supposes the temperature difference between summer and winter is
* partly due to absorption of the Sun's heat in the atmosphere.
* Curiously, he invokes what is essentially Lambert's [1760] cosine law,
* by introducing the sines of the angles of "incidence" [by which he
* clearly means the altitudes, not the usual angle]; but then decides
* the factor of 3 between the noontime illuminances ought to be squared
* to allow for shadowing by irregularities (pp. 106-107).
*      Then he worries about the reflection loss at the upper surface of the
* atmosphere, which he argues might increase with obliquity, as does the
* reflection from water into air as the angle of total internal reflection
* is approached (p. 110). [There is an interesting quote from an earlier
* author about this surface.] But he decides that this is not what happens;
* on p. 111 he argues that the disappearance of the refracted light is
* abrupt. So he thinks the winter attenuation is due to the longer path.
* "Chaque rayon prêt à entrer dans l'Atmosphere, peut être consideré
* comme une balle de Mousquet tirée contre la surface de l'eau d'un
* Bassin, laquelle aura d'autant plus de chemin à faire dans l'eau,
* avant que d'en toucher le fond, qu'elle y fera tirée plus obliquement."
* So he argues that the path is inversely proportional to the sine of
* the angle of incidence, and that the intensity should therefore (!) be
* reduced by this factor yet again. (p. 112)
*      But then he has doubts, and wonders about an atmosphere "chargée
* de vapeurs & d'exhalations, telle qu'elle est ordinairement dans toute
* sa partie inferieure, lorsque le Soleil est proche de l'Horison, &
* sur-tout en Hiver." (p. 113).
*      He then makes the interesting observation that, at solar eclipses,
* one hardly notices the diminution of the light until the Sun is almost
* completely covered: ". . . j'aurois cru qu'au moins le tiers ou le quart
* de son disque venoit de se découvrir, & ce n'en étoit pas peut-etre
* la milliéme partie." (p. 115)
*      On p. 118 he considers the length of the day as a factor.  On pp.
* 127-128, he notes that refraction lengthens the day a little; but this
* "est de peu de consequence." [But he thinks it might be important
* near the Poles; and adduces (p. 129) the observations of Bilberg, and
* the Dutch "dans la Nouvelle Zemble."]
*      The rest of the paper is an attempt to square his numbers with
* actual temperature measurements. Really, a rather muddle-headed
* attempt all around.

de Mairan
“Eclaircissement sur le Memoire de la cause generale du froid en hiver, & de la chaleur en eté. Mem. 1719. page 104.,”
Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. (Paris) 1721, 8–17 (1723).

* DE MAIRAN's "Clarification"
* Here he realizes that the extra-atmospheric light of the Sun
* can be extrapolated from two measurements inside the atmosphere.
* Unfortunately, he assumes the light lost is proportional to the
* path length in the atmosphere -- wrong, but not bad near the zenith.
* [But at the horizon, the setting Sun disappears in his model!]
* He assumes a plane-parallel atmosphere (p. 10). He neglects refraction.
* The path lengths are, of course, inversely proportional to the sines of
* the altitudes.
*      In section II (p. 12) he considers the curvature of the atmosphere.
* However, he takes the height of the atmosphere to be 15 leagues of
* 2000 toises each, which is much too large; and consequently finds the
* horizontal path to be only 15 times the vertical one. (p. 13)
* "J'ai supposé AT de 20000 toises ou de 15 lieuës, qui est la
* hauteur qu'on donne aujourd'hui le plus communément à l'Atmosphere.
* . . . en faisant AT de 20000 toises ou de 10 lieuës, on trouve AH plus
* de 18 fois aussi grande que AT , . . . & en ne donnant que 1000 toises,
* ou environ demi-lieuë à AT , AH devient environ 74 fois aussi grande
* que AT . D'où il resulte . . . Que lorsque le Soleil est à l'horison,
* les vapeurs doivent nous intercepter une beaucoup plus grande partie de
* la lumiere que ne fait l'Atmosphere, non seulement parce qu'elles sont
* composées de parties plus denses, & peut-être moins transparentes que
* l'air, mais encore que se trouvant d'ordinaire fort près de la surface
* de la Terre, la ligne horisontale qui les travers a un beaucoup plus
* grand rapport avec leur hauteur. . . . Donc des vapeurs qui ne sont point
* du tout sensibles à la vûë, dans le cas des rayons perpendiculaires
* ou peu obliques, doivent affoiblir sensiblement la lumiere du Soleil
* cans le ca de la grande obliquité, & lorsqu'il approche de l'horison:
* ce qui s'accorde parfaitement avec l'experience . . . ." (p. 16)
*      On p. 17, he suggests that this obliquity to the vapors might explain
* the variations in the refraction near the horizon as well: "D'où il
* suite que des vapeurs de même nature & de même densité doivent
* donner une refraction horisontale d'autant plus grande, qu'elles sont
* moins élevées, ou que la couche qu'elles forment sur la surface de la
* Terre est moins épaisse."

“Diverses observations de physique générale. II.,”
Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. , 11–13 (1726).

* PIERRE BOUGUER's first photometric measurements, inspired by de Mairan
* Evidently written by the secretary, rather than Bouguer himself:
* "M. Bouguer, . . . dont nous avons déja parlé en 1721, ayant lû les
* Mémoires donne's par M. de Mairan en 1719 & 1721 . . . , chercha les moyens
* de découvrir par expérience le rapport des diférens degrés de lumiere
* du soleil à différentes élevations . . . ."
* Bouguer's measurements of extinction, and of the ratio of Sun and Moon,
* are reported here. The first date reported is 23 Nov. 1725.
* The copy on Gallica shows 1753 as the publication date on the title
* page; that must be a reprint, as Bouguer corrects a typo on p. 12
* of it in his 1729 "Essai" (below). There are other typos here, too:
* e.g., "lamiere" on p. 11.

[P. ] Bouguer
Essai d'Optique sur la Gradation de la Lumiere
(Claude Jombert, Paris, 1729).

* PIERRE BOUGUER's "Essai" (1729)
* Bouguer corrects de Mairan's faulty assumptions, and publishes his own
* airmass table. Only 164 pages are numbered.
*      In the Preface, one reads that "C'est Snellius qui a le premier
* découvert la loi de ces réfractions; mais M. Descartes la considérant
* de plus près, en a poussé l'application extrêmement loin." He cites
* de Mairan's 1721 memoir, which inspired his own investigation.
* He also corrects a typo from his 1726 entry in the Histoire .
*      de Mairan is cited again on p. 21.  He then describes his observations
* of the Moon, and its attenuation at the horizon, "sujet à de très-grande
* varietez;" -- ascribed to "vapeurs", of course. He then endorses de
* Mairan's notion that this is connected with the variations of refraction
* at low altitudes. (p. 25)
*      In paragraph VII, p. 28, he compares the Sun with the full Moon, finding
* a ratio of about 300 000.
*      His detailed discussion of atmospheric transmission begins on p. 146.
* Here is the origin of the term "air mass". The "Table des masses d'air"
* appears on p. 160. See Bemporad's criticism of Bouguer's derivation.
*      The curious remarks about refraction (see next entry) are on p. 151
* here. Most of this atmospheric discussion is reprinted unchanged in the
* 1760 Traité (below).

[P. ] Bouguer
De la Méthode d'Observer Exactement sur Mer la Hauteur des Astres
(Claude Jombert, Paris, 1729).

* PIERRE BOUGUER's "Prize Essay" (1729)
*      The first part discusses instruments and their use; the second, the
* necessary corrections to the observations, for both refraction and dip.
* Our concern here is in the corrections, which begin on p.35 [image 46
* of the PDF cited below.]
*      Bouguer immediately points out that the angles made by the rays with
* the spherical surfaces of the atmospheric layers are changing with
* distance, and that "cette diversité d'angles d'incidence . . . vient
* principalement de la courbure des couches . . . ." This is why one can
* not apply the famous theorem promoted by Newton in his Opticks to
* the atmosphere. However, on pp. 41-42 a similar invariant for
* the curved atmosphere appears: ". . . les perpendiculaires tirées
* du centre de la terre sur les tangentes de cette courbe, seront
* continuellement proportionelles aux . . . des dilatations . . . ." (This is
* all done in geometric terms, using proportions; but basically he has
* the refractive invariant here.) In the process, he has developed the
* differentials of refraction at each level in the atmosphere.
*      Bouguer calls the curved path of the ray "le Solaire", and is
* concerned to find its shape. By taking account of the curvature of the
* Earth and its atmosphere, he assumes that the ray makes the same angle
* at each spherical surface, so that the ray paths are logarithmic spirals
* [p. 43].
*      On p. 44, he does the inverse problem, and introduces the sine of the
* apparent zenith distance at the observer, calling it c . This angle is
* the complement of the apparent altitude of the star. [Two decades later,
* he develops this theory more clearly, in his "Second Memoir" published
* in 1753.]
*      On p. 47 he writes down an integral for the astronomical refraction.
* His ignorance of the gas laws leads him to believe that the refractions
* are caused by a "refractive material" different from air. [p. 48].
* (His problem is that he expects the refractive index to be the same
* thing as the "refractive power " -- i.e., the refractivity.) So he
* assumes that the sines of the angles are some power of the dilations
* of the air, and that these are proportional to some power of the
* distance from the center of the Earth. But these "dilations" are (in
* modern terms) just inversely proportional to the refractive indices.
*      So in fact, this amounts to an assumption that the refractivity is a
* power of the radius, which is equivalent [we now know] to assuming the
* density to be a power of the pressure: he has accidentally adopted a
* polytropic model! So, luckily, he finds his model gives a refraction
* that is a constant fraction of the horizontal arc traversed by the ray
* -- "which is very remarkable!" [p. 49]
*      As his Fig. 11 is already too cluttered with about 30 labelled points,
* he removes some of them to make room for more labels, in Fig. 12. Here
* again (p. 50) we have the complement of the apparent altitude of a star.
*      So [p. 52] he can construct his refraction table geometrically from
* his logarithmic spiral, given the exponent in the power law. In §.L.
* [p. 53] he explains the details of this process, which requires finding
* the exponent m and the height of the atmosphere. "But nothing is
* easier than to discover these two quantities," says Bouguer [p. 54]
* (though Cassini had a much harder time to do so in a simpler model).
* He has only to fit his model to exact observations of the refraction at
* two different apparent altitudes. He assumes the horizontal refraction
* is one of the known values, and derives an expression for the refraction
* at some other altitude. He then develops an iterative solution for the
* two parameters; this involves the ratio of the sine and cosine of the
* apparent altitude.
*      In fact, he calls the sine of the apparent altitude q  and the sine of
* its complement (i.e., the zenith distance at the observer) p . (P.54)
*      In §.LII. [p. 56] he then shows how to calculate refraction for any
* given altitude -- i.e., how to build a refraction table. He adopts
* 33' for the horizontal refraction, and 2' 12" for 26° altitude.
* These values allow him to compute a new refraction table; he does the
* calculation using 7-place log tables. His new table of astronomical
* refractions is on p. 59 [PDF image 66]. The values are about 10% too
* high, but they do increase steadily near the horizon.
*      In §.LVI. [p. 61] he compares his results with the works of Tycho and
* Cassini II.
*      On the next page (and Chapter), he discusses the dip of the horizon.
* His dip table [p. 65] is for heights in feet and inches, as the metric
* system had not yet been invented. But on the next page, he points out
* that the ray curvature should decrease the dip slightly. And on the
* next page, he begins the investigation of this correction. And on
* p. 70, he gives a revised dip table.
*      Unfortunately, on p. 72 he blames the irregularities of refraction on
* the "vapeurs qui se soutiennent dans la partie basse de l'Atmosphere,"
* and so excuses any discrepancies between his tables and observations.
*      Available at
* NOTE: the text is often obscured by wrinkles in the paper.
* DOI:
*      A MUCH better scan is available at
* Thanks to Luc Dettwiller for this link!

P. Bouguer
Traité d'Optique sur la Gradation de la Lumiere
(H.L.Guerin & L.F.Delatour, Paris, 1760).

* PIERRE BOUGUER's posthumous "Traité" (1760)
*      There is an interesting Preface ("Avertissement") by the Abbé de la
* Caille, who edited Bouguer's work and saw it through the press.
*      Bouguer has some curious remarks about refraction (pp. 326-327):
* "Il faut remarquer, que nous négligeons ici la courbure que
* la réfraction fait souffrir aux rayons de lumiere, quoique cette
* courbure les rende un peu plus longs. Il est certain que la réfraction
* astronomique est trop petite , pour que le rapport des sinus d'incidence
* & de réfraction soit conforme à celui des densités de l'air.
* La réfraction suit certainement un autre rapport ; & peut-être
* aussi qu'elle est causée par une matiere particuliere répandue dans
* l'Atmosphere, comme l'ont déja soupçonné quelques Auteurs."
* He then shows how the problem is more complicated if refraction is
* included, so "qu'il est très-difficile de découvrir la relation que
* suivent entr'elles les condensations u de la matiere réfractive; &
* d'ailleurs comme la plus grande réfraction astronomique n'est pas même
* de deux tiers d'un dégré, nous ne rendrions pas notre calcul beaucoup
* plus exact. C'est pourquoi nous négligerons la réfraction . . . ."
*      The airmass table is on p. 332.  This is available at Gallica!
* Note the English translation by W. E. Knowles Middleton (Toronto, 1961).

P. S. Laplace
Traité de Mécanique Céleste, tome 4, liv. X, Ch. III
(J.B.M.Duprat, Paris, 1805).

* Ch. I begins the treatment of refraction; Ch. III is the extinction theorem
* See fuller treatment under "General refraction references".

J. D. Forbes
“On the transparency of the atmosphere and the law of extinction of the solar rays in passing through it,”
Phil. Trans. 132, 225–273 (1842).

* FORBES EFFECT -- Forbes's Bakerian Lecture
* See the interesting discussion of Laplace's theorem, and airmass
* generally, in section III, pp. 233-241.
* Forbes says (p.234) that Lambert derived the sec z formula as an
* approximation to the path length in the uniform model, citing p. 393
* of Lambert's Photometria . He has some criticism of L. on p.235.
*      Note his treatment of the refraction law on p.237:
* after stating the ratio of sines, he says, "This optical principle
* is derived from experience." [So much for Descartes!]

M. J. Maurer
Die Extinction des Fixsternlichtes in der Atmosphäre in ihrer Beziehung zur astronomischen Refraction
(David Bürkli, Zürich, 1882).

* Maximil. Julius Maurer's feeble effort
* The historical part is weak, depending mostly on Bruhns for the
* refraction. He shows how little had been done in extinction; this makes
* Bemporad's later remarks about neglect more comprehensible.
*      See pp. 21-22 for some snide remarks about Lambert, who thought sec z
* was adequate to 80°. Maurer denotes the airmass function as \Sigma.
*      On p.22, he introduces Laplace's theorem, though without understanding
* well the importance of the isothermal assumption.
*      On p. 34, there is a curious digression into the arguments of Cheseaux
* and Olbers, and then W. Struve (p. 35) for the absorption of light by
* dust ("fein zertheilter ponderabler Materie im Weltraume") in space. (p.1)
*      The more interesting attempt to calculate airmass begins on p. 41;
* but, alas! he adopts an effective height of the atmosphere of 65 km
* (p. 51) and so greatly overestimates the curvature effects. So his
* airmass table (p. 53) gives only 14.961 at the horizon!
*      Interestingly, he already (p. 55) points out that the use of
* time and spherical astronomy to calculate ZD gives "die w a h r e n
* Zenithdistanzen der beobachteten Sterne" in Seidel's work.
* This is Maurer's 58-page Inaugural-Dissertation, done under Rudolf Wolf.

F. Hausdorff
“Ueber die Absorption des Lichtes in der Atmosphäre,”
Berichte über die Verhandlungen der Königlich Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, Mathematisch-Physische Classe 47, 401–482 (1895).

* FELIX HAUSDORFF's Habilitationsschrift
* Yes, this is the famous topologist; he started out as a student of
* Heinrich Bruns, writing a thesis on refraction in 1891.
*      The style (and notation) is similar to Bruns's: clear, explicit, and
* original. Following Bruns (1891), he immediately notices the important
* product r⋅μ, which he denotes by ν (p.402). He notes (p. 403)
* (cf. Bruns's p.169 footnote) that the refractivity can be proportional
* to [(almost any power of the refractive index) - 1], so that we can
* choose the power to make the integrals easy --- noting that T. Young had
* already made the choice (as he does here) of the first power, in his
* Nautical Almanac tables.
*      P.407: he notes there is a formal relationship between the power
* series for refraction and extinction (in terms of powers of tan Z); but
* "Es wäre zwecklos, diese sehr complicirten Ausdrücke aufzustellen,
* da eine Ermittlung . . . aus den Beobachtungen direct . . . wegen der
* Unsicherheit der Messungen im Horizont ganz illusorisch wäre."
*      P.408: He describes the airmass "als reducirte Weglänge  des
* Strahles" and shows how the extinction can be expressed in magnitudes.
*      P.412: He notes that Laplace's approximations have neglected an
* appreciable term, so that the ratio of extinction to refraction contains
* a factor of 1/10 in the zenith, but 1/7 at the horizon. ". . . die
* Laplace'sche Formel . . . die hier dem Gliede erster Ordnung entspricht,
* ist also entschieden unvollständig. Dass sie trotzdem . . . nahezu
* dieselben Resultate ergiebt wie die strengere Formel . . . , liegt daran,
* dass die . . . Coefficienten . . . bis zu hohen Zenithdistanzen einander
* nahezu proportional laufen . . . ."
*      P. 417: he recommends a ZD near 87° as a fitting point, in fitting
* 3 parameters (the other two being at Zenith and Horizon).
*      P. 420:  He notes that twice the path, where the ray is horizontal,
* gives values needed for the theory of lunar eclipses.
*      P. 421: note remark on semiconvergent series for Kramp's function.
* In Section II (p. 422), he takes a more general approach to resolving
* the discrepancy between theory and observation, by abandoning Laplace's
* proportionality between density (i.e., refractivity) and extinction.
* He notes (p. 423) that this assumption leads neither to closed-form
* expressions nor to a good agreement of theory and observation; while
* taking the absorption as an arbitrary function of height allows a test
* of assumptions about the atmosphere, while operating with closed-form
* expressions instead of series expansions. Here he takes the (nR)
* product as the independent variable!
*      This leads (p. 427) to a more general relationship between refraction
* and extinction than Laplace's formula, and one which has "den viel
* weiteren Sinn einer Functionalbeziehung, eines »heuristischen Princips«
* . . . ." (There is still the form of Laplace's relation, though.)
*      Semiconvergent series again appear on pp. 431 and 433, as ways to
* evaluate Kramp's (and related) function(s).
*      On p. 439, he derives a generalized form of Lambert's extinction
* formula, attributing the simple sec Z form to Pouillet.
*      With his decomposition of the extinction into component terms, he
* can represent the observations tolerably exactly -- indeed, I must say
* this is greatly over-analyzing the (rather shaky) data (pp. 440-441).
* On p. 442, he admits as much, pointing out that the result is not
* physically possible: ". . . also die Darstellung der Müller'schen Zahlen
* auf diesem Wege illusorisch ist." (The absorptions become negative.)
*      Consequently, in section III (pp. 445 ff.) he investigates what is
* physically possible (i.e., sets limits on the possible extinction
* corrections to the zenith, assuming a positive absorption coefficient
* throughout the atmosphere.) This is done very elegantly by investigating
* the mathematical properties of the extinction integral. The result
* (p.451) is that Müller's values up to 70° ZD cannot represent a
* physically possible run of the absorption coefficient in the atmosphere:
* ". . . die Potsdamer Zahlen wären also in den mittleren Zenithdistanzen
* erheblich zu gross." [So here we see that rara avis , a theoretician
* who actually can detect bad observations!] He tries a more complicated
* (2-term) fit, with similar results: "Diese Zahlen lehren, dass der
* Müller'sche Werth für θ = 75° um mindestens 8 Einheiten der
* letzten Stelle zu gross ist; wollte man ihn beibehalten, so käme man auf
* enorme Widersprüche in den nächsthöheren Zenithdistanzen, z. B. für
* θ = 85° auf eine Mindestabweichung von 0.160."
*      Adding more terms to fit more points makes matters worse (p. 452); so
* "Wir schliessen . . . dass eine absolute Darstellung der Müller'sche
* Zahlen durch einen zulässigen Werthverlauf . . . unmöglich ist. . . .
* Auf eine Fehleranhäufung zwischen 60° und 80° liess auch der Gang
* der Widersprüche zwischen M und Laplace schliessen." [ M = Müller ]
*      On p. 454, he shows that a fair fit to Müller's data can be obtained
* with a simple rational formula; however, it allows no significant
* improvement. On the next few pages (455-457), he shows that a
* considerably better fit can be obtained by adding a thin absorbing layer
* to the normal atmosphere. This layer turns out to have a height between
* 50 and 170 km; he suggests it could be meteoric dust. [Perhaps it's
* an alias of the ozone layer?] In the subsequent discussion (p. 458),
* he remarks that two acceptable formulae can give quite different zenith
* transmissions; "dies errinnert uns daran, dass Beobachtungen einer
* Station in verschiedenen Zenithdistanzen noch nicht genügen, einen
* Schluss auf die Constitution der Atmosphäre zu begründen, sondern durch
* Beobachtungen auf Stationen verschiedender Meereshöhe zu ergänzen sind."
* He even considers formulae that allow absorption in space, wherein the
* excess of the horizontal over the vertical extinction would be due to the
* one-Earth-Radius longer path length at the horizon! "Derartige Curiosa
* sind bei Formeln mit unendlicher Atmosphäre, die sich der Beobachtung
* einigermassen anschliessen, zwar nicht zu befürchten, wohl aber, dass
* sie den Transmissionscoefficienten zu klein ergeben." (Variants on this
* theme, in which the infinitely thin absorbing layer is replaced by some
* formula with a maximum high in the atmosphere, are also explored.)
*      In comparing a number of these variants with observation, he finds
* (p. 463) that there is a tradeoff between the deviations between 60 and
* 80°, and those between 85 and 87.5°: one increases while the other
* decreases. So all these models are so similar that one can only
* conclude "dass die absorbirende Kraft der Atmosphäre zwar zuerst
* mit wachsender Höhe abnimmt, in grösseren Höhen aber (50 bis 200 km)
* wieder merkliche Werthe besitzt."
*      In the next section (pp. 464 ff.) he considers additional data, which
* help limit the possibilities. One is the run of the data near the
* horizon: "Für die Horizontalabsorption finden sich aus unseren Formeln
* alle möglichen Werthe bis zu ∞ . . . ." But more important is the
* comparison of data from different heights above sea level. For this,
* he uses Müller's observations from Säntis. These allow some of the
* worst models to be rejected.
*      Note: on p. 469, he points out that both Müller's tables and Seidel's
* use true rather than refracted zenith distances as arguments.
*      P. 472: at last he comes to Langley's objections (i.e., the Forbes
* effect). He develops this theory in general terms, introducing a
* function s that is the base-10 equivalent of sinh(x)/x. He then
* finds (p. 478) that introducing this effect greatly improves the
* agreement with observation, but without greatly changing the zenithal
* transmission value for integrated light. (Unfortunately, he does not
* cite Forbes's paper.)
*      P. 480: "Diese Rechnungen mögen genügen, um zu zeigen, dass man
* mit der Langley'schen Bemerkung in der That einen weit besseren Anschluss
* an die Beobachtungen erzielen kann als durch die Laplace'sche Formel."
* But (p. 481) the zenith transmission for integrated light is always
* close to 0.8, not Langley's 0.6.
*      The conclusions of the paper are summarized on p. 481.
* NOTE: This volume is available at Google Books.

A. Bemporad
“Zur Theorie der Extinktion des Lichtes in der Erdatmosphäre,”
Mitt. Grossherzogl. Sternwarte Heidelberg , Nr. 4, 1–78 (1904).

* ``Ein mit der astronomischen Strahlenbrechung sehr verwandtes Problem
* ist das der Extinktion des Lichtes in der Erdatmosphäre. Während wir
* aber von Kepler bis Radau eine grosse Zahl von Theorien der Refraktion
* verzeichnen können, fehlt es bis jetzt überhaupt an einer Theorie der
* Extinktion des Fixsternlichtes, welche mit ähnlicher Strenge und
* Vollständigkeit wie die ersteren entwickelt ist. Dies kann Überraschen,
* wenn man die Wichtigkeit und das immer mehr sich steigernde Interesse
* bedenkt, welches die photometrischen Beobachtungen seit Jahrzehnten
* geniessen, und noch mehr, wenn wir die bis jetzt entwickelten Theorien der
* Extinktion mit den umfangreichen Beobachtungsarbeiten auf demselben
* Gebiete vergleichen.'' [1st para. of Intro.!]
*      Bemporad, like Forbes, criticizes Lambert (p.8) for his empiricism.
* The historical review is mostly devoted to the isothermal model and
* Laplace's theorem. However, B. shows that the homogeneous model has
* a series expansion in which the second term already has half the size
* of that for the isothermal model (p. 11); thus there is no equivalent
* of Oriani's theorem for extinction.
* B. adopts gradient of 6.22 deg/km to at least 9 km (maybe all the way?)
* (n-1)2 = 1.0005864 for 0 C and 760 mmHg
* R = 6377.36 km; g=9.8052m/sec2; p=1013.168 = 760 mm
* finds M(87)=15.364; 88: 19.787; 89: 26.959; 89.5: 32.332; 90: 39.651
* adopts gradient of 6.21 deg/km in summary table (?).
* finds M(87)=15.365; 88: 19.787; 89: 26.959 in F(z) table.
*      Published by "W. Valentiner" (Karl Wilhelm Valentiner, says Wikipedia.)

K. Rohlfs
Tools of Radio Astronomy
(Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1986), pp. 165–168.

* ROHLFS mentions Bemp. and Schoenberg, calling airmass X(z)
* He gives the airmass integral, and then: "Bemporad [no citation] and
* Schönberg (see Schönberg (1929)) have done extensive investigations
* of X(z), and a Chebyshev-fit to these data up to X = 5.2 with an error
* of less than 6.4 ⋅ 10-4 is given by" a cubic polynomial in sec z.
* "Such a formula should indeed be used in radio astronomy because
* measurements are often made at zenith distances up to 80° (or even
* more!)" [p. 166]
* On p. 168, he gives an expression for the radio refractivity,
* and suggests that an error of 15% would be acceptable, so that "mean
* refraction can be used and this closely resembles the optical refraction.
* Therefore for z < 80°
*            Δ z = β tan z ,            β = 1.'50 .
* The ratio of radio to optical refraction is . . . 1.56; thus for larger
* zenith distances, optical refraction tables can be used, provided the
* result is correspondingly multiplied." Tsk, tsk.

L. K. Kristensen
“Astronomical refraction and airmass,”
AN 319, no. 3, 193–198 (1998).

* L. Kahl Kristensen rediscovers Laplace's theorem and the rational approx.
* with comments on Wittmann's refraction paper. He shows the constancy of
* the ratio r(z)/(M(z)*sin z) for the std. and isothermal models.
*      There is some discussion of parallactic refraction as well.
* Thanks to ADS for making this available!

K. C. Chambers
“Astrometry with Pan-STARRS and PS1: Pushing the limits of atmospheric refraction, dispersion, and extinction corrections for wide field imaging,” in Astrometry in the Age of the Next Generation of Large Telescopes , P. K. Seidelmann and A. K. B. Monet, eds., (ASP Conference Series, Vol. 338)
(ASP, Provo UT, 2005), pp. 134–144.

* Chambers knows about Laplace's theorem, but . . .
* . . . proposes to use it to calculate airmass for photometric reductions,
* via the Saastamoinen method for calculating the refraction! (pp.142-143)
* There are also some other scary bits, like giving a CO2 refractivity to
* 3 sig. figs. without a dispersion term, and the use of a scale height
* that assumes a fixed water-vapor mixing ratio, and "the local radius of
* the reference ellipsoid" for the radius in calculating h/R . . . .
* [This group's use of square-sided passbands also does not increase
* confidence that they know what they are getting into.]

S. N. Kivalov
“Improved ray tracing air mass numbers model,”
Applied Optics 46, 7091–7098 (2007).

* Sergey Kivalov's new method of calculating airmass

Siebren Y. van der Werf
“Comment on "Improved ray tracing air mass numbers model",”
Appl. Opt. 47, 153–156 (2008).

* Siebren's comment on Sergey's paper
* "Ray tracing by path length is shown to avoid singularities both at
* the horizon and in the zenith. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical
* integration scheme is presented, which treats refraction and air mass
* as path integrals."
* Interesting comparison of choices of independent variables.

Ígor Rapp-Arrarás and Juan M. Domingo-Santos
“Extinction, refraction, and delay in the atmosphere,”
J. Geophys. Res. 113, D20116 (27 Oct., 2008).

* These guys took up my suggestion to show that the "mapping function"
* of the radio scientists is essentially the airmass function.

Ígor Rapp-Arrarás and Juan M. Domingo-Santos
“Functional forms for approximating the relative optical air mass,”
JGR: Atmospheres 116, D24308 (27 Dec., 2011).

* Fine REVIEW of 26 airmass approximation formulae

J. G. Mangum and P. Wallace
“Atmospheric refractive electromagnetic wave bending and propagation delay,”
PASP 127, 74–91, 500–501 (2015).

* Jeffrey G. Mangum and Patrick Wallace review refraction and airmass
* for radio astronomers. There is much emphasis on water-vapor effects
* at microwave frequencies.
*      They cite my 2004 AJ paper but not the 2006 tutorial paper in Obsy.,
* or the 2008 and 2011 papers by Ígor Rapp-Arrarás and Juan M. Domingo-Santos
* cited above.
*      Don't overlook their 2-page Erratum on pp. 500-501.

*** LINK FILE ***

F. Link
“Théorie photométrique des éclipses de Lune,”
Bull. Astron. 8, 77–108 (1933).

* Logically belongs with the AIRMASS file because of Link's work on both.
* Link's thesis on lunar-eclipse photometry: he invents a Biot-like scheme
* He shows very clearly the relation between REFRACTION and AIRMASS:
* refraction is proportional to the integral of a function with respect
* to ρ , but airmass is the same function integrated with ρ dh.
* He shows a graph of his refraction integrand at the horizon.
*      The part about refraction is on pp. 89-92.  He does the integrals
* graphically!

F. Link
“Nouvelles Tables de masses d'air,”
J. Obs. 17, No. 3, 41–48 (1934).

* Link's "new airmass table" denotes airmass as M
* He uses his graphical method to do the numerical quadratures. The
* atmospheric data are from Humphreys's book.
* Remarkably, there is no mention of Bemporad!
* Available from ADS.

F. Link
“Masses d'air et réfractions sous diférentes latitudes et en diférentes saisons de l'année,”
J. Obs. 20, 165–171 (1937).

* Link repeats his exposition here, and clearly explains the refr./airmass
* relationship. Fig. 1 shows his airmass integrand for 90 and 84° ZD.
* "La forme générale des courbes . . . montre que la valeur
* des intégrales correspondantes dépend surtout des conditions
* météorologiques dans la basse atmosphère. L'importance des couches
* élevées décroit assez vite pour qu'on puisse les négliger ou mieux
* les remplacer par leurs valeurs moyennes." (p. 166)
*      He also suggests that, as a complete atmospheric sounding is needed
* to determine the refraction and airmass near the horizon, "Le procédé
* inverse ne paraît pas impossible à première vue . . . ."
*      Cites Tikhov (1936) for large (2°) refractions in winter.
* Again, no mention of Bemporad!
* Available from ADS.

*** GENERAL BOOK FILE (TEXTBOOKS, review articles, and reference works) ***

I. Newton
(Dover, New York, 1952), pp. 271–273.

* Book Two, Part III, Prop. X contains the result that in plane-parallel
* media, "the Sum of all the Refractions will be equal to the single
* Refraction which it would have suffer'd in passing immediately out of the
* first Medium into the last." He uses this to derive the "Refraction
* of the Air" from "that of the Atmosphere observed by Astronomers."
*      "Based on the Fourth Edition London 1730"; the same passages occur on
* pp. 73-74 of the first edition (1704), which is available at
* The 1704 edition ends with Query 16 of Book 3, Part I, which is on p.347
* of the Dover edition, and p. 137 of the 1704 edition. After that, the
* first edition contains two mathematical treatises in Latin on third
* order curves, and the quadrature of curves.

Histoire de l'Astronomie au Dix-Huitième Siècle
(Bachelier, Paris, 1827).

* DELAMBRE/Mathieu "Histoire"
* Mathieu edited Delambre's manuscipt for publication, adding extensive
* footnotes and comments of his own, and analysing many old observations
* in the light of current understanding c. 1825.
*      Of importance here are the extensive discussions of astronomical
* refraction (indexed on p. xlvi = image 54 of the Gallica PDF); the
* discussion of mirage observations by both Le Gentil and by Mathieu and
* Biot in Mathieu's long footnote on pp. 695-697 (Gallica images 756-758);
* and Mathieu's special "Note" on pp. 774- 796 (images 835-857) discussing
* refraction. The main text ends with Ivory's 1823 work, which was very
* fresh when this was published. The Note refers to Plana's 1823 paper;
* unfortunately, the "Histoire" was published just a year before Plana's
* even more thorough 1828 paper.
*      In the mirage discussion (p. 696), Mathieu says: "Ces apparences
* singulières ne sont pas rares dans nos climats, car, pendant
* l'hiver de 1808. je me trouvais à Dunkerque avec M. Biot, et nous
* avons eu ocoasion de voir des effets très variés de réfraction
* extraordinaire. Nous étions presque sûrs de les retrouver quand nous
* nous rendions au bord de la mer, après un abaissement brusque dans la
* température de l'air." On the next page he adds: ". . . et il parait
* bien constant que, quand il a lieu, l'air est toujours plus froid que le
* sol. Les doubles images qui produisent les phénomènes du mirage et de
* la simple suspension peuvent même se former quand les rayons visuels
* rasent de la glace ou de la neige, pourvu que ces corps soient à une
* température plus élevée que celle de l'air."
*      Mathieu accepts Arago's spurious "disproof" of Bouguer's observation
* of solar limb-darkening.
*      The title page says "Publiée par M. Mathieu", which should technically
* make him the publisher; but in fact he was the editor (as well as a
* co-author!).
*      Available from Gallica; the PDF image numbers are larger than the page
* numbers by 61. Gallica's PDF contains the Figures at the end.

D. Brewster
A Treatise on Optics
(Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, London, 1831).

* David BREWSTER's "Treatise on Optics"
*      Widely cited by later authors; but not entirely reliable.  Mirages are
* treated in Chapter XXXI, "On Unusual Refraction", pp. 255-264. He mixes
* in some optical illusions and the Brocken specter; mentions the classic
* examples (Latham, Vince, Monge, Scoresby, Wollaston) without actually
* citing them, and accepts the phony Jurine & Soret "lateral mirage". The
* fata morgana gets a brief summary of Nicholson's translation of Minasi,
* but no citation. He thinks horizontal magnification is "quite possible"
* in mirages, and accepts Monge's "reflecting surface". On p. 263 he says:
*      "That some of the phenomena ascribed to unusual refraction are owing to
* unusual reflexion arising from difference of density, cannot, we think,
* admit of a doubt."

“Del fenomeno detto Miramento , Miraggio , Miraglio ,Fata Morgana,”
Teatro Universale 6, No. 264, 233–236 (1839).

* Article in TEATRO UNIVERSALE on mirages, etc.
*      Notable for attempts to explain these terms.
*      This weekly publication was written for educated general readers,
* bringing them up to date on diverse matters; see the Prefazione
* indicates, it was profusely illustrated. It ran from 1834-48. The
* printing equipment is described in the Prefazione to Vol. 1, which is
* available at Wikimedia.
*      Its publisher was Giuseppe Pomba, who set up the first rotary press
* in Italy. He produced several weekly journals, with the common theme
* of educating the general public.
*      The title page says it was published by "una societá di librai
* italiani" (association of Italian booksellers). The Prefazione in
* vol. 5, dated 31 Dec. 1838, is signed by Davide Bertolotti. But Vol. 5
* also shows that Pomba had turned this publication over to Baglione
* in 1838. Bertolotti also signed poems in the Dec.1, 1838 issue,
* and in some 1839 issues. But by 1840, another publisher had taken
* over, and Bertolotti had disappeared from its pages.
*      Bertolotti mentioned (in his Preface to vol. 5) that "the illustrious
* Prof. Brugnatelli" had contributed many articles on "physical geography"
* to the Teatro ; so perhaps this item is one of them?
*      Google Books has vols. 5 (1838) and 6 (1839) bound as one volume.
* This is the 27 Luglio issue. This article is illustrated with a large
* wood engraving of "Fenomeno del Miraglio nelle pianure del Messico."
*      Thanks to Marcella Pace for pointing out this article!

R. Clausius
“Die Lichterscheinungen der Atmosphäre,” in Beiträge zur meteorologischen Optik und zu Verwandten Wissenschaften
(E.B.Schwickert, Leipzig, 1850), p. 367–462.

*      Good explanation of German terms (Kimmung = looming; Seegesicht =
* inferior mirage) and sloppy usage.
*      In the third number, a few pages earlier, Grunert himself comments on
* Gergonne's theory of mirages (p. 308), which he extends; and on
* Biot's monograph. In particular, in section 24 (pp. 348-357), he
* discusses the elliptical locus of the vertices of the rays, and the
* relations [later rediscovered by Tait!] between them and the nature
* of the images. This 3rd number is dated 1849; it begins on p. 267.
*      The 4th number (1850) is by Rudolf Clausius.  He begins with the
* apparent shape of the sky; evidently this was the model for Pernter &
* Exner's discussion. Then comes extinction, and the light of the sky,
* followed by a long discussion of twilight.
*      Refraction begins on p. 399.  He discusses the horizontal refraction,
* and the flattening of the Sun and Moon there. The interesting part
* begins on p. 401, with "Ungewöhnliche Senkung und Hebung des
* Horizontes." He mentions "sinking" observed in the Gulf Stream, and
* cites Latham's observations in the English Channel. "Man hat für das
* ungewöhnliche Sichtbarwerden ferner Gegenstände auch im Volke eigene
* Ausdrücke. Bei den englischen Schiffern heisst es looming , und bei
* uns      K i m m u n g  ,      welche Namen freilich auch oft für andere
* verwandte Erscheinungen gebraucht werden." (p. 404)
*      Then come mirages.  Of Minasi's account of the Fata Morgana, he says:
* ". . . hat seiner Beschreibung, die aus mehrfacher eigener Anschauung
* geschöpft sein soll, offenbar Manches aus seiner Phantasie beigemischt."
* Then he brings in Monge. He notes that inferior mirages were long known
* to sailors as "Seegesicht". He cites Büsch's "Tractatus duo". (p. 407)
* and Woltmann's observations, too. "Aber vollständig entwickelt ist sie
* erst von Biot".
*      Then comes the passage referred to by Möbius (1925): ". . .  dem
* beschriebenen Vorgange eine gewisse Aehnlichkeit mit der
*  R e f l e x i o n      des Lichtes giebt, obwohl er von dieser seinem
* Wesen nach ganz verschieden ist, und nur auf Brechung beruht." Here,
* he adds a footnote that mentions total reflection. (p. 409)
*      Vince and Scoresby then appear.  The mirage discussion ends on p. 419,
* where he goes on to discuss the twinkling of the stars.
*      This is "Erster Theil, Viertes Heft" of "Beiträge zur meteorologischen
* Optik und zu verwandten Wissenschaften. In zwanglosen Heften
* herausgegeben von Johann August Grunert"
* = Beiträge z. meteorol. Optik. I. 4.
*      available at
* (but of course the plates are suppressed).

A. R. Clarke
(Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1880).

* CLARKE's "Geodesy" text (1880)
* Colonel Alexander Ross Clarke, C.B.
*      The first page of the Preface says:
*      "The Essay entitled 'Figure of the Earth,' by Sir G. B. Airy,
* in the Encyclopedia Metropolitana, is the only adequate treatise on
* Geodetic Surveys which has been published in the English language, and
* though now scarce, it will ever remain valuable both on account of the
* historic research it contains, and the simple and lucid exposition of the
* mechanical theory there given. Since the date of its publication however
* have appeared many important volumes, --- scientific, descriptive,
* official, --- such as Bessel's Gradmessung in Ostpreussen; Colonel
* Everest's Account (1847) of his Great Arc; Struve's two splendid volumes
* descriptive of the trigonometrical chain connecting the Black Sea with
* the North Cape; the Account of the Triangulation of the British Isles;
* the Publications of the International Geodetic Association; recent vo1umes
* of the Mémorial du Dépôt Général de la Guerre; the Yearly Reports
* of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey; the current volumes by
* General Ibañez, descriptive of the Spanish Triangulation, so remarkable
* for precision; and last, though not least, the five volumes recently
* published by General Walker, containing the details of Indian Geodesy."
*      The first chapter is a nice historical review, starting with Snellius
* and Picard. Ch. II is Spherical Trigonometry; III is Least Squares.
* The radius of the (assumed) spherical Earth appears first; dip is in
* the fourth sentence, and the Mount Edgecombe observation is cited as an
* early attempt to measure it. [According to Airy's article "Figure of
* the Earth" in vol. 5, pp. 175-240 of "Encyclopedia Metropolitana" (1845),
* this was measured by Edward Wright, and published by Richard Norwood in
* "The Seaman's Practice, contayning a fundamentall Probleme in Navigation
* experimentally verified, namely touching the Compasse of the Earth and
* Sea, and the Quantity of a Degree in our English Measures, &c." (1637).
* Airy gives the location as "Mount Edgecumbe".]
*      A nice feature of the historical introductory chapter is that it
* provides the geodetical connection among the works of the Cassinis,
* the French surveys in Peru and Lapland, and later workers, and thus
* puts into context the works of people like Bouguer, de La Condamine,
* Maupertuis, General Roy, Von Zach, Delambre, Mechain, Legendre, and
* later workers like Tobias Mayer, Struve, Biot and Arago, and Bessel,
* and instrument makers like Ramsden. Finally, on p.27, Colonel Everest
* appears. So, all the scattered studies that seem like isolated details
* in this bibliography are brought together in a grand historical narrative.
*      Refraction is mentioned on p. 2, as "a phenomenon of variable and
* uncertain amount", but is not examined until Ch. XI, "Heights of Stations"
* (p. 280), where Bauernfeind's 1866 papers are cited. Here we find:
* "The amount of terrestrial refraction is very variable and not to be
* expressed by any simple law: the path of a ray of light, inasmuch as it
* depends on the refractive power of the atmosphere at every point through
* which it passes, is necessarily very irregular. This irregularity is
* very marked when the stations are low and the ray grazes the surface of
* the ground. In the plains of India it has been observed that the ground
* intervening between the observer and the distant signal, from being
* apparently convex in the early part of the day, changes gradually its
* appearance as the day advances, to a concavity --- so that at sunset
* the ground seems to slope up to the base of the signal tower which in
* the early morning was entirely below the horizon."
*      Here (p. 281) are cited the "Great Trigonometrical Survey of India"
* and Hossard's paper in Mém. du Dépôt Gén. de la Guerre, vol. ix, p. 451
* (1853). On the next page are some British measurements, of which the
* most discrepant was made at Ben Nevis, where "for a fortnight—when
* the greater part of the observations were made—the state of the
* atmosphere at the top of the hill was most unusually calm, so much so,
* that a lighted candle could often be carried from the tents of the men
* to the observatory, whilst at the foot of the hill the weather was wild
* and stormy."
*      On p. 283 a distinction is drawn "between rays which cross the sea and
* those which do not." (A larger coefficient of refraction is found across
* water.)

F. R. Helmert
Die Mathematischen und Physikalischen Theorieen der Höheren Geodäsie. II. Theil: Die physikalischen Theorieen
(B.G.Teubner, Leipzig, 1884).

* HELMERT's "Geodesy" text
*      The refraction details are all in Part 2 here; Part I was called
* "Einleitung und I. Teil: Die mathematischen Theorieen". (Notice the
* curious change in spelling; the body of the text wavers between keeping
* and dropping the "h" in both volumes.)
*      In the Vorwort, Helmert says: "Bei der Theorie der Refraktion
* im achten Kapitel habe ich mich darauf beschränkt, solche Formeln
* abzuleiten, welche voraussetzen, daß das Gesetz für die Änderung der
* Temperatur mit der Höhe durch eine stark konvergente Reihe nach Taylor
* darstellbar ist. Für diesen Fall sind die Formeln allgemein gültig,
* so daß man die Konstanten aus zweckmäßig angeordneten Beobachtungen
* bestimmen kann. Ein Zahlenbeispiel ist den von v. Bauernfeind
* publizierten Messungen entnommen." (p. VIII)
*      The refraction discussion really begins about p.502; but is sparse
* until after p. 550, where "Lateralrefraktion" is mentioned. (This is the
* skewness effect due to the polar flattening of the ellipsoid.) And
* refraction in altitude begins on p. 553, where the familiar expression
* (dn/n) tan z appears. The invariant is on p. 554. But this good start
* is derailed by replacing cot z with sqrt(1 - sin2 z). "Von dieser
* Gleichung, welche schon Laplace kannte, ausgehend, . . . " (But of course
* Newton and several others had it before Laplace.) Then comes the
* Reihenentwicklung. . . .
*      P.555: here, kappa is the symbol for -(r/n)(dn/dr), and I hoped he
* would go on to pre-empt Auer & Standish; but no. On the next pages we
* find the surveyors' refraction coefficient k derived. But this all
* assumes that the expansion of κ in terms of its height-derivatives
* converges sufficiently rapidly. On p.556, he says: "Selbstredend ist
* zur praktischen Brauchbarkeit der Formel (7) eine so rasche Konvergenz
* erforderlich, daß zum mindesten die nicht angesetzten Glieder unerheblich
* sind. Inwieweit dieses für einen thatsächlichen Luftzustand der Fall
* ist, kann aber nur die Erfahrung zeigen." [Modern high-resolution
* observations of boundary-layer fine structure do not support this.]
* TILT discussion:
*      The skewness effects are discussed on pp. 564 ff.; see references
* cited on p. 565. Of more interest is the discussion of deviations of the
* surfaces of constant density from the "Normalform" due to irregularities
* in the distribution of heat and pressure in the air (p. 566), especially
* those due to sloping ground. If the isopycnic surfaces are inclined, the
* differential of refraction must have the angle between the ray and the
* local normal to these surfaces instead of the zenith distance. (p. 567)
* He denotes the tilt angle as ν, which he imagines might be as big as
* several degrees. (p. 568) But he notes (p. 569) that abnormal lateral
* refractions rarely exceed a few arc seconds, so the actual tilts must
* be small.

E. von Oppolzer
“Strahlenbrechung,” in Handwörterbuch der Astronomie , W. Valentiner, ed.
(Verlag von Eduard Trewendt, Breslau, 1901), Vol. IIIb, pp. 548–601.

* Oppolzer appreciates the height distribution; see p. 562, where he cites
* Fabritius. There is a good section on TILT of layers, pp. 577-580.
* He also discusses nocturnal inversions (pp. 588-589) and dispersion, and
* has a section on pavilion refraction. Very good!
*      The series is "Encyklopædie der Naturwissenschaften"; this is
* "III. Abtheilung. II. Theil: Handwörterbuch der Astronomie".
*      Google Books has a good scan of this volume.

S. Newcomb
A Compendium of Spherical Astronomy
(Macmillan, New York, 1906), Ch.\ 8.

* Surprisingly full of errors.      The numerical error I found here in my
* 2004 AJ paper is on pp. 217-219.
*      The clarity is not helped by the typography.  The publisher chose to
* use a printer in Glasgow (!) -- presumably to save cost in printing.
* That printer used fonts in which the Greek α is very similar to the
* Italic a . In addition, Newcomb used a local constant factor denoted
* by a Roman "a" in some of the equations for refraction.
*      The start of each signature is marked by "N.S.A." at the foot of the
* page, which presumably meant "Newcomb's Spherical Astronomy" to the
* binder. It's a bit distracting, as this footer is not separated from
* the body type by leading, but is just the last line printed.
*      The scan of this volume in Google Books duplicates some of the later
* pages: pp.356-391 appear twice; next come pp. 392-395, which are then
* followed by an additional copy of pp. 326-444 (the end of the book).
* So pp.356-391 appear three times altogether, and 326-355, twice.
*      W.W.Campbell's 20-page biography of Newcomb is in Mem.N.A.S. 17 (1924)

A. Bemporad
“Besondere Behandlung des Einflusses der Atmosphäre (Refraktion und Extinktion),” in Encyklopädie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluss ihrer Anwendungen, Band VI, Teil 2, Astronomie, Erste Hälfte , K. Schwarzschild and S. Oppenheim, eds.
(B.G.Teubner, Leipzig, 1907), pp. 287–334.

* BEMPORAD's Encyclopädie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften article
*      This review begins with a table of contents, followed by the bibliography.
* Bemp. explicitly refers to Bruhns, saying that his list extends and
* continues that of Bruhns. The references are blessedly complete!
* Unfortunately, because of the reliance on Bruhns, Ivory's warnings
* about convergence are ignored here. So the development uses the old
* expansions in odd powers of tan Z.
*      The super-adiabatic lapse rate of Laplace's model is mentioned in note
* 24 on pp. 305/6. The paragraph suggesting plain mechanical quadrature
* would be better is in the middle of p. 313; cf. n.4, p.294.
*      The publication date is uncertain; the title page of this volume says
* "1905-1923". Bemporad's contribution is dated December 1907, so
* the actual publication date might have been 1908.
*      [See the review article about the Enzyklopädie by W. van Dyck
* in Jahresbericht der Deutschen Mathematiker-Vereinigung 17, 213-227
* (1908) for an overview -- available from Digizeitschriften, at
*  ]
* A digital version is available at SUB Göttingen. Its Inhaltsverzeichnis
* shows that in section A (Sphärische Astronomie), chapter 3 (Geographische
* Ortsbestimmung, nautische Astronomie) by C.W.Wirtz has a section V.,
* Nautische Astronomie, with subsection 38. "Die Kimm und ihr Verhalten"
* (p. 139) that might also be of interest. These PDFs have high-quality
* page images, but are not searchable; but tesseract handles them well.
*      Bemporad's chapter is number 6.

A. Bemporad and P. Puiseux
“VII. 2. Réfraction et Extinction,” in Encyclopédie des Sciences Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées
(Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1913), pp. 14–67.

* BEMPORAD's German Encyclopedia article translated into French
* The sub-title says "Exposé, d'après l'article allemand de A. Bemporad
* (Catane) par P. Puiseux (Paris)"; I give both, but it's mostly Bemporad.
*      The very first footnote gives 5 references on atmospheric dispersion.
* And (pp. 15-16): "A nos yeux il est beaucoup moins important d'insister
* sur les artifices de développement que de bien caractériser les
* différentes hypothèses. Il y a en effet une méthode (la quadrature
* mécanique), qui, dans toutes les hypothèses, conduit également vite
* au but, c'est-à-dire à la connaissance de la réfraction théorique."
*      There is a succinct discussion (pp. 16-17) of the different formulae
* linking the density to the refractivity, pointing out who has used which
* ones, and concluding that the simple Gladstone-Dale formula is as good
* as any. "On devra donc, dans les théories de la réfraction et de
* l'extinction, choisir la formule la plus avantageuse au point de vue
* analytique . . . ."
*      Pp. 23-37 have a nice historical summary of the models of Cassini,
* Tobias Mayer, etc. On p. 28 is pointed out that Laplace's formula gives
* a slightly super-adiabatic lapse rate at the surface. This is a much
* clearer review of the various theories than Bruhns's, with the further
* advantage that the works of Bessel and Radau are included. Bauernfeind,
* Schmidt, Gyldén, Oppolzer, and Bruns are given rather short shrift.
* At the end of this review section (p. 37) is the punch line:
*      "Quand on réfléchit à la peine qu'ont demandée les developpements
* analytiques des théories de la réfraction, et notamment les plus
* complets de ces développements élaborées par H.Gyldén et R. Radau ,
* on a le droit de penser que la réfraction astronomique s'obtiendra plus
* aisément par un simple calcul numérique (quadrature mécanique), qui
* tiendra compte directement des donées de la physique de l'atmosphère."
*      On pp. 37-50 the refraction integral is developed according to the
* more important theories. The extinction is treated on pp. 58-67.
*      The title page says "Publiée sous les auspices des académies
* des sciences de Göttigue, de Leipzig, de Munich et de Vienne avec
* la collaboration de nombreux savants. Édition française rédigée
* et publiée d'après l'édition allemande sous la direction de Jules
* Molk, Professeur à l'Université de Nancy. Et pour ce qui concerne
* l'astronomie sous la direction scientifique de H. Andoyer Professeur à
* l'Université de Paris. Tome VII (premier volume), Astronomie Sphérique.
* Rédigé dans l'Édition allemande sous la direction de K. Schwarzschild
* à Potsdam." The original German edition appears to be:
* Besondere Behandlung des Einflusses der Atmosphäre (Refraktion und
* Extinktion), Enz. der math. Wiss. 6, part 2, (Teubner, Leipzig, 1907)
* My photocopy lacks pp. 21, 51-57.

R. Ball
A Treatise on Spherical Astronomy
(Cambridge Univ.Press, Cambridge, 1915).

* Very readable treatment; derives the usual approx. from Cassini's model
* on pp. 125-128. Unfortunately, an excessive number of approximations
* is used, so the result is not very accurate. However, there is a neat
* proof of Oriani's theorem on pp. 123-124 (though Oriani is not mentioned).

W. Möbius
“Optik der Atmosphäre,” in Encyklopädie der Mathematischen Wissenschaften, Band VI, Teil 1: Geodäsie und Geophysik , Ph. Furtwängler and E. Wiechert, eds.
(Teubner, Leipzig, 1925), pp. 497–540.

* Theoretical treatment of atmospheric optics; no GF coverage
* There are some useful remarks on mirages:
* "Da plötzliche Übergänge von n , wie zu festen order flüssigen
* Mitteln, hier nicht anzunehmen sind, dürfte man wohl, streng genommen,
* nicht, wie es oft geschieht, von Totalreflexion und Luftspiegelungen
* sprechen, wenn auch eine Analogie zweifellos besteht." (p. 500)
* (Here he cites Claudius [sic; he means Rudolf Clausius, in Grunerts
* Beiträge zur Met. Optik ], 1850, for similar remarks.)
* This is the only work to cite Brandes's article in Gehlers
* Physikalisches Wörterbuch , so far as I know.
* THANKS to Shaun Hardy for supplying a copy of this!
*      After much searching, I found that this author is Alfred Willy Möbius
* = Wilfried Möbius (1879 - 1964). See
* He published a few papers on the theory of the rainbow, some of which are
* cited in his Encyclopedia article, which seems to be his last publication.
* Most were published by Teubner, beginning with "Einführung in die Optik
* der Atmosphäre" (1907).

P. de Vanssay
“On refraction and refraction tables,”
Hydrographic Review 21, 17–36 (1944).

* Review article in 1944 "International Hydrographic Review"
*      This covers both REFRACTION and DIP, and cites many obscure tables.
* It is available at the University of New Brunswick library website:
*      The coverage is much more complete (up to 1944) than the recent
* review article by François Mignard in C.R.-Physique (2022). On the
* other hand, this review contains some typos, such as "Bompard" for
* Bemporad, and "Delamare" for Delambre, so that one wonders about the
* accuracy of the discussion.
* On the title page of this article, the author is "Ingénieur Hydrographe
* Général P. de VANSSAY de BLAVOUS, Director". He is just "P. de Vanssay"
* in the IHR archives. On the front matter, he is listed as one of the
* two Directors of the International Hydrographic Bureau (which is now
* the International Hydrographic Organization, whose website is at
* .
*      This issue is No. 39 in the series published by the IHB in Monte-Carlo,
* Monaco, and dated August, 1944. The title page simply says "Hydrographic
* Review".

H. Neuberger
“General Meteorological Optics,” in Compendium of Meteorology , T. F. Malone, ed.
(American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1951), pp. 61–78.


A. Danjon
Astronomie Générale: Astronomie Sphérique et Éléments de Mécanique Céleste
(J. & R. Sennac, Paris, 1952-53).

* Chapitre IX is devoted to refraction, including DIP and MIRAGES.
* Dispersion and chromatic scintillation are mentioned, but not green flashes.
* Thanks to Fred Talbert for reminding me of this!

É. Vassy
Physique de l'Atmosphère. Tome II: Phénomènes de Réfraction
(Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1959), pp. 14–16.

* Étienne Vassy was primarily interested in the upper atmosphere, which
* explains the chapters here on the ionosphere and sound propagation.
* He is mostly remembered today for his work on ozone in the 1930s.
*      Section 4 of Ch. I is "Influence de la dispersion; le rayon vert."
* Even at this late date, he says Julius's anomalous-dispersion theory is
* one of two possible explanations; though he points out that Danjon &
* Rougier's work refutes it.
*      Having seen the phenomenon repeatedly at a single location during one
* week(!), he thinks it is a result of thermal inversions. He also has
* the Byrd story wrong ("le premier jour de l'apparition du Soleil après
* la nuit polaire. . . "). (p. 15)
*      On p. 16, he worries about the variable (and overly long) duration.
* But he thinks this can be explained by the effects of "fluctuations
* notables d'indice le long des rayons . . . si l'obstacle derrière lequel
* disparaît le Soleil est surmonté d'une couche d'air dont l'indice
* commence par croître avec l'altitude."
*      He also worries about the sudden change of color, which he attributes
* to the rain-band of water vapor.
*      On p. 40, he attributes the distortions of the low Sun to variations
* of index along the trajectory. Much of his mirage discussion is based
* on Flammarion.
*      Hardly half a dozen references are cited in the whole book!
* [Tome I was on emission phenomena.]

W. M. Smart
Text-Book on Spherical Astronomy
(Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1962), Ch.~3.


R. G. Fleagle and J. A. Businger
An introduction to atmospheric physics
(Academic Press, New York, 1963).

* Robert G. FLEAGLE and Joost A. BUSINGER
* Shows a simplified PALM-TREE diagram, with the usual error (p. 296)
* (Ironic, in view of Businger's later importance for inferior mirages!)
* Mirages get only a page here; GF gets one sentence (p. 358, 2nd ed.).
* The Second (1980) edition is on a Ukrainian Website or Scribd; see p. 356

E. W. Woolard and G. M. Clemence
Spherical Astronomy
(Academic Press, New York, 1966).

*      General: Chapter 5;  DIP, SUNSET in Chapter 10,
* "Determinations of position in the local reference system"
*      Specific: a very superficial mention of refraction near the horizon on
* p. 88, listed in the index; but citing few references, and neglecting
* the works of Fletcher, sugawa, and many others.

I. G. Kolchinskii
Refraktsiya Sveta v Zemnoi Atmosfere
(Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1967).

* KOLCHINSKII emphasizes issues omitted from the regular texts
* After pointing out the need for refraction of objects within and near
* the limits of the atmosphere, he briefly reviews the literature.
* There are several interesting items in his bibliography, especially
* dealing with refraction near the horizon, in the polar regions, etc.
*      Pp. 11-12 have a clear summary of Emden's polytropic model, and give
* his series-expansion terms.
*      Pp. 13-14: after describing the tables of Link & Neuzil in BAC (1958),
* he notices that their extreme values at the horizon strongly violate
* the usual refractivity scaling (from T and p values). Then (p. 14):
* "Thus, the dispersion between the refraction at the horizon, calculated
* by [refractivity scaling] and obtained by numerical integration, proves
* to be highly significant. It indicates that in this case the upper layers
* of the Earth's atmosphere influence the value of the refraction integral."
*      Pp. 14-15 describe Fuss's observations at Pulkovo, which he attributed
* to a low-lying inversion; but K. says that Bauschinger, and also
* Banakhevich, showed this was insufficient. The discussion of large
* refraction near the horizon continues on pp. 16-17; he seems to consider
* this normal phenomenon "anomalous" simply because it is not in the
* standard tables.
*      On pp. 18-19, he discusses TILT of the layers, with several references.
*      At the end of the Conclusion, p. 40, he raises the issue of using
* terrestrial refraction to estimate temperature gradients, as suggested
* by Fesenkov -- cf. Faye!

F. Link
Eclipse Phenomena in Astronomy
(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1969).

* for DISTORTED SUN, see Fig. 1.2.23, p.49

F. Link and L. Neuzil
Tables of Light Trajectories in the Terrestrial Atmosphere
(Hermann, Paris, 1969).

* AIRMASS & REFRACTION TABLES for std.atmospheres

R. A. R. Tricker
Introduction to Meteorological Optics
(American Elsevier, New York, 1970).

* ``Temperature inversions . . . occasionally give rise to abnormal effects of
* refraction. . . . The effects are transient and variable, and there is little
* point in attempting to work out an exact theory for them. . . .'' (p.19)

A. P. Norton
Norton's Star Atlas, Sixteenth Edition
(Gall & Inglis, Edinburgh, 1973), p. 2.

* The 17th edition (1986) is the same as here.
* A longer but less accurate account is on p. 38 of the 15th ed. (1966).

A. V. Alexeev, M. V. Kabanov, I. F. Kushtin, and N. F. Nelyubin
Opticheskaya refraktsiya v zemnoi atmosferye
(Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1983), p. 58.

* Cassini's "formula" given

C. A. Murray
Vectorial Astronomy
(Adam Hilger, Ltd., Bristol, 1983).

* AIRMASS & REFRACTION in Chapter 7, "Astrometry through the atmosphere"

R. M. Green
Spherical Astronomy
(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985).

* GREEN -- Ch. 4, esp. pp. 87-93
* Table 4.1 (p. 91) "gives approximately the amount of refraction taking
* place above the level in question, for a source at zenith distance
* 45°."

P. K. Seidelmann
Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac
(University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1992).

* Recommends the Auer-Standish method to calculate refraction, using the
* Hohenkerk-Sinclair (1985) computational scheme.

A. T. Young
“Understanding astronomical refraction,”
Obs. 126, 82–115 (2006).

* not a book, but a textbook-style tutorial article; so placed here

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux
Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation: An Introduction with 400 Problems
(Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 2006).

* Craig F. Bohren and Eugene E. Clothiaux's textbook on RT
* Chapter 4 on Radiometry and Photometry is a nice review of these
* quantities and their units, with an introduction to color science as
* well. But Ch. 8 on Meteorological Optics (p. 397) is our main interest
* here. especially §8.3 on atmospheric refraction (pp.418-426), which
* touches on mirages and GFs.
*      The treatment is quite limited: only the flat-Earth mirage model is
* treated, and only Cassini's uniform model is used for astronomical
* refraction. Because dip is ignored, "Fraser's Theorem" is taken to
* imply that the serrated Sun at the horizon must be due to "horizontal
* variations of the refractive index" (p. 425).
*      Unfortunately, the uniform model leads to large errors in the
* flattening of objects at the horizon and the width of the green rim.
* No mention of Biot, who did better.
*      §8.3.3 (pp.425-426) treats green flashes, pointing out that the
* atmosphere can magnify the green rim. But the various forms are not
* mentioned. Overall, good on the fundamentals, but lacking in depth.

L. Dettwiller, P. Léna, and D. Gratias
“Astronomy, Atmospheres and Refraction: Foreword,”
Comptes Rendus. Physique 23, No. S1, 5–11 (2022).

* The Special Issue of C.R.-Physique on atmospheric refraction
*      Published online at
*      That link shows the Contents of the whole issue.  Its Foreword is at
* or
*      This Foreword briefly enumerates the articles in the Special Issue.
* The emphasis is mainly pedagogical and historical, so the articles are
* reviews rather than technical advances. The Foreward is in both French
* and English; most of the articles are in French, with English abstracts.
*      I list here some of the more general articles.  The more technical ones
* are distributed in this bibliography to their most relevant positions.
* Also, I omit several contributions that deal primarily with "seeing" and
* other effects of turbulence.
*      Although the date of the issue is 2022, most of the papers were not
* actually published until 2023.

F. Mignard
“Les tables de réfraction astronomique,”
Comptes Rendus. Physique 23, No. S1, 133–178 (2022).

* François Mignard's review of refraction tables (and how to compute them)
* This starts out looking like a more expanded version of my own paper
* (see below); but it has considerably more numerical detail. There are
* some interesting variations on Cassini's model.
*      However, there is also much emphasis on the tangent series; and some
* peculiar omissions: no mention of Flamsteed's connection to Newton's
* table; considerable discussion of how to evaluate integrals, but no
* mention of S.Y. van der Werf's papers; considerable use of polytropic
* layers, but no mention of Emden; etc. In discussing Newcomb's book, he
* notices that the numbers don't agree with the analysis, but fails to
* identify the exact error in Newcomb's numerical work -- which is pointed
* out in my AJ paper, which he cites. He also has the title of Newcomb's
* "Compendium" wrong in the text (but right in the Références).
*      On the other hand, he uses Ciddor's dispersion formula, and points out
* the unrealistic nature of the Standard Atmosphere. And Fig. 22 shows an
* actual sunrise sequence (affected visibly by the nocturnal inversion).
* So, a mixed bag. Read with caution; refraction is not his specialty.
*      Published online: 25 May 2023  at:
* DOI: doi:10.5802/crphys.123

L. Dettwiller
“Phénomènes de réfraction atmosphérique terrestre,”
Comptes Rendus. Physique 23, No. S1, 103–132 (2022).

* Luc Dettwiller's classification of refraction phenomena in CR-Phys.
*      Largely a descriptive summary of terrestrial refraction phenomena,
* like a shortened French version of Humphreys (1940) brought up to date
* with recent references.
*      There is a nice discussion of the virtual images percieved by the eye,
* and their apparent positions (even when the physical position of the
* real astigmatic image lies behind the eye).
*      Luc makes good use of several ray-trace diagrams taken from my website.
*      [The discussion is mostly in terms of Lambert's model, which is
* appropriate for beginners; but its unreality tends to mislead them, as
* mirages are due to changes in lapse rate.]
*      Published online: 21 February 2023  at:
* DOI: doi : 10.5802/crphys.114
* Part of the special issue: Astronomy, Atmospheres and Refraction
* Also avaliable at

A. T. Young
“Did Monge really explain inferior mirages?,”
Comptes Rendus. Physique 23, No. S1, 467–481 (2022).

* Review of inf.-mir. history, Monge's error, and reactions to it.
*      The origin of the word "mirage" is examined in detail.
* I should also have cited Möbius (1925), and perhaps Garbasso's second
* (1907) paper.
*      Published online at:
* on 20 Dec. 2022
* DOI: doi : 10.5802/crphys.106
* Part of the special issue: Astronomy, Atmospheres and Refraction

A. T. Young
“Relations among atmospheric structure, refraction, and extinction,”
Comptes Rendus. Physique 23, No. S1, 179–212 (2022).

* Review of astronomical refraction and extinction (airmass), and their
* relation to atmospheric structure. Shows that the Standard Atmosphere
* is unsuitable; that Cassini's model is adequate, except near the horizon;
* and that the Auer-Standish recipe fails near the top of a duct.
* Largely historical.
*      Published online at:
* on 21 Feb. 2023
* DOI: doi : 10.5802/crphys.125
* Part of the special issue: Astronomy, Atmospheres and Refraction


E. Hawks
Stars Shown to the Children
(T.C. & E.C.Jack, London, 1911?), p. 60.

* ". . . you must watch carefully, for, as the minutes go by, the sun
* will get lower and lower until there is only a tiny tip left. Then,
* just before it finally disappears, you will perhaps see a little green
* flame shoot up, and the tip of the sun itself will turn green. I do not
* say that you will always be able to see this Flash, but only on certain
* occasions. I have known people only see it once out of a dozen times,
* but it is very interesting to watch the sun disappear over the horizon,
* and to look for the green Flash." (p. 60)
*      So far, so good.  But then, the sun ". . .  will also seem a great deal
* larger than it does when seen high in the sky. This is because of the
* extra thickness of atmosphere near the horizon, which acts as a sort of
* magnifying glass and enlarges the sun, when it is low down. The moon may
* also be seen enlarged in the same way, as it rises in the east, when it is
* full." Ouch! (Well, you can't win them all.)
* Thanks to Charles Campbell, of Cranleigh, Surrey (UK) for the reference!
* He says it was published in 1912, but the copy I borrowed from Case,
* while undated, has "October 1910" at the end of the preface; and the
* last page of the index has a footer naming the printer (Ballantyne,
* Hanson & Co.) and the notation "5/11"; so I believe it was printed in
* 1911. This is the ninth volume in the "Shown to the Children" series.
* According to the L.C. catalog, Hawks wrote other books in that series.
* The British Library catalog credits 120 popular books to him, and dates
* this one 1910.
* Case's copy showed up with the frayed black register bookmark ribbon
* lying between pages 60 and 61 -- right at the GF entry!
* Note the GF observation by Hawks in 1909, shortly before this was written.

A. Turpain
La Lumière, Deuxième Édition
(Librairie Delagrave, Paris, 1923), Ch.XI.

* TURPAIN's book on light, illustrated with photos by Rudaux
* A nice chapter on atmospheric optics, including twilight phenomena,
* zodiacal light, aurorae as well as the usual halos, rainbows, and
* mirages. Mirages and distorted sunsets are illustrated with photos from
* Rudaux; GF is illustrated with his drawings of the 1904 flash.
* Libert's "green Sun" observations are also mentioned.
* Thanks to Luc Dettwiller for a copy of this!

C. F. Talman
Our Weather -- What Makes It and How to Watch It
(Reynolds Publishing Co., New York, 1925).

* Talman is listed on the title page as "Chairman Committee on Public
* Information, American Meteorological Society"
* Crepuscular rays are treated on p. 169, ending with mountain shadows.
* Pp. 170-171 describe textbook green flashes, and red flashes. He
* seems to give a little credence to the "after image" explanation.
* Pp. 171-174 treat mirages, described as "some of the most bizarre of
* optical illusions." General Maude is mentioned on p. 173, as is
* Scoresby, and "Crocker Land".

C. F. Talman
The Realm of the Air
(Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1931).

* TALMAN's later book
* In "The Author's Apology", Talman says he "has enjoyed for a number
* of years the exceptional privilege of being the custodian of a nearly
* exhaustive collection of literature on the subject . . . ." [The obit
* on NOAA's Web pages, taken from Weather Bureau Topics and Personnel,
* July 1936, says he had been in charge of the Weather Bureau Library at
* the Central Office since 1908.]
*      Facing p. 21 is a picture of "the most famous cloud in the world":
* the "tablecloth" on Table Mountain, near Cape Town.
* The treatment of mirage (pp. 114-118) is much fuller and better
* here than in the 1925 book. Looming and "lateral mirage" are briefly
* mentioned. He suggests the Flying Dutchman probably arose from
* mirages at sea. On p. 116 appears a garbled account of the New Haven
* ghost ship, here transferred to New York, and mistaken for a mirage of
* a real ship. Wilkes Land and Crocker Land are mentioned; Hubbard's book
* is named, and quoted, but without a page reference (p. 117).
* Pp. 136-137 mention sunset distortions; GF on 137-138. The Lick
* sunset photographs are mentioned (p. 137). There is now no mention of
* after images.
* The author says these are edited articles from Nature Magazine, Popular
* Mechanics, NY Times, etc.
* No copyright date is given for the book, only for its sources;
* L.C. says "c1931".

W. E. Harper
“Radio talks over CFCF. LX—Mirages,”
JRASC 27, 59–61 (1933).

* W.E.Harper's Canadian radio talks -- not a book, but belongs here anyway
* This is the lead article in the Feb. 1933 issue, beginning on p.49.
* Available from ADS.

C. M. Botley
The Air and its Mysteries
(G.Bell and Sons, London, 1938).

* BOTLEY -- a popularization of meteorology
* The Manx GF legends mentioned on pp. 152 and 206 are both taken from
* the same letter to The Times (M.Douglas, 1929). Botley exaggerates:
* Manx folklore does not "contain much" about it; it was barely known in
* 1929, and nobody there seems to have heard of it today. The reference
* to Rex Clements's story is also overblown. And the purported "superior
* mirage" in Plate XI (facing p.210) is almost certainly a fake.
* Yet the Italian translation of this book is O'Connell's ref. #10.

C. D. Neal
Exploring Light and Color
(Childrens Press, Chicago, 1964), p. 18.

* Dr. Charles D. Neal's book for juveniles
* "When there is, near the earth, a layer of air that is warmer and
* denser [sic!] than the air above it . . . ."
* [Well, it isn't the *air* that's denser here . . . .]

F. M. Branley
Sun Dogs and Shooting Stars: A Skywatcher's Calendar
(Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1980), pp. 73–75.

* Franklyn M. Branley's treatment for juveniles
* ". . . the green flash, a bright green strip of light that appears just
* above the setting sun. Usually it is seen close to the horizon an
* instant after the sun itself has disappeared . . . . Because of its longer
* wavelength red is bent the least." (The diagram is equally poor.)
* Branley wrote many books on astronomy for children; he died in 2002.

W. R. Corliss
Rare Halos, Mirages, Anomalous Rainbows and Related Electromagnetic Phenomena
(Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, MD, 1984).

* Compendium of reports, as in Mulder's book: this put me on to
* Starr's (1930) paper, so Corliss is accomplishing his aim here.
* Like Mulder, he quotes items and adds short comments:
* "The green flash and the crepuscular rays . . . have long been considered
* as fully explained. The stock explanations, however, seem simplistic
* when the full ranges of these phenomena are considered."
* Of "the appearance . . . of multiple green rays of light ascending from
* the point of the sun's disappearance", he astutely says, "This phenomenon
* may be related to the crepuscular rays."
* Corliss's list of 42 references contains no errors, which speaks well
* for the care he has exercised -- especially considering that the
* ``standard'' references typically have 10% to 20% errors!

H. Miles
“Rare Haloes, Mirages, Anomalous Rainbows and related electromagnetic phenomena,”
JBAA 95, No. 4, 188–189 (1985).

* Corliss's book reviewed in JBAA
* GF is mentioned. Available from ADS.

R. A. Gallant
Rainbows, Mirages, and Sundogs
(Macmillan, New York, 1987).

* A juvenile book illustrated in b/w, with the usual mistakes
* Mirages are treated on pp. 14-22. Looming is treated as a mirage:
* "Looming mirages are the only mirages that appear to be nearby. They
* may also greatly magnify the real object."
* "Our first glimpse of the Sun at sunrise is a mirage."
* An interesting variation is the suggestion to observe variations in dip.

Q. L. Pearce
Amazing Science. Lightning and other wonders of the sky
(Julian Messner, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989), p. 17.

* Another juvenile book, full of strange stuff
* ". . . at sea . . . the air layer closest to the water is usually colder
* than the air layer above it. As a result, sea mirages . . . are right
* side up and above the object . . . ." (even worse about Fata Morgana)
* Acknowledgment thanks "William A. Selby, Professor of Geography/Earth
* Sciences, Santa Monica City College . . . for his critical reading of the
* manuscript."

D. K. Lynch and W. C. Livingston
Color and Light in Nature
(Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1995).

* much misinformation, but some great photographs
* The second edition, published in 2001, is greatly improved, and RECOMMENDED.
* [Although they propagate the "fata bromosa" error.]

F. Suagher and J.-P. Parisot
Jeux de Lumière
(éditions Cêtre, Besançon, 1995).

* This is a beautiful book, similar to the Lynch/Livingston book;
* it contains the best mirage photos I have seen. The GF pictures are
* poor, but the advice on how to obtain them is good. Unfortunately,
* the multiple inferior mirage (due to uneven ground) on p.60 is
* mis-identified as a Fata Morgana; and the price is a bit high (FF 240).
* See pp. 49-56 for the GF, and 56-60 for mirages.

K. Schlegel
Vom Regenbogen zum Polarlicht - Leuchterscheinungen in der Atmosphäre
(Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg, 1995), pp. 24–25.

* Clear presentation of the textbook story, with one of Pekka's GFs.
* Note that the wrong colors were printed on Abb.1.6 on p.24.
* Thanks to Dr. Kristian Schlegel for a copy of his book! It turns out
* to contain many fine pictures of natural phenomena, including one of
* ball lightning. The author tells me a revised edition is in the works.

P. Murphy and P. Doherty
The Color of Nature
(Chronicle Books, San Francisco, 1996).

* All sorts of pretty pictures, not just atmospheric optics
* Pekka's multiple-mock-mirage flash sequence is on pp. 131-133, with
* the final stage on a double-page spread. "The conditions for seeing
* the green flash, or green ray, with an unaided human eye occur only a
* few times out of every ten sunsets over a distant unobstructed horizon."

P. Simons
Weird Weather
(Little, Brown & Co., London, 1996).

* a journalist's attempt to cover science?
* Paul Simons's book is full of errors, but has some decent coverage --
* it seems to fall somewhere between Corliss and the National Enquirer .
* The author has believed everything he's read, and has sorted out the
* most sensational accounts. So he asserts, in the introduction, that
* "The Föhn wind in Germany sends people mad," and other nonsense.
* Speculation is presented as fact; there is no index; and the "Select
* Bibliography" at the end is already secondary and tertiary sources, some
* not too reliable themselves. The book is clearly pitched at an English
* readership (British spellings throughout).
* The photographs (some by Pekka Parviainen, some by Alistair Fraser;
* some strangely reproduced with moiré stripes through them) are mixed
* with engravings from Flammarion (!)
* One of Pekka's pile-of-plates clouds is captioned ". . . lenticular
* clouds created on waves of turbulent air." And the adjacent text says
* ". . . called rotor clouds or lenticular clouds." [p. 60]
* The story of Ross mentions his "Croker Mountains" on p. 58.
* "Green Flash" is on pp.85-86: ". . . it sometimes hurls a shaft of vivid
* green light across the sky . . . ." The usual "prism" is invoked.
* While there are hints of interesting reports to pursue, the lack of
* detailed references makes most of them useless. The unwary should
* steer well clear of this confused and unreliable book.

J. Naylor
Out of the Blue: A 24-hour Skywatcher's Guide
(Cambridge Univ.Press, Cambridge, 2002).

* John Naylor's mixed bag: great photographs, some good (and some misleading)
* diagrams, some good (and some wrong) information. Many of the topics
* of interest here are covered: refraction & mirages (Ch.3, pp. 50-63);
* flattened sunsets (pp. 64-67); crepuscular rays (pp. 77-79); distorted
* sunsets (pp. 80-84); Green Flashes (pp. 84-86). All non-mathematical.
*      Pekka's pictures are great.  But there are some howlers: Naylor claims
* Monge made up the word "mirage" (p. 51), though he gives the correct
* etymology. He thinks mirages are due to temperature gradient, not the
* curvature of the temperature profile (p. 55). "If your eye is too high,
* it will not intercept the rays that produce the inverted image, and you
* will not see a mirage." (p. 57) [Pekka's over-sized Omega is on p. 56.]
*      Ch. 4 (pp. 64-87) deals with low-Sun and twilight phenomena; GFs are
* on pp. 84-86; ". . . blue flashes have been seen . . . only from altitudes
* of several kilometres." The pictured mock-mirage flash (Fig. 4.15,
* p. 85) is mis-identified as "Green segment." Many minor errors.
*      There are a number of wrong-word errors that show the manuscript was
* spell-checked but not carefully proof-read.
*      The selection of references is also haphazard, including minor works
* while omitting more important ones. He has the date wrong (as 1968!)
* for O'Connell's book.

M. Vollmer
Lichtspiele in der Luft: Atmosphärische Optik für Einsteiger
(Spektrum/Elsevier, München, 2006).

* MICHAEL VOLLMER's new book on atmospheric optics for beginners
* SUPERB photographs in the color-plates section. This is a more
* technical book than most of the ones in this section -- it's almost a
* textbook rather than a popular work. (He's not afraid to use calculus
* occasionally.) Section 11.2 (pp. 315-322) covers green flashes; there
* are also good sections on refraction in general, and mirages. Each
* chapter has a good list of references.

M. Maunder
Lights in the sky: Identifying and Understanding Astronomical and Meteorological Phenomena
(Springer, London, 2007).

* GF treatments are on pp. 72-74 for morning, and 115-118 (evening).
* But he starts off with "The scientific basis for the green flash had
* to wait until 1960 [sic] when D.K.J. [sic] O'Connell of the Vatican
* Observatory produced the first [sic] authenticated color photographs
* of the phenomenon, but he [sic] took those at sunset . . . ."
*      Well, it isn't all that bad, but it isn't good.  "The green flash
* occurs when light is refracted through an atmospheric layer and thereby
* seems to come from this higher layer." (All this from the top third
* of the first page! He does manage to connect flashes with mirages,
* but clearly doesn't understand either one.)
*      On p. 74, we get: "Blues should never be possible and it is difficult
* to give an explanation." [Especially if you don't understand GFs.]
*      The mirage discussions on pp. 101 ff. aren't much better; he confuses
* inferior mirages with looming and normal refraction: "The interface
* acts very much as a mirror with light reflected back from the much
* denser air above. . . . this mirage is described as an 'Inferior' mirage,
* from the reflection back from above." (p. 101)
* Like O'Connell, he takes the gaps between multiple mock mirages as
* "blind strips": "These multiple mirages often lead to a whole series of
* green flashes, often seen underneath as well as above, as each layer pass
* through the boundary layers in the atmosphere." (p. 103, strictly sic .)
* Pretty awful. Too bad Patrick Moore's name is on this series.

Marcello Séstito
Fata Morgana o la città riflessa
(Rubbettino Editore, Soveria Mannelli, 2011).

* MARCELLO SÉSTITO's peculiar "Fata Morgana" book
*      A beautifully produced "coffee-table" book, which plays with the
* idea of reflections in its design and illustrations. The author is an
* architect who seems enchanted with the idea of mirror images and symmetry,
* and the architectural theme in the historical accounts of these mirages.
* The first 31 pages provide a brief sketch of the myth of Morgana and
* the literature of the mirages, followed by two pages of more detailed
* references to some sources of information. I was glad to see Boccara's
* paper cited; but Costanzo's is not. And the author has unfortunately
* ignored Boccara's advice about the unreliability of many old works.
*      Then come several sections: "Quaderni" ["Exercises"], of colored
* sketches and art studies inspired by the stories connected with Morgana;
* and then other, more formal paintings devoted to Morgana herself, the
* Strait, and Kircher's "Catoptic Theater". Many of these echo motifs
* seen in Fortuyn's engraving, which is well reproduced on p. 128, just
* before the beginning of the second half of the book.
*      This second half is a series of Appendices that reproduce several
* well-known works devoted to the mirages, beginning with Minasi's classic
* Dissertation of 1773. Unfortunately, it is followed by some of the most
* unreliable essays ever published on this subject: those of Capozzo
* (1840), Saffiotti (1837), Giardina (1758), etc. Minasi's text and
* Capozzo's are printed in two-column format, with a vertical rule that
* separates the columns; but Saffiotti's and Giardina's are reproduced
* in a peculiar 4-up format that retains the 2-column arrangement, so that
* each photocopied page image at bottom of a book page follows the image
* immediately above it; the reader must envision an invisible 2-column
* format, instead of reading pairs of page images side by side.
* Fortunately, the page images bear the original page numbers. As in
* Consolo (1993), Minasi's notes are re-numbered by section instead of
* by pages, and some copying errors in Consolo's version, including his
* errors in re-numbering Minasi's footnotes, are exactly reproduced
* here; so it seems that this is a third-hand copy of Minasi.
*      Minasi's text and Capozzo's are separated by a double-page spread
* that reproduces a widely-reprinted wood engraving from 1865 that falsely
* depicts some imaginary superior mirages, with the upper images shown
* impossibly enlarged in azimuth as well as unrealistically elevated
* in altitude. The misleading text of Giardina, with Gallo's notes and
* Allegranza's garbled commentary, are followed by another pair of phony
* "mirage" images from the 19th Century, including the frequently reproduced
* fantastic image "Mirage in the Desert" from Hartwig's 1875 "The Aerial
* World"; here, Hartwig is mis-identified as "Hartwing". Caveat lector!
*      However, the photocopied texts are followed by the little-known but
* influential discussions led by Johann Reinecke in the pages of Allgemeine
* Geographische Ephemeriden in 1800, which have been capably translated
* from German to Italian by Mario Izzi. The copperplate engravings
* (Tafeln I & II) from Reinecke's initial discussion, which are hard to
* obtain, are usefully reproduced on (unnumbered) pages 206 and 208.
*      Incredibly, this Italian translation of Reinecke's comments actually
* includes an Italian translation of Reinecke's German translation of
* Nicholson's English translation of Minasi's original Italian description,
* even though this book has already reprinted Minasi's original Italian
* text a few dozen pages earlier. So we get to read the third-generation
* version: "Quando il Sole al mattino raggiunge un'altezza tale che i suoi
* raggi formano col mare di Reggio un angolo di incidenza di circa 45
* gradi, . . . " instead of the original "Quando il nascente Sole splende
* in punto, onde l'incidente suo raggio formar possa sul mare di Reggio
* l'angolo di gradi 45 circa, . . . ". Well, maybe it's useful to show the
* modern Italian reader what the 19th-Century German reader read about
* what the 18th-Century Italian writer really wrote; but maybe not.
*      Then come more than four pages of annotated bibliography, containing
* many other little-known and obscure references on Fata Morganas. They
* contain some valuable citations to the recondite literature; but they
* also contain many obvious errors. For example, Humphreys' middle
* initial is given as "L" rather than "J", and the title of his textbook is
* printed as "Phisics" of the Air instead of "Physics"; furthermore, only
* its 1929 edition is mentioned, although the 1940 revision contains
* additional information about mirages. Only the abridged 1671 edition
* of Kircher's Ars Magna (the one with the typo that fooled Marina
* Warner) is cited for Angelucci's letter, rather than the more correct
* text of the original 1646 edition; and the heading of the section is
* cited with "sine" in place of "siue". Similarly, only Pernter's 1902
* edition of Meteorologische Optik is cited, rather than the expanded
* 1910 revision by Exner, let alone the 1922 second revision. Another
* example of carelessness is the misspelling of Marina Warner's last name
* as "Worner", which caused her unreliable book "Phantasmagoria" to be
* placed after Elizabeth Werner's 1896 work. This shows the error to be
* the author's, not that of the printer or proofreader.
*      Strangely, the references cited in the bibliography section do not
* include several other useful references that appear in the Notes on
* pp. 32-33, such as Boccara's fine review of the literature before 1900;
* so it is necessary to consult the Notes as well as the Bibliography
* to discover all of Séstito's sources. His omission of important works
* like Costanzo's review and the later editions of both Humphreys and
* Pernter & Exner reveal his unfamiliarity with the mirage literature.
*      As is usual with the Fata Morgana literature, one needs considerable
* experience with the field to separate the wheat from the chaff; this
* book contains an abundance of both.
*      I was pleased to see the woodcut, or wood engraving, on the
* penultimate page of the book, which illustrates the classical
* demonstration of refraction described by Euclid and Cleomedes.
* It would be nice to know what 19th-Century textbook was its source.
*      Special thanks to Marcella Giulia Pace for bringing this attractive
* and useful work to my attention, and for providing a copy!


M. Minnaert
De natuurkunde van't vrije veld. Deel I. Licht en kleur in het landschap
(Thieme, Zutphen, 1937).

* original edition of Part I of Minnaert's book;
* note that there are three parts to this monograph.
* They are now available on the Web at:
* He introduces verdwijnlijn and grenslijn on p. 47.
* The "Groene Straal" is introduced with a quote from Verne, and a
* reference to Mulder's book; then comes "Volgens een oude Schotse
* legende . . . ." (p. 58)

M. Minnaert
Light and Colour in the Open Air
(G. Bell and sons, London, 1940).

* first English translation of Part I:
* The term "vanishing line" appears for the first time here, on p. 48

A. D. T.
“Light and Colour in the Open Air,”
Obs. 63, 241–243 (1940).

* REVIEW of the 1940 edition; mentions "the green ray".
* I suppose the reviewer is Thackeray.

C. E. P. B[rooks]
Light and Colour in the Open Air, by M. Minnaert,”
Met. Mag. 76, 67–68 (1947).

* REVIEW of the 1940 edition; mentions "the green ray"; and calls
* Hillers's mural-mirage photo "one of the oddest" in the book.

M. Minnaert
The Nature of Light & Colour in the Open Air
(Dover Publications, New York, 1954).

* This should be the same as the 1940 edition
* "According to an old Scotch legend, . . . "
* He has "Continho" for Coutinho
* Note that he endorses Forel's explanation for the Fata Morgana (p.53)
*      The Dover edition brought Minnaert's work to a much wider public.
* Even so, his term "vanishing line" does not appear in the technical
* literature until 1960.
* O'C #91

M. Minnaert
Light and Color in the Outdoors
(Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993).

* new translation of Minnaert

*** MIRAGE DEFINITIONS FILE -- various handbook accounts of mirages ***

(no author listed)
in Encyclopædia Americana, vol. VIII , F. Lieber, ed.
(B.B.Mussey & Co., Boston, 1851), pp. 525–526.

*                                                             and refraction terminology
*       NOTE: This file is mainly the "mirage" articles from a number of
*                    encyclopedias, dictionaries, and similar reference works.
* "MIRAGE; an optical phenomenon, produced by refraction. The unusual
* elevation or apparent approximation of coasts, mountains, ships, and other
* objects, has long been known under the name of looming ; and, if the same
* phenomenon is accompanied by inverted images, it is called a mirage ."
*      N.B.: "A popular dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, history,
* politics and biography, . . . on the basis of the seventh edition of the
* German Conversations-Lexicon." [see below for a later edition of that]

(no author listed)
Chambers's Encyclopædia , vol. VI
(J.B.Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1868), p. 485.

* "Under it are classed the appearance of distant objects as double,
* or as if suspended in the air, erect or inverted, etc."
*      But there are some errors:  "In particular states of the atmosphere,
* reflection of a portion only of the rays takes place at the surface of
* the dense medium, and thus double images are formed, one by reflection,
* and the other by refraction -- the first inverted, and the second erect."
* And: "The Spectre of the Brocken , in Hanover, is another celebrated
* instance of mirage."

G. P. Quackenbos
A Natural Philosophy
(D.Appleton & Company, New York, 1870), p. 248.

* "Mirage is the appearance in the air of an erect or inverted image of
* some distant object which is itself invisible." (Garbage.)

(no author given)
Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Fünfte, gänzlich neubearbeitete Auflage, Elfter Band
(Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig und Wien, 1896), pp. 587–588.

* "Luftspiegelung . . .  bewirkt, daß Gegenstände, die sich      u n t e r
* dem Horizont befinden, deutlich sichtbar, also gewissermaßen gehoben
* werden . . . , oder daß ü b e r dem Horizont befindliche Gegenstände
* doppelt, vergrößert oder umgekehrt in der Luft schwebend erscheinen."
*      There is a fine laundry list of TERMINOLOGY here:  "Die deutschen
* Seeleute nennen diese Erscheinung K i m m u n g , die englischen
* L o o m i n g , die holländischen U p p d r a c h t , die
* französischen  M i r a g e .      In Indien nennt man die L.
* C h i l t r a m , » Bild « , oder S i k o t a , » Schlösser der
* kalten Zeit « ; bei den Arabern heißt sie S e h r a b ,
* » geheimnisvolles Wasser « , auch Bacher el Alfrid, » Sohn des
* Teufels « , oder Bacher el Gazal."

J. G. Albright
Physical Meteorology
(Prentice-Hall, New York, 1939), pp. 355–359.

* Albright's treatment of the green flash is straightforward and accurate.
* But his section 6 on "Mirages" in Chapter XX leaves much to be desired:
* "The mirage is an optical illusion due to the refraction of light as
* it passes through nonhomogeneous layers of the atmosphere. Distant
* objects are seen in an unnatural position, sometimes elevated, sometimes
* depressed, and often inverted." (p. 355)
*      He also seems to think that any images in excess of 2 must be due to
* reflection on water; in discussing the superior mirage, he says (p.357):
* "If the mirage occurs at sea, the image of a distant ship and of its
* reflection in the water also may appear in the sky, the image of the ship
* inverted and the image of the reflection erect, as shown in Fig. 231."
* [N.B.: This spurious suggestion was already made in 1806 by Kries.]
* His description of looming confuses it with ordinary terrestrial
* refraction; his illustration on p. 358 shows a flat Earth!

A. H. Thiessen
Weather Glossary
(U.S.Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1949).

* Thiessen's Glossary cites Albright's text (above), but omits its
* worst errors. Here looming is succinctly described as "An optical
* phenomenon in which objects below and beyond the horizon appear to
* the view of the observer, and even the horizon itself is extended."
* (I think he is saved by also referring to Humphreys.) Unfortunately,
* for "mirage", he simply quotes the first passage from Albright (see
* above). Here again, he cites Humphreys as well. (p. 188)
* Note that this is "W. B. No. 1445 Issued August 1, 1946" and "Reprinted
* May 1949".

H. Neuberger
“General Meteorological Optics,” in Compendium of Meteorology , T. F. Malone, ed.
(American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1951), pp. 61–78.

* Hans Neuberger (Penn. State) cites 59 references.
* He gives the standard textbook explanation of the green flash, but adds:
* ". . . most observations seem to be associated with refractions in excess
* of the normal," citing Meyer (1939) and Visser & Verstelle (1934).
* He correctly describes looming, sinking, towering and stooping, and
* attributes the mathematical theory of these to Exner (in P&E II).
*      His description of mirages as "one or more images of the object"
* clearly means extra images; he seems to fall into the error of
* assuming that one image is "the object" itself.

World Meteorological Organization
International Cloud Atlas, Volume I
(W.M.O., Geneva, 1956), p. 74.

* A definition that tries to be all things; or at least to cover all
* mirages -- to its detriment:
* "MIRAGE: An optical phenomenon consisting mainly of steady or wavering,
* single or multiple, upright or inverted, vertically enlarged or reduced,
* images of distant objects."
* About all that is useful here is "distant objects"; though "mainly"
* is a nice touch, in light of the rest of the arm-waving! Furthermore:
* "Objects seen in a mirage sometimes appear appreciably higher or lower
* above the horizon than they really are; the difference may amount to as
* much as 10 degrees." So this is all nonsense.
*      In addition, they use the curious non-standard terms "lower mirage"
* and "upper mirage" (in place of "inferior" and "superior", respectively.)

R. E. Huschke
Glossary of Meteorology
(American Meteorological Society, Boston, 1959), p. 373.

* Another completely wrong-headed attempt:
* "mirage -- A refraction phenomenon wherein an image of some object is
* made to appear displaced from its true position."
*      On the other hand, looming, towering, etc. are described correctly
* on p. 349, though described as a "mirage effect".

World Meteorological Organization
International Meteorological Vocabulary
(W.M.O., Geneva, 1966), pp. 117–118.

* The WMO is still confused:
* "Mirage: Optical phenomenon consisting essentially of steady or
* wavering, single or multiple, upright or inverted, vertically enlarged
* or reduced, images of distant objects." (p. 117) [Note that "mainly"
* has now become "essentially"; otherwise, their folly goes on unchanged.]
*      Worse yet, they now think there is a distinction between an "image"
* and "the actual object":
* "Superior mirage: Special case of mirage , . . . in which the virtual
* image is above the actual object." And:
* "Inferior mirage: Particular case of mirage , . . . in which the virtual
* image is found below the actual object." (both on p. 118)
* (Note that what they call a "virtual image" is in fact a real image, not
* a virtual one.)

R. W. Fairbridge
The Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences and Astrogeology (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences series, Vol. II)
(Reinhold, New York, 1967), pp. 605–606.

* Fairbridge has the same problem:
* "MIRAGE, FATA MORGANA: The mirage is a general category of atmospheric
* optical phenomena involving refraction of light rays bent by differential
* heating of a land or water surface, which results in the distortion or
* displacement of some object viewed, sometimes leading to a misleading
* optical illusion. . . .
*      "Three major types of mirage are recognized:
*      "The  inferior mirage , where the false image is seen below the true
* position of the object viewed."
*      Note that the diagram on p. 606 is reproduced from Hutchinson's book
* on limnology. Fairbridge cites all the right references, but seems to
* have misunderstood them. This article is signed by Fairbridge himself.

D. H. McIntosh
Meteorological Glossary
(Chemical Publishing, New York, 1972), pp. 181–182.

* . . . and so does McIntosh:
* "Two main classes of mirage occur, (i) `inferior' and (ii) `superior',
* in which the virtual image is below and above the object, respectively."
* (Of course all this nonsense about "virtual images" is quite wrong:
* it is the erect images that are virtual and the inverted ones that
* are real!) Worse yet, after discussing the superior mirage:
* "In such physical conditions multiple reflections may give rise to
* various images, some displaced laterally with respect to the object,
* as in FATA MORGANA."

T. S. Glickman
Glossary of Meteorology, Second Edition
(American Meteorological Society, Boston, 2000).

* Fortunately, the Second Edition is far better -- both more complete
* and more accurate -- than the First. Green flashes are connected with
* mirages; mirages are explicitly stated to be all images, not an "object"
* plus (supposedly spurious) "images". "Lateral mirages" in the
* wrong-headed sense are refuted: "the rare reports of such sightings
* undoubtedly arose from misinterpretations of observations." The lifted
* inversions responsible for superior mirages "are common over, but hardly
* confined to, enclosed bodies of water on warm afternoons when the warmer
* air from the surrounding land flows over the colder water." And the
* initial definition of "mirage" as "An image formed when the atmosphere
* behaves as a lens" is succinct and accurate.
*      On the other hand, there are still a few points I'd quibble with.
* Looming and sinking, stooping and towering are all called "mirages".
* Multiple images are attributed to periodic thermal inhomogeneities.
* Inferior and superior mirages are distinguished according to the
* direction of "displacement" of the image. And the Fata Brumosa is
* mistakenly called "Fata Bromosa". Alas, no references are cited.
*      Still, this must be regarded as about the best modern  summary of
* refraction phenomena available.

*** GF TEXTBOOK FILE -- various didactic accounts of green flashes ***

J. M. Pernter
Meteorologische Optik
(Wilhelm Braumüller, Wien und Leipzig, 1902).

* Pernter's original 1902 edition, before Exner got involved
* This edition treats only mirages; there is no mention of green flashes.
* It contains only 212 pages, and does not reach halos and rainbows.
*      However, there is much material on the Moon Illusion and its possible
* explanations (pp. 42 ff.) that was removed by Exner in later editions;
* notably the references to Ptolemy's "Optics", and the reference (note 1
* on p.42) to Ptolemy's belief in the Almagest that the "vapors at the
* horizon" are involved.

S. Arrhenius
Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik
(S.Hirzel, Leipzig, 1903), pp. 856–857.

* Dr. Svante August Arrhenius may have the first textbook account
* The "textbook" story appears here: "Da die roten Strahlen die geringste
* Brechung erleiden, verschwindet zuerst das rote Bild der Sonne unter dem
* Horizont, zuletzt das blaue."
* There is also good coverage of mirages, including a reference to Budde
* (but no citation) on pp.832-835.
* Refraction begins on p.827; dispersion appears on p. 829.
* As the organization and title of the chapter on "Meteorologische Optik"
* are exactly the same as in Pernter's book, that was evidently the model
* for this.
* (Cited by Mulder)

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner
Meteorologische Optik
(Wilhelm Braumüller, Wien und Leipzig, 1910).

* Here Exner adds a great deal of material, including GF on pp.798-799
* at the very end of the volume. He accepts Julius's 1/10 second and so
* must reject Henry's 1 sec., but can't swallow the anomalous dispersion;
* so "Einfacher scheint es, . . . die selective Absorption des Wasserdampfes
* zu berücksichtigen." Though there is no mention of either Abbe or
* Tyndall, I suspect this notion came from Abbe's 1905 editorial in MWR.
* Thanks to Günter Können for a copy of this!

J. Moore
Meteorology: Practical and Applied. Second revised and enlarged edition
(Rebman Co., New York, 1910), pp. 459–460.

* Sir John William Moore's curious book on meteorology
* The author was a professional physician, and an amateur meteorologist.
* His book is full of speculations about the effects of the weather and
* climate on disease. This 2nd edition contains a two-page Appendix on
* green flashes (listed in the Contents as "The Green Flash at Sunrise
* and Sunset", and on p. 459 both as just "GREEN FLASH" (below the word
* "Appendix") and "The Green Flash on the Horizon at Sunset" (in italics).
* It contains a brief review of the subject, concentrating on the 1906
* discussions in Symons's Met. Mag., and especially on Rambaut's refutation
* of Lippincott. No further mention of refraction phenomena.

W. Trabert
Lehrbuch der Kosmischen Physik
(B.G.Teubner, Leipzig, 1911), p. 420.

* A very brief exposition of the textbook model

R. Börnstein
Leitfaden der Wetterkunde (3rd edition)
(Friedr.Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1913), p. 100.

* Börnstein mentions only Julius's anomalous-dispersion explanation
* -- which I hardly think qualifies as "Gemeinverständlich"!
* (Full title is "Leitfaden der Wetterkunde -- gemeinverständlich
* bearbeitet von Dr. R. Börnstein, Geh.Regierungsrat" etc.)
* Dritte umgearbeitete und vermehrte Auflage
* ". . . der `grüne Strahl' . . . nennt man das ganz kurz dauernde
* Aufleuchten eines smaragdgrünen Flämmchens an derjenigen Stelle des
* Horizontes, wo die untergehende Sonne gerade verschwunden ist. . . ."
* Thanks to Steve Williams for getting this. (cited by Mulder)

A. Berget
Les problèmes de l'Atmosphère
(E.Flammarion, Paris, 1914), pp. 84–87.

* Author at least reports a couple of GFs he saw himself, as well as both
* inferior and superior mirages (p.82). Good clear presentation of the
* standard model at an elementary level, with clear diagrams.

J. M. Pernter and F. M. Exner
Meteorologische Optik
(Wilhelm Braumüller, Wien und Leipzig, 1922).

* A standard textbook account, often cited
* Wegener's mirage theory is reproduced on pp. 151-155.
*      Unfortunately, the French literature is shortchanged here: though
* Biot's mirage monograph is cited, and we have a few mentions of standard
* reference works like Mascart's "Traité", Bouguer and Bravais are cited
* only in connection with Halos, and astronomical refraction is mentioned
* mostly in vague gestures toward "astronomical textbooks."
*      Green flashes are mentioned only in the last 3 pages (901-903).  The
* colored plate at the end of the book shows Wegener's Nachspiegelung.
*      Available at the HathiTrust.
* O'C #101

A. Berget
L'air -- Une nouvelle conquête de l'homme
(Librairie Larousse, Paris, 1927), p. 26.

* Alphonse Berget's interesting book, illustrated by Lucien Rudaux
* Chapt. 3 (pp. 20-27) covers refraction phenomena, and contains many of
* Rudaux's monochrome photographs of low-sun phenomena. Fig. 14 on
* p. 24 is noteworthy. P. 25 shows a mirage photograph and drawings.
* There is a nice COLOR PLATE facing p. 24 that shows some of Rudaux's
* drawings of sunsets and green flashes.
* Thanks to Eric Frappa for pointing this out!

R. W. Wood
Physical Optics, 3rd Ed
(Macmillan, New York, 1934), p. 84.

* "It has frequently been contended that the phenomenon is an illusion due
* to contrast, the green spot being an `after-image.' This however is sheer
* nonsense, as any trained observer can testify."
* BUT: ". . . the case of mirage . . . would be unfavorable for the occurrence
* of the green flash" (assuming super-refraction is the cause).
* N.B.: Reprinted by Dover, 1967.

W. J. Humphreys
Physics of the Air, Third Edition
(McGraw-Hill, New York, 1940).

* HUMPHREYS's book
* Pp. 466-467 give the "textbook" GF description; no numbers or diagrams.
*      The section on atmospheric optics is a slightly updated version of
* his 1919 J. Franklin Inst. paper; the 2nd ed. (1920), on Google Books,
* says "Pub. for the Franklin Institute . . . by J.B. Lippincott Company".
*      The Fata Morgana section is the last 2 pages (pp. 474-475) of the
* mirage discussion. In the 3rd ed., he adds a reference to Schiele's
* thesis, calling it "an elaborate mathematical treatment of" the F.M.,
* and including the Japanese (Geophys. J.) refs. from Schiele.
*      Although this is a standard textbook, I have found that some people
* with no background in physics or optics have difficulty in following it.
* In particular, the brief description of "looming" is too terse -- and
* confusing, because of his mentioning the older broad use of that term
* for all sorts of refraction effects at the horizon.
*      probably O'C #54 is a garbled version of this book.

J. Q. Stewart and N. L. Pierce
Marine and Air Navigation
(Ginn and Co., Boston, 1944), p. 279.

* Standard textbook story
* [Newton Lacy Pierce has a prize named after him, awarded by the AAS.]

N. Bowditch
American Practical Navigator (H.O. Pub. No. 9)
(Government Printing Office, Washington, 1958), pp. 811–812.

* Apparently Bowditch acquired the GF paragraph 3821 in 1958;
* the 1943 edition of H.O. 9 lacks it, but it's there in the 1958 one.
* The Decennial Indices to U.S.Govt. pubs. list no edition between.
* Gives the standard Rambaut-Rayleigh story, but with a nice simile:
* "The effect is similar to that of imperfect color printing in which the
* various colors are slightly out of register."
* ". . . the greatest difference, which occurs between violet at one end of
* the spectrum and red at the other, is about ten seconds of arc."
* ". . . under suitable conditions is far more common than generally
* supposed. . . . With a sharp sea horizon and clear atmosphere, an
* attentive observer may see the green flash at as many as 50 percent of
* sunsets and sunrises, although a telescope may be needed for some of
* the observations."
* "Usually it lasts for a period of about half a second to two and
* one-half seconds with about one and a quarter seconds being average."
*      This same treatment occurs on p. 500 of the 1995 edition, available
* on-line at
* Full title is:
* The American Practical Navigator, an Epitome of Navigation
* originally by Nathaniel Bowditch, LL.D. [honorary degree from Harvard]
* published by the U.S.Navy Hydrographic Office . . . .

S. W. Visser
Optische verschijnselen aan de hemel (KNMI verspreide opstellen, 3)
(Staatsuitgeverij, 's-Gravenhage, 1957), pp. 23–24.

* Gives the std. textbook story, but then admits it isn't adequate, and
* that "irregular refraction" is certainly necessary for a good display.

“Green Flash,” in Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics
(Pergamon, New York, 1961).

* Fairly good short account; cites only O'Connell
* BUT: "It occurs when refraction in the atmosphere close to the Earth's
* surface is abnormally great . . . ."

K. Mütze, L. Foitzik, W. Krug, and G. Schreiber
ABC der Optik
(Verlag Werner Dausien, Hanau/Main, 1961).

* Good "Handbuch" treatment of optical subjects
* "Grüner Strahl", pp.352-353, cites only Meyer's article in Hb.d.Geophys.
* and shows a sketch of Lagaaij's green ray (without attribution). The
* explanation of the phenomenon is a bit muddled, but mostly follows the
* textbook story; however, following Meyer's lead, "Treten nun infolge
* außergewöhnlicher Temperaturschichtung -- insbesondere wahrscheinlich
* durch das Vorhandensein tiefliegenden kräftigen Inversion -- zusätzlich
* Luftspiegelungen und damit in Verbindung wohl auch anormale Verhältnisse
* der atmosphärischen Dispersion in diesen Schichten auf, dann können
* Zerrbilde des oberen Sonnenteiles als Erklärung für den grünen Strahl
* angenommen werden. Es wird auch vermutet, daß die Absorptionsbanden des
* Ozons und des Wasserdampfes im sichtbaren Spektralbereich hierbei mit eine
* Rolle spielen. Eine befriedigende Theorie für den ganzen
* Erscheinungskomplex des grünen Strahls gibt es jedoch noch nicht."
* So this is one of the BEST and MOST TRUTHFUL accounts to be found!
* The "Luftspiegelung" article (pp.498-500) also cites P&E, and redraws
* several of Wegener's diagrams. Both articles are credited to Foitzik.
* Thanks to Siebren van der Werf for this reference!

R. W. Fairbridge
The Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences and Astrogeology (Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences series, Vol. II)
(Reinhold, New York, 1967), p. 1048.

* Maybe this is the source of Fraser's and McIntosh's error:
* "It is related to the greater Rayleigh scattering and refraction in the
* short wavelengths (violet, blue, green) than in the long (red) waves of
* sunlight. Under hazy conditions it may appear blue or violet."
* (sure sounds as if one copied from the other.)
* (Fairbridge buries "Green Flash" under "Twilight")

G. Bradford
The Mariner's Dictionary
(Barre Publishers, Barre, Mass., 1972), p. 113.

* Standard textbook story, well presented

K. Heuer
Rainbows, Halos, and Other Wonders: Light and Color in the Atmosphere
(Dodd, Mead & Co., New York, 1978), pp. 23–26.

* a JUVENILE book
* Unaccountably quotes from Mostyn's 1891 Nature paper, but confuses
* him with Nijland's similar obsn. & says they were together!
* All the photos are in b/w, alas. Ch.2 is "Green and Blue Flashes".

R. Greenler
Rainbows, Halos, and Glories
(Cambridge Univ.Press, Cambridge, 1980).

* SUNSET PHOTOS and refraction in final chapter
* Ch.7 and Plates 7-10 and 7-11 show distorted sunsets
* p.177: "All are variations of the same effect and all, in my judgment,
* may appropriately be given the same name." (green flash)
* He even has a section called "The green flash legend" (pp.172-173), and
* quotes from Verne!
*      Note his good (though brief) treatment of the Fata Morgana on pp.
* 165-167 and Plates 7-4 to 7-7.

A. H. Batten
Rainbows, Halos and Glories by Robert Greenler,”
JRASC 76, 67–68 (1982).

* Alan H. Batten reviews Greenler's book, citing Hogg's JRASC mirage paper
* No mention of GF. Available from ADS.

A. Meinel and M. Meinel
Sunsets, Twilights, and Evening Skies
(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983).

* probably the best GF treatment available in hard covers, though the
* references are spotty
* Replete with errors from Botley, etc.;
* but they recognize that ADAPTATION plays a part.

K. Nassau
The Physics and Chemistry of Color: the Fifteen Causes of Color
(Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1983), p. 227.

* Kurt Nassau's "Fifteen Causes of Color" book
* A good explanation of the "textbook" flash, with "prism" analogy.
* Thanks to Dave Fenner for pointing this out!

E. S. Maloney
Dutton's Navigation and Piloting (14th edition)
(Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, 1985), p. 526.

* The same passage appears on p.620 of the 12th edition, edited by
* G.D.Dunlap and H.H.Shufeldt (1969 - 1972), except that Maloney has
* changed "The" to "A" at the start of the final sentence.
* ". . . the longer waves of red being least refracted, the shorter blue
* and violet waves being more refracted. The red, orange and yellow light
* is cut off by the horizon when the blue and violet is still momentarily
* visible. These blue and violet rays cause the green flash." [SIC!]
* [This nonsense seems to have appeared in the 12th edition, in 1969.]
* [It is not in the 4th (1961) printing of the 1957/58 edition.]
* "It is estimated that at sea in the tropics, the green flash may be seen
* as often as 50 percent of the time; it is, of course, easier to observe at
* sunset. The green flash usually lasts for a period of between one-half
* and one second." Again -- cf. Bowditch! -- mysterious numbers.
* This can't be what Cotter (1968) was objecting to:
* "Using the time of the green flash to obtain a line of position is
* merely a variation of the horizon sight described in the previous article.
* It is somewhat easier to determine the time of the flash than to determine
* the instant the sun's upper limb disappears below the horizon, when there
* is no green flash." [because this appeared after Cotter's book]

D. H. McIntosh
Meteorological Glossary
(Chemical Publishing, New York, 1972), p. 133.

* 1972 edition of the glossary originally published in 1916 by the Met.Office
* Looks as if the GF entry was not updated since Mulder's book:
* ". . . greater degree of RAYLEIGH SCATTERING experienced by the violet and
* blue rays. In a hazy atmosphere such differential scattering may not be
* appreciable and the flash may then appear blue or violet."
* This is the same error made by Fraser (1972) and it is likely he got it
* from an earlier edition of this, or from Fairbridge (above).
* ". . . the analogous very rare phenomenon of the `red flash' . . . ."

V. J. Schaefer and J. A. Day
A Field Guide to the Atmosphere
(Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 1981), p. 167.

* Vincent J. Schaefer never saw a GF, I'll wager!
* "Plate 9. . . . The green flash is never seen under the conditions that
* produced the sun's image in this photograph." (Actually, it looks like a
* very good opportunity for a mock-mirage flash; the reddening is
* appreciable, but not excessive.)
* "Quite rarely . . . only occurs when the atmosphere is extremely clean . . . ."
* Caption to Fig. C.Pl.9 says "The atmosphere develops small density
* differences that create the spreading [sic] of the image."

Meyers kleines Lexikon Meteorologie
(Bibl. Inst. & F.A.Brockhaus AG, Mannheim, 1987).

* BLUE-SKY CONFUSION error: (quoted by Hechler, 1994)
* ". . . der noch etwas später verschwindende blaue Oberrand der Sonne
* wegen des mangelnden Farbkontrastes zur bläulichen Himmelsfarbe dem
* Auge nicht sichtbar wird."

C. F. Bohren
“The Green Flash,” in Ch.9 in "Clouds in a Glass of Beer: Simple Experiments in Atmospheric Physics"
(Wiley, New York, 1987), pp. 98–103.

* Craig Bohren wisely confines his attention to the Green Rim.
* But he brashly states that "there is a Scottish legend . . . ."
* (Thanks a lot, Jules Verne!)
* "It is indeed true that the green flash is rarely observed, but not
* because it is rarely observable. The sad truth is that most people are
* only dimly aware of their surroundings." You said it, Craig!

C. Raymo
Honey from Stone: A Naturalist's Search for God
(Dodd, Mead, New York, 1987), pp. 143–150.

* Chet Raymo describes his fruitless search for green flashes
* The reason is not hard to find: "I have sat on the high rocky spine of
* the Dingle Peninsula and watched the sun sag into the North Atlantic."
* Much of the peninsula is over 500 m above the sea; the highest point is
* some 950m high -- all much too high for a inferior-mirage flash to be
* seen without aid; and in a region not much subject to strong inversions.
* He depends mainly on O'Connell's 1960 Scientific American article,
* which he mistakenly thinks had the first color photographs. Much of the
* wording here is identical to his 1990s columns in the Boston Globe .
* [Placed here as it is a tutorial account.]

A. McBeath
“Rainbows, Halos, and Glories by Robert Greenler,”
JBAA 100, No. 4, 195 (1990).

* Review of the paperback edition of Greenler's book in JBAA
* GF is mentioned. Available from ADS.

T. Dickinson and A. Dyer
The Backyard Astronomer's Guide
(Camden House, Camden East, Ont., Canada, 1991), pp. 101–102.

* not exactly a textbook, but compiled by and for amateur astronomers
* This is one of the few places where one reads that ". . . it can be safely
* observed with binoculars or a telescope." The description applies to the
* inferior-mirage flash; the advice is sound.

C. D. Ahrens
Meteorology Today: An Introduction to Weather, Climate, and the Environment (Fourth Edition)
(West Publ.Co., St.Paul, 1991), p. 121.

* This popular textbook seems to be the source of the canard about the
* Byrd expedition: "Members of Admiral Byrd's expedition in the south
* polar region reported seeing the green flash for 35 minutes in September
* as the sun slowly rose above the horizon, marking the end of the long
* winter." The actual date was Oct. 16, and the observation was made at
* sunset, not sunrise -- see Owen (1929), Davies (1931) and Haines (1931).
* (Note that Little America was some 11 degrees from the Pole.)
* Also, there is a curious statement about "purple light".
* However, there is also the correct statement, "Usually, the green light
* is too faint to see with the human eye. However, under certain
* atmospheric conditions, such as when the surface air is very hot or when
* an upper-level inversion exists, the green light is magnified by the
* atmosphere."

Great Britain Meteorological Office
The Marine Observer's Handbook, 11th edition [Met. O. 1016]
(HMSO, London, 1995), pp. 166–167.

* The 7th Edition (June, 1950) cited by Hilder (1951) bears the cover
* title: "Manual of Meteorological Observing. Part II. Marine Observer's
* Handbook". That edition gives GF on p.74, and very little on mirage.
* Final paragraph mentions 3 forms of GREEN RAY or fog

C. F. Bohren
“Atmospheric Optics,” in Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Vol.12 , G. L. Trigg, ed.
(Wiley-VCH, New York, 1995), pp. 405–434.

* CRAIG BOHREN's encyclopedia article
* The GF treatment is on pp. 423-424.
* "Compared to the rainbow, the green flash is not a rare phenomenon."
* It is preceded by a section on the distortion of the setting Sun, which
* follows Fraser in forgetting about dip, so that the miraged multiple
* images are attributed to gravity waves.

H. S. Rice
“Atmosphere: Green Flash,”
Collier's Encyclopedia 3, 172 (1997).

* The whole "Atmosphere" article is pp.161-172; the GF is only a
* two-sentence paragraph. The description is vague and incorrect.

P. Barnes-Svarney and T. E. Svarney
Skies of Fury: weather weirdness around the world
(Simon & Schuster, New York, 1999), pp. 46–48.

* A popular book on meteorology devotes 2 full pages to "the green flash"
* (including "the Scottish saying" and the textbook explanation.)
* Mirages get the same uneven treatment, and the Novaya Zemlya effect
* is made to appear a normal concomitant of green flashes, "after the Sun
* sets". The bogus term "fata bromosa" appears on p. 51. But the authors
* have tried hard to bring meteorology to the public, despite such lapses.
* A curious feature of this book is that all of the numerous photographs
* are in black-and-white -- no color work, even in the rainbow picture.
* [The authors tell me their publisher cheaped them out here.]
* Another odd thing is the confusion over the publisher. The title page
* says "A Touchstone Book . . . Published by Simon & Schuster"; the reverse
* says "A Fireside book" but also "Touchstone and colophon are registered
* trademarks of Simon & Schuster Inc." The authors retain the copyright.
* says "Fireside". The authors' Web page says "Simon &
* Schuster". The review in Kirkus Reviews says "Touchstone".
* [The Svarneys say the publisher should be given as S&S.]


“Observation de l'eclipse de Jupiter et de ses Satellites par la Lune,”
Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. Paris , 210–212 (1715).

* [see also Hoppe (1941) in GF file, and Bessel (1823) in REFR. OBS. file.]
* DISCOVERY of RED and BLUE RIMS by Delisle
* Observing at Luxembourg, 25 Jul. 1715, Delisle says:
* "J'ai été fort attentif à examiner si Jupiter & ses Satellites ne
* prenderoient pas à l'approche de la Lune des couleurs semblables à
* celles que j'avois vû dans l'Eclipse de Venus le mois passé ; mais
* je n'en ai pu remarquer aucune qui se puisse attribuer à l'approche
* de la Lune." (He was accompanied by Chardeloup, from the Roy. Soc. in
* London; Delisle used a 20-foot telescope, and Chardeloup an 8-ft.)
* "Pour nous mieux préparer à observer ces couleurs, nous avions examiné
* avant l'Eclipse les couleurs que la Lunette causoit à Jupiter, & nous
* avons trouvé ces couleurs toûjours dirigées au centre de la Lunette,
* le rouge étant en dedans, comme cela devoit arriver. J'ai aussi aussi
* [sic] fait remarquer à M. Chardeloup que Jupiter prenoit vers l'horizon
* les mêmes couleurs, mais qu'elles provenoient d'une autre cause, car
* elles étoient dirigées autrement, le rouge paroissant toûjours le
* plus près de l'horizon, & le bleu le plus éloigné, & cela dans quelque
* situation de la Lunette que l'on place Jupiter. Ainsi les couleurs que
* nous avons remarqué dans cette Observation, provenoient ou des Lunettes
* ou de l'approche de l'horizon, & nullement de l'approche de la Lune,
* Jupiter nous ayant paru très-blanc pendant son Immersion & son Emersion."
*      Thus, he was not sure whether the effect near the horizon was real or
* a telescopic artifact. (Cited by Bouguer, 1748.)

“Sur la mesure du diamètre des plus grandes planètes,”
Hist. Acad. Roy. Sci. (Paris) , 87–94 (1748).

* This is the ``meeting abstract'' -- evidently written by the Secretary,
* as Bouguer is referred to in the 3rd person.
*      The paper is mostly about Bouguer's invention of the heliometer;
* but, in the early observations, ". . . il a toûjours trouvé les bords
* supérieur & inférieur plus ondoyans que les bords latéraux, & de
* plus, toûjours affectés de couleurs qui y forment un iris incommode;
* cette apparence peu sensible, lorsqu'on se sert de lunettes de sept à
* huit pieds, telles qu'on les a jusqu'ici employées à la recherche du
* diamètre di Soleil, devient très-marquée dans l'heliomètre; & les
* couleurs même qu'on observe dans les deux bords, lui en ont indiqué
* la cause: on sait qu'un rayon qui nous vient du Soleil n'est pas un
* rayon simple, mais un composé de sept faisceaux de rayons de couleurs
* différentes, & tous différemment refrangibles. Le plus haut point du
* diamètre vertical sera donc vû par le faisceau de rayons bleus qui
* souffrira une plus grande réfraction, & qui par conséquent le fera
* paroître plus haut, & son extrémité la plus basse par le faisceau
* de rayons qui aura souffert la moindre réfraction, c'est-à-dire le
* faisceau de rayons rouges . . . ." (p. 93)
* So Bouguer understood that the effect is due to ATMOSPHERIC DISPERSION.
* No doubt SIMULTANEOUS CONTRAST helped him detect the color difference.
*      ". . .  on observera toûjours le bord supérieur terminé par un trait
* bleu, & l'inférieur par un trait rouge, au lieu qu'on n'observera rien
* de pareil dans les bords latéraux, parce que la réfraction de leurs
* rayons se fait dans un plan vertical, & sans les déranger en aucune
* façon dans le sens du diamètre horizontal, dont elle ne peut par
* conséquent altérer ni la couleur, ni la netté, ni la mesure." (p. 94)
* (mentioned, but not cited, by Arago in 1836.)
* Cf. St. Chevalier (1913)!
* Actually printed in 1752.

[P]. Bouguer
“De la mesure des diamètres des plus grandes planètes: Description d'un nouvel Instrument qu'on peut nommer Héliomètre, propre à les déterminer; & Observations sur le Soleil,”
Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. (Paris) , 11–34 (1748).

* The details of Bouguer's HELIOMETER and COLORED RIMS on the Sun
* The first 2/3 or so of this paper are devoted to explaining why the
* horizontal diameter of the Sun could not be measured accurately:
* before equatorial telescopes with good clock drives were available,
* the image moved too fast to check the opposite limbs simultaneously
* with a filar micrometer, and the diurnal motion was too fast to allow
* accurate determinations of the east and west limbs by timings with a fixed
* telescope: "Tout la difficulté qu'on trouve dans cette observation,
* consiste à estimer les fractions de secondes . . . on se trompera
* aisément d'un tiers ou d'une moitié de seconde de temps, ce qui en
* produire jusqu'à cinq ou six, ou même sept de degré sur le diamètre."
* There is also the problem that the clock escapement is not exactly
* symmetrical, so that long and short intervals alternate (pp. 20-21).
* Furthermore, the Moon usually (because of its phase) shows only a full
* diameter in an oblique direction, and so cannot be well measured at all.
*      Bouguer seems to have been inspired by the binocular:  "On sait
* que le binocle avoit été imaginé pour procurer aux observateurs la
* prétendue commodité de regarder le même objet avec les deux yeux.
* Le nouvel instrument, l'héliomètre ou l'astromètre dont nous
* voulons introduire l'usage, fera voir au contraire avec un seul oeil deux
* objets à la fois, ou deux parties du même, quoique considérablement
* éloignées l'une de l'autre . . . ." [p. 23]
*      He diminishes both the brightness and the chromatic aberration by
* reducing the apertures to 6 or 8 mm: ". . . on peut diminuer extrêmement
* les ouvertures des objectifs; % ce sera toûjours le mieux, lorsqu'on ne
* se proposera de mesurer que les diamètres du Soleil. Il sera avantageux
* de réduire alors par des diaphragmes, les deux verres à une simple
* partie de pouce, ou à trois ou quatre lignes de largeur; car on évitera,
* par ce rétrécissement, presque tout le mauvais effet de la séparation
* des rayons colorés qui ternissent les bords de l'astre." [p. 25]
*      The state of technical optics in 1748 was dismal:  "Un Artiste adroit
* a taillé dans le même bassin huit objectifs de 18 pieds de foyer; &
* c'est entre ces huit verres que j'en ai choisi deux : la précaution
* d'en faire tailler plusieurs s'est trouvée utile; deux ou trois de ces
* objectifs, soit que cela vînt de leur figure ou de ls diverse densité
* de leur matière, avoient leurs foyers différens de 7 à 8 pouces,
* quoiqu'on eût tachéde les rendre parfaitement égaux." [p. 27]
*      Finally, he reports his preliminary attempts to verify the sphericity
* of the Sun: "On sait que c'est un des effets de notre atmosphère de
* diminuer un peu les diamètres verticaux apparens du Soleil & de la
* Lune; ce qui vient de ce que la réfraction élève un peu plus le bord
* inférieur de leur disque que le supérieur. Il n'y a personne qui n'ait
* vû ces deux astres sous une forme sensiblement elliptique, lorsqu'ils
* étoient très-voisins de l'horizon & sujets à des réfractions
* plus fortes. Il doit arriver encore quelque chose de semblable dans
* les grandes hauteurs, quoique la différence des deux axes soit alors
* moins considérable, & cesse d'être aperc,ûe à la vûe simple.
* Cette petite quantité devoit être de deux secondes sur le Soleil,
* aux environs de midi, pendant le mois d'Octobre dernier, qui est le
* temps où j'ai commencé à observer : cependant, bien loin de trouver
* cette différence, j'ai toûjours remarqué que le diamètre vertical
* étoit plus grand que l'horizontal ; c'est ce dont je me suis assuré
* en appliquant tantôt l'oeil immédiatement à l'héliomètre, & tantôt
* en recevant l'image des deux portions de disque sur une tablette que je
* plaçois en dehors perpendiculairement à l'axe de l'instrument. . . .
* Qu'on mette à une seconde, ou seulement une demi-seconde, le petit excès
* que j'ai aperc,û, ce sera une demi-seconde à joindre aux deux dont les
* réfractions raccourcissent le diamètre vertical. Il suivroit de là
* que ce diamètre seroit plus grand que l'autre de deux secondes & demie
* ou de trois secondes : le Soleil auroit la forme d'un sphéroïde oblong,
* & la différence des deux axes seroit au moins d'une 750e partie." [p.30]
*      He decided to suspend judgment until having made observations at
* different altitudes and with heliometers of different focal lengths.
* In examining the limbs more closely, he noticed that the upper and lower
* limbs were less well defined than the lateral ones, and more subject to
* "ondulations importunes". Then: "Lorsque cet inconvénient n'a pas
* lieu, le haut & le bas de l'image sone encore toûjours sujets à une
* gradation de couleurs qui nuit à sa distinction ; à peu près de la
* même manière que la pénombre empêche de distinguer les limites de
* l'ombre avec laquelle elle confine." [p. 31]
*      "Si le défaut continuel de netteté des bords supérieur & inférieur
* du Soleil, est très-capable d'embarraser les Observateurs scrupuleux, it
* offre aussi un sujet de problème pour les Physiciens, qui ne manqueront
* pas d'en demander la solution : elle n'est pas difficile à trouver, &
* je crois pouvoir l'indiquer d'une manière sûre. Cette apparence ne peut
* venir que de la décomposition que souffre la lumière en traversant notre
* atmosphère ; les rayons bleus ou violets qui partent en même temps que
* les rayons des autres couleurs, du haut du disque, sont sujets à un peu
* plus de réfraction que ces derniers, ils se courbent un peu davantage;
* ils nous paroissent donc venir d'un peu plus haut, en portant plus loin
* l'illusion ordinaire des réfractions. C'est tout le contraire si nous
* jetons la vûe sur le bord inférieur, nous devons le voir principalement
* par des rayons rouges qui souffrent un peu moins de courbure dans leur
* trajet ; ces rayons, en se courbant moins, doivent frapper nos yeux comme
* s'ils partoient d'un point plus bas, & par conséquent faire paroître
* un peu en dessous la partie inférieure du disque qu'ils étendent,
* pendant que les rayons bleus & violets contribuent à étendre ce même
* disque par sa partie supérieure.
*      "Tout ce que nous avançons ici deviendra incontestable, si l'on
* considère plus attentivement l'image du Soleil fournie par une longue
* lunette, & rec,ûe sur une tablette. On verra que la partie de l'image
* qui répond au bord supérieur, est terminée par un trait bleu, pendent
* que le rouge domine sur le bord opposé." [p. 32] -- and he cites
* Delisle's 1715 observation of Jupiter.
*      Then he introduces the analogy of the PRISM: "l'explication que nous
* en donnons, est outre cela tout à fait conforme à ce qu'on sait de
* la nature des couleurs, dont la lumière primitive ou celle du Soleil
* est formée. Lorsque les rayons de cet astre pénètrent obliquement
* les différentes couches de la masse d'air qui nous environne, & qui
* sont successivement plus denses, ils doivent être sujets aux mêmes
* accidens que s'ils traversoient obliquement les faces d'un prisme,
* puisqu'ils coupent les couches de l'atmosphère dans des endroits qui
* ne sont pas réciproquement parallèles les uns aux autres . . . ." [p. 33]
*      Dated 24 Avril 1748; actually printed in 1752.

S. Dunn
“An attempt to assign the cause, why the Sun and Moon appear to the naked eye larger when they are near the horizon. With an account of several natural phænomena, relative to this subject,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 52, 462–473 (1762).

* "A little before sun-setting, I have often seen the edge of the Sun with
* such protuberances and indentures, as have rendered him, in appearance, a
* very odd figure; the protuberances shooting out far beyond, and the
* indentures pressing into, the disk of the Sun, and always through a
* telescope magnifying fifty-five times, the lower limb has appeared with a
* red glowing arch beneath it, and close to the edge of the Sun, whilst the
* other parts have been clear.
*      "At sun-setting, such protuberances and indentures have appeared to
* slide or move along the vertical limbs, from the lower limb to the higher,
* and there vanishing, so as often to form a segment of the Sun's upper limb
* apparently separated from the disk, for a small space of time.
*      "At sun-rising, I have often seen the like protuberances, indentures,
* and slices, above described; but with this difference of motion, that at
* sun-rising they first appear to rise in the Sun's upper limb, and slide or
* move downward to the lower limb; or, which is the same thing, they always
* appear at the rising and setting of the Sun, to keep in the same parallels
* of altitude, by the telescope. This property has been many times so
* easily discernable, even by the naked eye, that I have observed the Sun's
* upper limb to shoot out towards right and left, and move downward, forming
* the upper part of the disk an apparent portion of a lesser spheroid than
* the lower part at rising, and the contrary at setting."
* "These protuberances and indentures . . . enabled me to conclude, that
* certain strata of the atmosphere, having different refractive powers, and
* lying horizontally across the conical or cycloidal space traced out by the
* rays, between the eye and that part of the atmosphere first touched by the
* rays, must have been the cause of such apparent protuberances and
* indentures, in an horizontal direction, across the Sun's limbs . . . ."
*      Jim Mosher points out that Mr. Samuel Dunn was a prominent cartographer
* and mathematics teacher in this period. He died in 1794.

P. Dollond
“An Account of an Apparatus applied to the equatorial Instrument for correcting the Errors arising from the Refraction in Altitude,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 69, 332–336 (1779).

* PETER DOLLOND's remark about dispersion
* This is mostly about the use of 2 glasses with a common spherical
* surface, placed before the objective (!) of a telescope to correct
* refraction by sliding the concave glass over the convex one.
*      But near the end, on p. 335 (mis-numbered 535), he says:
* "It must be observed, that when a star or planet is but a few degrees
* above the horizon, the refraction of the atmosphere occasions it to be
* considerably coloured. The refraction of the lens acting in a contrary
* direction would exactly correct that colour, if the dissipation of the
* rays of light were the same in glass as in air; but as it is greater in
* glass than in air, the colours occasioned by the refraction of the
* atmosphere will be rather more than corrected by those occasioned by the
* refraction of the lens."
* (mentioned, but not cited, by Arago, 1836.)

W. Herschel
“Catalogue of double stars,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London 75, 40–126 (1785).

* WILLIAM HERSCHEL's remarks on atmospheric dispersion
* The remark appears as a footnote to the catalogue of double stars.
* On p.83, Herschel lists entry #107 as "Congerie Stellularum Sagittarii
* borealior" and gives his approximate measurement, with the remark:
*      "As accurate as the prismatic power of the atmosphere, which lengthens
* the stars, will permit." At the end of the entry he has the footnote:
*      "What I call the prismatic power of the atmosphere, of which little
* notice has been taken by astronomers, is that part of its refractive
* quality whereby it disperses the rays of light, and gives a lengthened
* and coloured image of a lucid point. It is very visible in low stars;
* FOMALHAND, for instance, affords a beautiful prismatic spectrum. That
* this power ought not to be overlooked in delicate and low observations,
* is evident from some measures I have taken to ascertain its quantity.
* Thus I found, May 4, 1783, that the perpendicular diameter of ε,
* FLAMSTEED's 20th Sagittarii, measured 16'' 9''', while the horizontal was
* 8'' 35'''; which gives 7'' 34''' for the prismatic effect: the measures
* were taken with 460, near the meridian, and the air remarkably clear.
* And though this power, which depends on the obliquity of the incident ray,
* diminishes very fast in greater altitudes, yet I have found its effects
* perceivable as high, not only as α or γ Corvi in the meridian,
* but up to Spica Virginis, and even to Regulus. Experiments on these two
* latter stars I made November 20, 1782; when Regulus, at the altitude of
* 49°, shewed the purple rather fuller at the bottom of the field of
* view than when it was at the upper edge; which shews that the prismatic
* powers of the edges of the eye lens were assisted in one situation
* by the power of the atmosphere, but counteracted by it in the other.
* I turned the lens in all situations, to convince myself that it was not
* in fault. This experiment explains also, why a star is not always best
* in the center of the field of view; a fact I have often noticed before
* I knew the cause."
* [Most of the footnote spills onto p. 84.]

S. Lee
“On the dispersive power of the atmosphere, and its effect on astronomical observations,”
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 105, 375–383 (1815).

* "With a power of 170 and upwards, the disk of the planet appeared much
* elongated, especially when near the horizon; the upper limb was of a fine
* blue, the lower of a deep red." (p.378)
* [reprinted in German in Bode's Astron. Jahrbuch (1819) pp.113-120]
* [and in French, in vol. 5 of Bibliotheque Universelle (at BHL)]
* Stephen Lee, Clerk and Librarian to the Royal Society
* O'C #79

T. Forster
“Memoir on the variations of the reflective, refractive and dispersive powers of the atmosphere,”
Phil. Mag. 63, 192–210 (1824).

* Wide-ranging discussion of refraction, dispersion, scintillation,
* chromatic scintillation, spectroscopy, etc., with Greek and Latin quotes
* refers to Lee's 1815 paper.
* "Read before the Meteorological Society of London in February and March
* 1824, and published by permission."

C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 3, 233 (1836).

* ARAGO's fight with CAUCHY
* The trouble began when Cauchy donated to the Academie a copy of his
* work on the theory of light, which contained the claim that gases did
* not show dispersion. Arago noticed this lapse, and tried to correct it
* with a letter, printed under ``Correspondance'' at the end of the 29
* Aug. 1836 meeting:
*      "A l'occasion d'un nouveau mémoire de M. Cauchy  sur la théorie
* de la lumière, présenté aujourd'hui à l'Academie, M. Arago croit
* devoir signaler une erreur de fait dans laquelle l'auteur est tombé au
* sujet de la dispersion des substances gazeuses. M. Cauchy suppose cette
* dispersion nulle. M. Arago dit, au contraire, qu'elle est sensible et
* qu'il l'a mesurée pour un bon nombre de gaz simples et composés.
* Dans une prochaine séance, M. Arago fera connaître tous ses
* résultats."

“Théorie de la lumière,”
C. R. Acad. Sci. 3, 422–424 (1836).

* CAUCHY refuses to take his medicine:
* "Il serait assez singulier que l'erreur de fait se trouvât, non dans
* le mémoire lithographié, mais dans l'assertion qu'on vient de lire,
* appliquée, comme elle semble l'être, à ce nouveau mémoire; . . . .
*      Ce que M. Arago aura dit, c'est que jusqu'à ce jour les physiciens
* n'avaient point observé la dispersion dans les gaz. C'est là ce que
* j'ai dit moi-même dans la 9e livraison d'un mémoire plus ancien, où,
* après avoir établi et vérifié les lois de la dispersion dans les
* corps solides, après avoir expliqué comment on s'assure que ce
* phénomène disparaît dans le vide, j'ajoute que jusqu'à ce jour on
* n'a pu découvrir dans les gaz aucune trace de la dispersion des
* couleurs . . . . La note insérée dans le Compte rendu prouve
* elle-même l'exactitude de cette proposition à l'époque où
* j'écrivais ces lignes, et c'est parce que les physiciens n'avaient
* jusqu'ici rien découvert à cet égard, que les observations promises
* par M. Arago contribueront notablement au progrès de la science. Mais
* personne ne s'étonnera que je n'aie point parlé de ces observations
* plusiers mois avant qu'elles fussent publiées et peut-être même
* entreprises."
* [printed under ``Correspondance'' for the 3 Octobre 1836 séance.]

“Réclamation de M. Arago au sujet de la lettre de M. Cauchy à M. Libri, insérée dans le Compte Rendu de la séance du 3 octobre,”
C. R. Acad. Sci. 3, 459–462 (1836).

* ARAGO lambastes Cauchy for his obstinacy:
* He calls Cauchy's blunder "une erreur de fait capitale," and goes on:
* "En essayant ainsi de détourner M. Cauchy de persister dans la peine
* qu'il se donnait pour déduire de sa savante théorie une conséquence
* que l'observation démentait de tout point, M. Arago croyait avoir droit
* à des remercîments. Loin de là, M. Cauchy s'est montré offensé.
* Son confrère se voit donc obligé d'examiner ses griefs.
*      He then documents in detail Cauchy's wrong statements, and quotes
* Cauchy's claim that Arago should have said that the physicists had
* never observed dispersion in gases "to this day". Then: "M. Arago
* déclare ne pouvoir accepter cette rectification ; il montre en effet,
* que la dispersion de l'atmosphère terrestre avait été aperçue
*                        En 1748 par Bouguer
*                        En 1761 par Lemonnier
*                        En 1779 par Dollond
*            En 1783, en 1785 et en 1805, par Herschel"
* and tops this list with his own measurements from 1812, adding:
* "Enfin, en 1815, M. Stephen Lee lut à la Société royale de
* Londres, et publia dans les Transactions philosophiques , un mémoire
* intitulé : Sur la force DISPERSIVE de l'atmosphère et ses effets
* sur les observations astronomiques .
*      « Personne, dit M. Cauchy, ne s'étonnera, que je n'aie pas parlé
* des observations de M. Arago, plusiers mois avant qu'elles fussent
*      A l'insinuation peu bienveillante que ce passage renferme, M. Arago
* répond par deux faits : Ses mesures de la force dispersive de
* l'atmosphère datent de 1812; elles furent citées, quelque temps après
* cette époque, par M. de Lindenau dans le Journal astronomique de
* Gotha . Quant aux mesures de la DISPERSION des gaz et des vapeurs
* que M. Arago avait faites avec M. Petit, son beau-frère, elles
* remontent à 1815 ; on en trouve une analyse détaillée dans le
* premier article du premier cahier du premier volume des Annales
* de physique et de chimie PUBLIÉ en février 1816! M. Arago
* aurait donc, peut-être le droit de remplacer le dernier paragraphe
* guillemetté de M. Cauchy, par le suivant, où quelques expressions
* seulement sont changées :
*      « Tout le monde  s'étonnera que M. Cauchy n'ait pas connu les
* observations de M. Arago, vingt ans après qu'elles avaient été
* publiées! »

“Instructions concernant la Météorologie et la Physique du globe,”
C. R. Acad. Sci. 7, 206–224 (1838).

* ARAGO says the effect is well known
* "Les astronomes qui ont essayé, même une seule fois dans leur vie,
* de déterminer la valeur des réfractions horizontales, savent combien
* peu il est permis de compter sur les résultats. C'est ordinairement le
* bord du soleil qui sert de point de mire; mais près de l'horizon, ce
* bord paraît si fortement dentelé, si vivement irisé, si déchiqueté;
* ces diverses irrégularités sone d'ailleurs tellement changeantes que
* l'observateur ne sait où diriger le fil du réticule, à quel point, à
* quel hauteur arrêter sa lunette sur le limbe gradué de l'instrument
* qu'il emploie." (p. 211)

F. W. Bessel
“Sue la réfraction astronomique,”
C. R. 15, 181–185 (1842).

* ". . . la loi de la chaleur . . . est évidemment très-variable . . . ."
* "Jusqu'à ce qu'on ait réussi à exprimer cette loi en fonction du
* temps, il sera impossible de former une table qui représente parfaitement
* la réfraction pour chaque distance au zénith et pour chaque temps."
* ". . . quoique l'air parût être parfaitement clair, le rouge et le bleu
* du spectre étaient seuls visibles, de manière que l'étoile resemblait
* en quelque sorte à une étoile double, composée d'une étoile rouge et
* d'une bleu."
* "Il paraît donc que des observations faites dans des distances au zénith
* plus grandes que 85° ne seraient que d'un très-petit poids pour
* l'astronomie, même si l'on pouvait exactement calculer les réfractions
* nécessaires pour les réduire."
* ". . . l'influence des variations de la loi de la chaleur des couches de
* l'air ne commence à être sensible qu'au delà du 85e degré."
* "Au delà de cette limite, c'est-à-dire entre le 85e degré de distance
* au zénith et l'horizon, l'influence des variations de la loi de la
* chaleur des couches de l'air croît rapidement, ce que la théorie
* indique."
* Day-night variations in refraction residuals amount to 30" at 1/2 deg.
* altitude; "Il est évidemment impossible d'expliquer de telles
* différences sans connaître les variations de la loi de la chaleur des
* couches de l'air dépendantes du temps. . . . Mais cela serait un problème
* dont la solution, supposée possible, aurait plus de prix pour la
* météorologie que pour l'astronomie."
* (Many of these remarks are prefigured in his 1823 A.N. paper.)

F. Arago
“Sur la puissance dispersive de l'atmosphère,”
C. R. 15, 235–236 (1842).

* ARAGO indulges his penchant for priority disputes and reminds Bessel
* and others that he saw atmospheric dispersion first!
* "M. Arago a rédigé une Note historique où toutes ces recherches sont
* analysées et appréciées." [Was it ever published? Montigny (1855,
* p.55) thinks not; and in Arago's Œuvres Complètes, T. XI, p. 737, we
* read: "Le Mémoire annoncé par M. Arago n'a pas été rédigé. It then
* records his observations of atmospheric dispersion going back to 1811.]

S. Stampfer
“Ueber die Farbenzerstreuende Kraft der Atmosphäre,”
Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Math.-Naturwiss. Classe 2, 101–108 (1851).

* RED AND VIOLET RIMS PREDICTED (but thought unobservable)
* "Da nun die Strahlen bei ihren Durchgange durch die Atmosphäre
* gebrochen und somit ohne Zweifel auch zerstreut werden, so muss das Bild
* der Sonne ein in verticaler Richtung liegendes S p e c t r u m bilden.
* Unmittelbar ist freilich dieses Erscheinung nicht bemerkbar, dazu ist der
* Zerstreuungswinkel viel zu klein, dem ungeachtet können wir uns das
* Sonnenbild als eine Reihe farbiger Bilder denken, die einander zwar nahe
* aber nicht vollkommen decken, indem das rothe Bild die kleinste, das
* violette hingegen die grösste Höhe über dem Horizonte haben muss,
* woraus sogleich folgt, dass Blendgläser von verschiedener Farbe auch eine
* Verschiedenheit in der beobachteten Sonnenhöhe zur Folge haben werden."
* (He observed only through such colored glasses, so failed to discover
* the green rim.)
* "Wegen der Farbenzerstreuung der Atmosphäre muss bei den
* verschiedenfarbigen Sternen die Refraction etwas Verschieden sein, bei den
* rothen Sternen geringer, als bei den weissen oder grünen."
* "Gewöhnlich ist das Sonnenlicht mehr oder weniger roth, wo dann die
* blauen Strahlen grossentheils absorbiert sind. Hieran knüpft sich von
* selbst die Bemerkung, dass die Refraction der weissen Sterne nahe am
* Horizont sich jener des rothen Strahles nähert, vorausgesetzt, dass die
* scheinbare Mitte des vorzugsweise roth erscheinenden Sternes pointiert
* wird." (p.107)
* (Here the double-s is spelled with two small s's.)

Ch. Montigny
“Essai sur des effets de réfraction et de dispersion produits par l'air atmosphérique,”
Mémoires couronnés et Mémoires des Savants Étrangers, publiés par l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique 26, 1–70 (1853).

* OBSERVATION OF --> SOLAR <-- COLORED RIMS (over a century after Bouguer!)
* "On sait sans doute, que, si l'on examine au télescope le soleil près
* de l'horizon, une partie des arcs inférieur et supérieur de son disque
* sont colorés, le premier en rouge et orangé, et le second en bleu.
*      "Les arcs rouge et orangé qui bordent la partie inférieure du disque
* solaire en s'amincissant à leurs extrémités, près du diametre
* horizontal, sont très-distinctes; le jaune l'est parfois aussi. Le 27
* septembre, le matin, alors que le bord infèrieure s'elevait sur
* l'horizon, l'épaisseur des trois teintes était de 19''.
*      "Quand le ciel est pur, on distingue aisément le teinte violette
* indigo au-dessus de l'arc bleu supérieure; elle est parfois
* très-prononcée. Le vert se voit aussi au-dessus du bleu, mais il se
* distingue moins fréquemment." (p.46)
* Also mentions colors in SUNSPOTS.
* NOTE: Read at the meeting of 5 Nov. 1853, but apparently published in 1855.
*      An extended German abstract of this paper appeared in
* "Fortschritte der Physik im Jahre 1855", 11, pp. 575-580 (1858).
* (A shorter version appeared the previous year, in FdP 1854, pp. 633-634.)
* O'C #92

W. B. Clarke
“Observations made at Sydney during the Eclipse of the Sun, March 26, 1857,”
M. N. R. A. S. 18, 39–44 (1857).

* Casual mention of blue and red rims seen at a low-altitude solar eclipse
* The passage is on p. 41; the observation was not understood.

F. Arago
Œuvres Complètes de François Arago, Tome Onzième
(Gide, Paris, 1859), pp. 733–748.

* ARAGO's collected works: unpublished material from his observing logs
* This volume has two title pages, one for the "collected works", and
* one for the "scientific memoirs". So this is Vol. 11 of the "Œuvres
* Complètes" but only Vol. 2 of the "Mémoires Scientifiques".
*      Arago's papers were edited by J. A. Barral, and amount to some 20
* volumes in all.
*      The discussion of atmospheric dispersion arose from a dispute with
* Cauchy, who incautiously said in 1836 that gases showed no dispersion.
* Arago, who knew better, had to protest; but never published his promised
* review of the subject, nor the details of his own early observations
* that are recorded here. The section on pp. 733-748 is entitled ``Sur
* les pouvoirs dispersifs'' and the section on air beginning on p. 737 is
* called ``Dispersion de l'atmosphère''.
*      Most curiously of all, nothing appears here about his observations
* with Biot. Perhaps those were recorded only in Biot's observing logs;
* perhaps Arago felt their publication on the meridian survey was enough;
* or perhaps the later disputes between Arago and Biot were the reason.
* Anyhow, this is useful supplemental material.
*      The discussion begins with the dispute with Cauchy (p. 736; see above)
* and he then mentions his own observations of 1812, which he says were
* cited by Lindenau in Journal Astronomique de Gotha.
*      The details of these observations appear on pp. 737 ff.:
* "9 mai 1811. -- A 12h 50m de temps sidéral la bordure rouge du
* bord inférieur réel de la Lune était encore bien visible avec le
* groissement de 200 fois (1ee lunette de Lerebours). Le bord supérieur
* réel (inférieur apparent) ne présentait alors que de très-légères
* traces de bleu verdâtre. Avec le groissement de 90 fois la bordure
* rouge était presque invisible; quant au bord inférieure on ne voyait
* pas la moindre nuance de couleurs." He also notices the colored rims on
* Mars, where (I suppose by contrast) the upper limb appeared blue-violet.
*      There is then reported an interesting series of experiments to null
* out the dispersion with a prism placed before the eyepiece, while
* looking at the colored rims of the Sun a little before sunset. The
* upper limb appeared "rouge jaunâtre" while the lower (apparent) limb
* was "bleu violacé" -- so I suppose the Sun was still several degrees
* high, though he says nothing about eye discomfort.
*      After describing in detail the prisms' deviations and dispersions in
* the laboratory, he concludes that the "dispersive power" of air was to
* that of crown-glass as 10 : 13.04.
*      The discussion of the dispersion of air is followed by those of
* various other gases and vapors.
*      A half-size scan of this is available at Gallica.

Ch. Montigny
“Note sur le pouvoir dispersif de l'air,”
Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Lett. Beaux-Arts Belg. 24, 523–536 (1867).

* MONTIGNY's first follow-up note, on dispersion of air
* He uses Cauchy's dispersion formula to calculate refractivity for 2
* additional wavelengths. He mentions the Sun's colored upper and lower
* rims. On p. 534, he gives the difference in refraction of red and blue
* at the horizon as 28''. He assumes the refraction is proportional to
* the refractivity, even near the horizon.

Ch. Montigny
“Note sur des phénomènes de coloration des bords du disque solaire près de l'horizon,”
Bull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Lett. Beaux-Arts Belg. 28, 425–434 (1869).

* MONTIGNY's second follow-up note, on solar colored rims
* Here he wants the occasional appearance of red in the blue rim to be due
* to the chromosphere!

A. A. Rambaut
“On the effect of atmospheric dispersion on the position of a star,”
M. N. R. A. S. 55, 123–145 (1895).

* Good historical coverage, going back to Bouguer (1729) and explicitly
* mentioning Stephen Lee (1815) and Montigny (1867).
* This is a lengthy discussion of observations, a few his, mostly others'.

St. Chevalier
“Effet de la dispersion atmosphérique sur le diamètre des astres photographiés,”
C. R. 157, 1377–1379 (1913).

* Not exactly an "early" paper; but it somehow seems to fit in here:
* He compares the Sun's vertical and horizontal diameters on photographs,
* finding the difference to be about 0.17 arcsec times tan Z.
* (The purpose of the original study was to look for polar flattening.)
* Note that this is a side-effect of the colored rims.
* Cf. Bouguer (1748)!

*** GREEN FLASH FILES -- see also the S&T and the Solar Afterimage files ***

R. Heber
Narrative of a Journey through the Upper Provinces of India
(Carey, Lea, and Carey, Philadelphia, 1828).

*                                                and the Popular Books file;
*                                                also Biot (1810) in Mirage file
*                                                Biot & Arago (1821) in Mirage file
*                                                Tait (1883) in Mirage file
*                                                Musgrave (1990) in Fake Mirage file
* Looks like a false alarm. When I first saw the German version in
* Kiessling's ``Dämmerungserscheinungen'' I thought it might be a
* genuine very early GF report; the phrase "green, such as I had never
* seen before, except in a prism, and surpassing every effect of paint, or
* glass, or gem" sounded promising. But the actual assertion that "there
* were in the immediate neighbourhood of the sinking sun, and for some
* time after his disc had disappeared, large tracts of a pale translucent
* green" makes it sound much more like the green of nacreous clouds.
* Reginald Heber was the Bishop of Calcutta.

"W. H."
“The blue colour of the sea,”
Magazine of Natural History 2, No. 8, 297 (1829).

* The author is identified only as "W.H., R.N. Yeovil, April 22, 1829."
* "I remember once to have noticed the last ray of the setting sun,
* on a fine calm evening at sea, which was of a bright emerald green.
* I believe the fact is noticed by Lord Byron, in some of his works.
* Does not this prove the blue colour of the sea, in the same way that the
* green appearance sometimes observable on each side of the setting sun
* may be accounted for by knowing that his golden rays intervene between
* us and the colour of the blue sky beyond?"
*      (The reference may be to Commodore John Byron's 1764 Circumnavigation.)
* In the "Queries and Answers" section.
* Thanks to Google Books for making this discovery possible!

Sir G. Back
Narrative of an expedition in H. M. S. Terror, undertaken with a view to geographical discovery on the Arctic shores, in the years 1836-7
(J. Murray, London, 1838), p. 191.

* (Note that Meinels have both author & title wrong, in "Sunsets. . . " !)
* (after mentioning a daylight green meteor he had missed):
* "In the morning however, at a quarter before ten o'clock, while standing
* on a hummock about seventeen feet high, I had observed the upper limb of
* the sun, as it filled a triangular cleft on the ridge of the headland,
* of the most brilliant emerald colour, a phenomenon which I had not
* witnessed before in these regions." (p.191) -- Sir George Back

P. G. Maggi
“Sopra alcune apparenze del Sole presso all'orizzonte,”
Atti delle Adunanze dell'I. R. Istituto Veneto Sci. Lett. Arti , series 2, 3, 186–189 (1852).

* This is a long meeting abstract. "The Author had often observed how,
* when the Sun sets behind distant mountains, the last disappearing edge
* is dyed a vivid blue. Because of its long duration, this coloration
* can not be caused by diffraction" but must be due to "the dispersive
* power of the middle air." "The telescope allowed him to know how the
* image of the Sun always appears (besides the well-known flattening)
* fringed with a blue rim in its upper half, and a red one below . . . ."
* "But neither of them has enough width for the naked eye to grasp,
* when, with the solar rays traversing a uniform atmosphere, the image
* suffers no greater alteration than the ordinary flattening mentioned.
* When the equality of temperature and humidity of the air are disturbed,
* new and very visible changes deform the solar disk, and the colored
* borders and then expand, so that the blue becomes clear and distinctly
* seen even by the naked eye . . . ." He mentions Biot's "treatise on
* physical Astronomy" in which "no mention is made of any colored light
* effect," though the distortions of the disk involved are similar.
* "The more notable conditions" involve "separated pieces . . . above and
* below the image of the Sun." So it seems he noticed mock mirages.
* He supposes there are "lenticular masses" of warmer air that are
* responsible, and thinks they are related to the formation of "the clouds
* called cumuli." So he thinks the "appearance of the blue light which
* dyes the last rays of the Sun" is a precursor of "the change of weather
* from clear to rainy."
* According to Pogg., Maggi was born April 30, 1809 and died March 17, 1854,
* not quite 45 years old. He became Professor of Mathematics at Padua in
* 1853.

J. P. Joule
“On an appearance of the setting sun,”
Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc. 9, 1 (1869).

* Former earliest scientific account. Nice OMEGA drawing
* DISCOVERY attributed to Joseph Baxendell (Pogson's brother-in-law!)
* who had been a sailor -- see obits in Nature 36, 585 (1887) and
* M.N. 48, 157-160 (1888), and (especially) James Bottomley in
* Mem. Proc. Manch. Lit. Phil. Soc. (4) 1, 28-58 (1888).
* N.B.: Title appears only in Index, not on article page.
* "Mr. Baxendell noticed the fact that at the moment of
* the departure of the sun below the horizon, the last glimpse is coloured
* bluish green. On two or three occasions I have noticed this, and also
* near sunset an appearance like what I have rudely depicted.
* Just at the upper edge, where bands of the sun's
* disk are separated one after the other by refraction, each band becomes
* coloured blue just before it vanishes."
* (The referent of "what I have rudely depicted" is an Omega-shaped sunset.)
*      A completely garbled abstract appears in Fortschritte der Physik
* im Jahre 1874, 30, 1377-1378 (1879): "Am unteren Rande der wenig vom
* Horizonte entfernten Sonne befand sich eine streifige Wolkenschicht,
* unter der nach dem Horizonte zu die oberen Theile eines Sonnenbildes
* erschienen." [signed Sch. (= Schwalbe), who noticed only the woodcut]
* Fisher #60; not read by him
* O'C #63

J. P. Joule
“On sunset seen at Southport,” in in The Scientific Papers of James Prescott Joule
(Dawson's of Pall Mall, London, 1887), (reprinted by the Physical Society of London, 1963) p. 607.

* reprint of Joule's letter

G. Giordano
“Singolari apparenze osservate nel tramonto del sole,”
Rend. Accad. Sci. Fis. Mat. 10, 230–231 (1871).

* Afterimage moves, is smaller than Sun, and "greenish" in color;
* timescale: 10 sec (4 such, gradually fading out)

D. Winstanley
“Atmospheric Refraction and the last rays of the Setting Sun,”
Proc. Manchester Lit. Phil. Soc. 13, 1–4 (1873).

* EARLY ACCOUNT by David Winstanley (RED and GREEN RIMS isolated)
* "During the past eighteen months the writer, from his residence
* in Blackpool, . . . has noticed the phenomenon of the final coloured ray
* certainly more than fifty times."
* "The period of its duration too is likewise variable. Sometimes it
* lasts but half a second, ordinarily perhaps a second and a quarter, and
* occasionally as much as two seconds and a half."
* ". . . the phenomenon of the final coloured ray . . . . To the naked eye its
* appearance has generally been that of a green spark of large size and
* great intensity . . . ."
* ". . . the green ray . . . ."
* FIRST USE of term SEGMENT (but not "green segment"):
* ". . . it begins at the points or cusps of the visible segment of the sun . . . "
* EVIDENCE for (but not recognition of) inferior mirage:
* "From the fact of the green cusps being rounded I apprehend that
* irradiation contributes to the apparent magnitude of what is seen."
* FIRST MENTION of (telescopic) CLOUD-TOP flash:
* "That the waters of the ocean have nothing to do with the production of
* the colour is made manifest by its visibility when the sun `sets' behind
* the edge of a well defined cloud. On the 14th and 15th of June, for
* instance, it was seen at upper contact of the solar limb with clouds.
* . . . And on several other occasions the writer has observed the effect
* when the disappearance of the sun has taken place at an elevation of
* six or eight degrees behind a heavy bank of clouds."
* "Of the objective nature of the phenomenon it is needless to offer
* evidence; for it needs to be but seldom seen to preclude the idea of an
* optical illusion."
* "The different colours seen, together with the order of their
* appearance, are suggestive of the prismatic action of the atmosphere as
* the cause of their production."
* (verified telescopically by using an artificial occulter)
* "I apprehend that the results here given sufficiently prove that
* atmospheric refraction is the cause of the coloured rays seen at the
* moment of the sun's departure below the horizon."
* O'C #160

“Societies and academies: Manchester,”
Nature 9, 20 (1873).

* Joule and Winstanley quoted in Nature -- but without Joule's figure!
* Fisher #161, O'C #161

“Sunset tints and arcs,”
Annual Record of Science and Industry for 1874, 68 (1875).

* Nature's reprint of Winstanley's paper, abstracted

J. Verne
Les Indes Noires
(Hetzel, Paris, 1877).

* JULES VERNE's FIRST mention of the "green ray" (1877)
* This novel is set mostly in a coal mine -- in Scotland! The heroine
* has spent her whole life underground, and is about to see her first
* sunrise, in Edinburgh:
* "Enfin, un premier rayon atteignit l'oeil de la jeune fille. C'était
* ce rayon vert, qui, soir ou matin, se dégage de la mer, lorsque
* l'horizon est pur." [This is in Chapter XVII, "Un Lever de Soleil".]
* I have seen only the 1967 Hachette edition, where this passage occurs
* on p. 186. Interestingly, the biographical note at the end (on
* unnumbered pages) claims that "Le physicien et astronom Jules Janssen,
* le mathématicien Joseph Bertrand refont les calculs de Jules Verne --
* et vérifient, dit-on (il serait sans doute imprudent de ne pas placer
* ici un point d'interrogation), l'exactitude des courbes, paraboles et
* hyperboles qui définissent le trajet du boulet-wagon de De la Terre
* à la Lune ."
*      As Verne went to Scotland in 1859, and was much taken with the place,
* it seems likely that he may have seen green flashes there: both his
* mentions of the flash are set in Scotland. Also, this book is full of
* talk about how superstitious and full of folklore the Scots are; so the
* invention of the ``legend'' later on seems more natural.
* Thanks to Hezi Yizhaq for pointing this out!

J. A. Froude
Short Studies on Great Subjects, Third Series
(Scribner,Armstrong & Co., New York, 1877), p. 345.

* James Anthony Froude's flash of Aug. 28, 1874
* Froude was a controversial historian and excellent writer. This is
* from the section of his book called ``Leaves from a South African
* Journal.'' While sailing to South Africa, he says:
* "The sea calm as Torbay in stillest summer. . . .      Last night we had a
* remarkable sunset. The disk, as it touched the horizon, was deep
* crimson. As the last edge of the rim disappeared there came a flash,
* lasting for a second, of dazzling green -- the creation I suppose of my
* own eyes."
* He also tells many poignant stories of South Africa, and saw Kimberly
* in the early days, when the mine was only 120 feet deep.
*      An older brother, William Froude, was an engineer and naval architecht
* who devised the Froude Number of hydrodynamics. The family name rhymes
* with "food"; many supposedly authoritative websites get this wrong.
*      Many thanks to Agnes McLean for finding this!

C. R. Conder
Tent Work in Palestine. A Record of Discovery and Adventure. Vol. I
(Richard Bentley & Son, London, 1878), p. 264.

* The "BLUE SPARK" quote traced to its source!
* Lt. Claude Reignier Conder of the Royal Engineers was in charge of the
* survey of Palestine in 1872-1875, when he turned the work over to Lt.
* H. H. Kitchener (later to become an Earl, and controversial for his
* use of concentration camps in South Africa -- but this was the young
* Kitchener's first job in the Royal Engineers). On pp. 264-265, Conder
* describes a sunset and sunrise observed from the top of Mt. Hermon,
* including the TRIANGULAR MOUNTAIN SHADOWS. But our interest is in a
* single sentence, set off as a separate paragraph:
* "The sun underwent strange changes of shape in the thick vapours --- now
* almost square, now like a domed temple --- until at length it slid into
* the sea, and went out like a blue spark."
* MANY THANKS to Andrew Alden, of Oakland, CA, for finding this!
*      According to Wikipedia, Mount Hermon is 2,814 m above sea level, and
* the highest point in Syria. Conder says his observation was made from
* a height of 9150 feet. It appears to have been made on "Monday, the 8th
* of September" (1873).
*      Available at
* and

H. Bedford
“A Long Day in Norway. Chapter III. To the north cape,”
The Month 35, 43–58 (1879).

* Henry Bedford's pre-Verne observation
* sunset and sunrise of July 14/15, 1878: ". . . the sun -- the green
* sun --- appears. A distant low range of rocks comes between us and its
* point of rising; and, as we glide on, an opening between them shows us
* the sun, a bright emerald, as pure and brilliant as ever gem that
* glistened; again we lose it, and again an opening shows it to us in
* its own golden light; and then once more it is the bright green; and
* now it rises higher, clears the ridge, and is once more the golden orb.
* This is what we saw, but another observer, our alter Ego , assures us
* that, when he first saw it, the colour was a fiery red, which soon turned
* to green. Evidently an optical effect of what is called polarization
* of light, as these complementary colours seem to show." (p.48)
* Bedford's long travelogue was serialized in Month 34, 290-304 (Ch. I),
* 395-411 (Ch. II) (1878); vol. 35, pp.43-58 (Ch. III), pp.167-184 (Ch.IV),
* 334-351 (Ch.V), 473-490 (Ch.VI) and vol. 36, 17-37 (Ch. VII) (all 1879).
* N.B.: these are volumes XV to XVII, New Series.
* Bedford was a convert to Catholicism; The Month appears to have been a
* magazine for British Catholics.

J. Verne
Le Rayon-Vert
(Hetzel, Paris, 1882).

* I was surprised to discover, from the facsimile of the original edition
* that was published by Hachette in 1977, that the original title was
* hyphenated. The Hachette edition also has the original illustrations,
* including drawings depicting the "ray" like narrow crepuscular rays;
* see Mulder's complaint about this on p.3 of his book.
* Cf. Moncrieff's complaints (1905) about Scottish errors.
* Thanks to Stephen Williams for turning this up!
* Fisher #144, O'C #145
*      For the origin of the "legend", see the 2002 publication of Verne's
* correspondence with Hetzel, his editor -- and its actual inventor.

G. H. Hopkins
“The green sun,”
Nature 29, 7 (1883).

* (Quoted in its entirety in Rambaut's 1906 Met.Mag. paper)
* ". . . the parting ray is a brilliant emerald green."
* "The . . . effect is not produced by the sun setting behind a distant bank
* of clouds. Probably the first ray from the rising sun would be the same
* unexpected colour."
* Fisher #58

W. Swan
“Green sunlight,”
Nature 29, 76 (1883).

* former "EARLIEST" OBSERVATION (Sept. 13, 1865)
* William Swan observed from summit of the Rigi.
* misinterpreted as due to contrast with red sky:
* "I do not doubt the phenomenon was purely subjective, for before sunrise
* the sky was all lit up of a magnificent crimson hue."
* NOTE: This is the William Swan for whom the "Swan bands" of C2 are named.
* Fisher #141, O'C #135

W. H. Larrabee
“Green suns and red sunsets,”
Popular Science Monthly 24, 598–606 (1884).

* Mostly about the Krakatoa effects, but half a paragraph on GF
* (pp.601-602) says "Mr. Henry Bedford . . . in an English magazine" of
* 1878, as well as G.H.Hopkins (see above). The Bedford quote describes
* an Arctic Circle sunset and sunrise in July: ". . . the sun -- the GREEN
* sun --- appears. A distant low range of rocks comes between us and its
* point of rising, and, as we glide on, an opening between them shows us
* the sun, a bright emerald, as pure and brilliant as ever gem that
* glistened; . . . and now it rises higher, clears the ridge, and is once
* more the golden orb." (slightly mis-quoted; see Bedford, 1879)
* The Bedford quotation is pre-Verne, but no detailed citation is given.
* (in the March issue)

G. M. H.
“The Red Light round the Sun – The Sun Blue or Green at Setting,”
Nature 30, 633 (1884).

* Thinks it is a CONTRAST EFFECT
* "A sun seen as green or blue for hours together is a phenomenon
* witnessed only after the late Krakatoa eruptions . . . ; but a sun which
* turns green or blue just at setting is, I believe, an old and, we may say,
* ordinary one, little remarked till lately. I have a note of witnessing
* it . . . on June 23, 1877, the sunset being very clear and bright.
*      "The sunset was bright this evening, the sun of a ruddy gold, which
* colour it kept till nothing was left of it but a star-like spot; then this
* spot turned, for the twinkling of an eye, a leaden or watery blue, and
* vanished."

A. de Rochas
“Le rayon vert et l'équerre chromatique,”
La Nature 13:2, No. 634, 366 (25 Jul., 1885).

* a GEOMETRIC CRANK -- one of de Morgan's ``paradoxers''
* Starts off by mentioning Verne's novel, and quoting the florid paragraph.
* A wonderfully ingenious and completely CRANK THEORY OF COLOR is used to
* explain the green ray as the COMPLEMENT of the INVISIBLE INFRARED rays!
* It all is based on a confusion of additive and subtractive color mixing,
* together with the mistaken notion that the spectrum contains all possible
* colors. From these mistakes, he goes on to a marvelous GEOMETRIC
* CONSTRUCTION, and hence a mechanical device to illustrate the theory:
* "Ce petit instrument . . . donne, dans la practique des résultats
* beaucoup plus exacts que le cercle chromatique de Chevreul. . . ."
* ". . . il serait particulièrement curieux de blanchir une partie de
* l'espace v'v'' avec des rayons obscurs et, inversement, de rendre
* lumineux les rayons obscurs en les mélangement avec des rayons verts."
* [Indeed it would be!]
* NOTE: La Nature published 2 "Semestres" per year,
* BOTH with the SAME volume number, and both starting at p.1 !!
* Extreme care is required to determine the correct half of the year;
* either the date or the issue number must be given.

A. Trève
“Sur le rayon vert, observé dans l'océan Indien,”
C. R. 101, 845–846 (1885).

* AUGUSTE TREVE's observations and simultaneous-contrast theory
* (This was the great-uncle of the modern scientist Yvain Treve)
* "Sa durée est celle d'un éclair. C'est, pour le navigateur, comme un
* adieu chargé de promesses, toujours fidèlement tenues, d'un beau temps
* pour le lendemain; il est, en effet, bien peu d'exemples, s'il y en a,
* qu'un beau coucher de soleil ait été suivi d'un mauvais temps."
* Cf. the similar claims made by Wegener (1926), and the remark of
* "Another Engineer Officer" (1904) about this being standard French
* navigational instruction lore.
* Fisher #142

“Le rayon vert,”
La Nature 13:2, No. 649, 366 (7 Nov., 1885).

* Almost word for word the same letter published in C.R.
* cited by Polo in his 1904 letter

A. Trève
“Essai d'une explication physiologique des couleurs complémentaires,”
C. R. 102, 984–985 (1886).

* A short followup to the Trève paper of Oct. 1885
* He offers a mechanical theory for successive contrast!
* Thanks again to Yvain Treve for providing this reference!

Popular Science Monthly 28, 575 (Feb., 1886).

* One-paragraph abstract of the 1885 Trève paper in C.R.
* "M. Trève has described to the French Academy of Sciences a phenomenon
* of a beautiful green ray which he has observed . . . ."

M. Besson
“Le rayon vert,”
Revue Scientifique 37:1, No. 14, 444 (1886).

* Besson's sunrise observation, with a VENUS flash on setting as well
* A convert from the "contrast" idea, thanks to seeing a sunRISE flash
* in the Azores: "Voici une excellente occasion de vérifier la théorie
* du commandant Trève." He saw another (not as good) the next morning.
* "La théorie du contraste des couleurs me paraît donc fausse."
*      This is Vol. 22 of the 3rd Series, 1er Semestre, dated 3 Avril 1886
* in the section "Correspondance et Chronique".
* Available at Gallica.

H. de Maubeuge
“Sur le rayon vert,”
C. R. 103, 1147–1148 (1886).

* "Tous les touristes qui frequentent l'Égypte et la mer Rouge ont été
* témoins de ce phénomène . . . ."
* ". . . dans le mer Rouge, plusiers fois et notamment en octobre dernier,
* j'ai assisté, moi et mon second, au lever du Soleil à l'horizon de
* la mer, et que la première impression sur nos deux rétines a été
* d'un beau vert émeraude.
*       Le lendemain, assistant tous deux au lever du Soleil derrière des
* montagnes élévées de 1° à 2° au-dessus de l'horizon, la même
* impression lumineuse franchement verte a encore frappé nos yeux."
* [Note the correct altitude here, but not in his 1898 letter.]
* "Je ne puis citer le nombre de fois que j'ai observé et fait observer
* ce même phénomène au coucher du Soleil et encore derrière des
* montagnes."
* Fisher #87, O'C #237

de Maubeuge
“Le rayon vert,”
La Nature 15:1, 46 (1886).

* This is an extract from the C.R. letter
* No.707, 18 Dec. 1886
* O'C #238
* Fisher #88

de Maubeuge
“Le rayon vert,”
l'Astronomie 6, 232–233 (1887).

* de Maubeuge's letter quoted again, in l'Astronomie
* This was *before* it merged with B.S.A.F. The full title is:
*                                L' A S T R O N O M I E
*                                                  REVUE
*                                            D'ASTRONOMIE
*                                                POPULAIRE,
*                    de Meteorologie et de Physique du Globe,
*                                                 exposant
*                    les progrès de la science pendant l'année;
*                                            publiée par
*                                     CAMILLE FLAMMARION,
*      avec le concurs des principaux astronomes français et étrangers

R. T. Omond
“A Green Light at Sunset,”
Nature 35, 391 (1887).

* "At sunset tonight I observed a phenomenon which has, I believe, been
* seen from on board ship, but never probably from a place with such a
* distant sea horizon as we have here -- some seventy miles. The sky for
* a short distance above the point where the sun set was perfectly clear
* of cloud or haze, and I watched carefully the last portion of its disk
* disappear into the sea. As soon as the last speck of the yellow
* vanished, a momentary bright green flash shone out. This was quite
* different from the complementary green seen after looking at the setting
* sun; brighter and bluer in tint. I have seen it stated that the cause
* of this green light is the sun shining through the water that hides
* it, and would be glad to know if such is the true explanation."
* Robert Trail Omond was a Scottish meteorologist, Superintendent of the
* Ben Nevis Observatory (1883-95) when this was written, and later (1903-?)
* Honorary Secretary of the Scottish Meteorological Society [see WW, 1909].
* Fisher #111, O'C #99

A. Riccò
“Green light at sunrise and sunset,”
Nature 35, 584 (1887).

* RICCO's reply to Omond
* Fisher #126, O'C #116

J. S. H. Pellat
“Del la couleur verte du dernier rayon solaire,”
Bull. Soc. Philomathique , series 7, 12, 22–23 (1887).

* Early description of GREEN RIM
* FIRST refutation of CONTRAST EFFECT by HUE ?
* ? Joseph Solange Henri Pellat (Pogg.)
* ". . . ni à un contraste des couleurs qui, du reste, vu la teinte jaune
* d'or du disque, donnerait une couleur bleue et non pas verte."

“Von der grünen Farbe des letzten Sonnenstrahles,”
Naturwiss. Rundschau 3, 565 (1888).

* Pellat's report, in German

A. C. Ranyard
“Mountain Observatories,”
Knowledge 12, 125–126 (1889).

* Here is an explicit mention of THOLLON:
* "During the autumn of 1886 I visited M. Perrotin and M. Thollon, at the
* Nice Observatory, and watched the setting sun with M. Thollon on five
* clear evenings, to catch sight of the last blue ray . . . . The sun at that
* period of the year set over the bare edge of an opposite mountain, but on
* four out of the five nights I saw the blue ray, though I have only seen it
* on two other occasions from the sea-level."
* (article is mostly about Lick Obs.)
* N.B.: A. Cowper Ranyard was editor of "Knowledge" from 1904-1910;
* the editor when he published this article was R.A.Proctor.
* Ranyard was apparently impressed by John Evershed, who inherited
* Ranyard's instruments in 1894, after knowing him only a year.
* I see from the Nov. 13, 1863 issue of M.N. that Ranyard became a Fellow
* of the RAS at that time -- as Foucault and Bond became Associates.
* Fisher #124

H. B. F.
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 11 (1889).

* The ENGLISH MECHANIC series for 1889 follows.
* Note that Eng.Mech. published 2 volumes per year.
* The "Letters" section of E.M. occupied the ecological niche today held
* by Usenet: a heterogeneous mixture of professionals, amateurs, and cranks.
* Letter-writers often used only initials, or pseudonyms.
* Letters are numbered in squared brackets; I preserve those numbers here,
* as many letters in small print appear on each 9 x 12-inch page.
* One letter may touch on many topics besides the GF; rather than list the
* many irrelevancies, I simply give the number. Note that queries and
* letters have separate numbering systems!
* This thread was started by someone signing as "F.R.A.S." (i.e., "Fellow
* of the Royal Astronomical Society") in a previous issue. Here, "H.B.F."
* asks "F.R.A.S." for an explanation of the "Green Ray" at sunset, which
* he describes as "a drop of the most vivid emerald green". He continues:
* "My attention was first drawn to the alleged phenomenon by the perusal
* of M. Jules Verne's story, `The Green Ray,' and believing it to be
* fictitious, I set myself to observe. For about three months of the summer
* the place of my residence -- an island in the Levant -- allowed an ocean
* horizon for the setting sun. On the very first evening of observation I
* was rewarded with the sight of that wonderfully brilliant flash, and on
* successive evenings I continued the observations. About two out of every
* three observations were successful . . . . Believing that the phenomenon
* might still be a purely subjective one, I asked my wife to join in the
* observations, and, sceptical as she at first was, on each occasion,
* whether the green ray was visible or not, our observations exactly
* coincided. On the whole, out of some fifty successive observations, I
* should say we succeeded in obtaining a glimpse of the `ray' about thirty
* times."
*      Eric Hutton identifies "A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society" as
* Captain Noble, J.P. of Uckfield, Sussex. [EM ref. No. 3105 p326]
* No. 1275, Aug. 30, 1889
* Fisher #167

A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 31–32 (1889).

* Alas, the otherwise reliable Fellow offers "H.B.F." the AFTERIMAGE theory!
* (Evidently, he had never seen a GF)
* "I fancy that the green ray of which my querist speaks must have a
* cognate origin to this, and that the eye, deadened to the sensation of red
* by the brilliant crimson of the sun's disappearing limb, must temporarily
* select the green from the more composite light illuminating the horizon."
*      Eric Hutton identifies "A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society" as
* Captain Noble, J.P. of Uckfield, Sussex. [EM ref. No. 3105 p326]
* No. 1276, Sept. 6, 1889
* Fisher #172

E. L. G.
“The `green ray' at sea [30324],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 33 (1889).

* Another ignoramus offers the "WAVE" notion:
* "Surely the `emerald drop' so often seen by `H.B.F.' page 11, can be no
* other than solar light transmitted through the sea . . . ."
* No. 1276, Sept. 6, 1889
* Fisher #164

“The green ray [30345],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 56 (1889).

* Another vote for afterimages:
* He cites the Pears' Soap ads as an example.
* No. 1277, Sept. 13, 1889

H. B. F.
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 58 (1889).

* "H.B.F." knows it isn't an afterimage:
* "I should have explained, however, that I failed to observe it on
* occasions when the sun presented a red appearance, and only when he set
* with a pale golden colour has it been visible. Moreover the ray has
* not that dull appearance noticeable in this and in other similar optical
* illusions, nor has it the like permanency."
* He also rejects the light-through-a-wave explanation of "E.L.G.", as
* ". . . only when the sea has been exceptionally calm, has it been visible."
* COMMENT: Note that the experienced observer here quite rightly dismisses
* the arm-waving of the would-be theorists who have *never* seen a flash.
* No. 1277, Sept. 13, 1889
* Fisher #168

English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 58 (1889).

* Another vote for afterimages:
* "I may, however, add that if this is the correct explanation, the
* phenomenon is more likely to be observed within the Tropics than at higher
* latitudes, since the more vertical the path of the setting sun, the
* greater the rapidity of its apparent motion, and the more sudden the
* change from light to darkness."
* No. 1277, Sept. 13, 1889

A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 76–77 (1889).

* FRAS switches to the "wave" idea:
* cites HBF's 30351 letter
*      Eric Hutton identifies "A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society" as
* Captain Noble, J.P. of Uckfield, Sussex. [EM ref. No. 3105 p326]
* No. 1278, Sept. 20, 1889
* Fisher #173

F. R. C. S. Eng.
“The green ray [30368],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 77 (1889).

* BLUE is commonest color at sea?
* Believes flash is due to Sun shining through water
* "I have had numberless opportunities of witnessing the same appearance
* in mid-ocean, where the water appears blue, and the flash is also of an
* exquisite blue."
* "I have repeatedly drawn the attention of others to this, especially
* between the Tropics, to all of whom the flash appeared blue."
* cites E.M.50,11
* No. 1278, Sept. 20, 1889
* Fisher #166

F. W. Reynolds
“The green ray [30369],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 77 (1889).

* cites and quotes Ranyard's paper in Knowledge
* No. 1278, Sept. 20, 1889
* O'C #114

E. L. G.
“The green ray [30370],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 77–78 (1889).

* "E.L.G." criticises "F.R.A.S." for afterimage theory
* ". . . no sunset, in any latitude, has a colour complemental to green."
* He now recognizes the problem with his model:
* "The emerald light must somehow have got a dip through sea-water; but
* how, is a great puzzle with so little refraction. It would seem, it
* must enter and leave very steep wave surfaces, though `H.B.F.' calls the
* sea `calm.' He does not give a hint of the height of his station, a most
* important element, if it is never, as he thinks, visible from a ship's
* deck."
* No. 1278, Sept. 20, 1889
* Fisher #165

H. B. F.
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 97 (1889).

* HBF's 3rd letter: he decides to accept the "wave" story, but modified:
* ". . . the last glimpse of the sun after he has passed beneath the visible
* horizon, seen through the depth of a clear and placid ocean , and not
* through a mere superficial wave or two." [N.B.: ignores refraction!]
* "The verandah from which most of my observations were made stands 664ft.
* above sea-level, at a distance of three miles from the shore."
* No. 1279, Sept. 27, 1889
* Fisher #169

E. L. G.
“The `green ray' (or blue?) [30407],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 97 (1889).

* At last, "E.L.G." puts the pieces together!
* "If this is, after all, a blue ray, and can be seen, as the observer at
* Nice tells us, after sunset behind a mountain, of course the sea has
* nothing to do with it. The last explanation must be taken, and it gives us
* the first proof that air, like other refracting media, refracts the
* different colours with different indices. Now I believed, about thirty
* years ago, that I had a proof of this on watching, through a good
* achromatic glass, a very clear sunrise in the north suburbs of London.
* The sun rose . . . with so little colour that it could not be called even
* `pale golden.' It was merely creamy; but from the first emergence till
* the lower limb was up, the upper limb had a distinct edging of blue, and
* the lower one of red."
* (So we have here an independent, if uncertain, rediscovery of the colored
* limbs.)
* With this item, the *green* ray series ends. But see the next 2 items!
* No. 1279, Sept. 27, 1889

A. C. Ranyard
“The blue ray [30424],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 116 (1889).

* A. COWPER RANYARD speaks up:
* "I need only remind `F.R.A.S.' of a paper by Sir G. B. Airy, published
* in the Monthly Notices for 1869, on an eyepiece for correcting the
* effects of atmospheric dispersion, to recall to his mind the phenomena
* which are always observed when a star or the sun is near to the horizon."
* "When the sun or a planet is near to the horizon the blue fringe along
* its upper limb and the red fringe along its lower limb is a very marked
* feature when it is observed with a power of two or three hundred."
* The Airy paper is probably O'C. #4
* "To express it in numbers, the atmospheric dispersion from B to G of the
* spectrum is about one-sixtieth of the atmospheric refraction. On the
* horizon at the sea-level, the horizontal refraction is about 34 minutes,
* and the length of the spectrum from B to G is 34''."
* He favorably notes "E.L.G."'s observation.
* No. 1280, Oct. 4, 1889
* Fisher #125

A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society
English Mechanic and World of Science 50, 156 (1889).

* "FRAS" recants, with an excuse, and a damning admission:
* "There can be no doubt that Mr. Ranyard does suggest a -- or the --
* vera causa for the phenomenon of the final blue flash incident on
* sunsets; but, as far as I am concerned, it is one which I have never
* witnessed . . . ."
* [NOTE: Both this and Ranyard's item were indexed under "blue" by the E.M.]
* This apparently ends the entire episode in E.M. for 1889.
* No. 1282, Oct. 18, 1889
* Fisher #174

L. Sohncke
“Zur meteorologischen Optik. Das blaugrüne Flämmchen,”
Meteorol. Zs. 6, 477 (1889).

* Possible GREEN RAY ?? or BLANK-STRIP flash?
* ". . . den Eindruck eines vertikalen blaugrünen Flämmchens . . . "
* "Ziemlich nahe vor Sonnenuntergang war hier die Sonne durch einen
* schmalen Wolkenstreifen in zwei Theile getheilt. . . ."
* Leonhard Sohncke (1842-1897) was a well-known crystallographer who
* became head of the meteorological stations in Baden when he was made
* professor of physics at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe (1871-1883).
* His green-flash work is rather obliquely mentioned in the DSB.
* Fisher #138

Nature 41, 495 (1890).

* Sohncke's paper reported in Nature; cited by Michie Smith (see below)
* March 27 issue
* Fisher #139

Science 15, No. 395, 231 (1890).

* Nature's report of Sohncke's paper re-reported in Science
* in the "Notes and News" department, which began on the previous page.
* April 11 issue

C. Michie Smith
“The green flash at sunset,”
Nature 41, 538 (1890).

* "If the colour were due simply to refraction it would last for only a
* fraction of a second, and the colour would be much more blue than green.
* But, so far as my own observations go, the colour may last for several
* seconds, and is a bright pea-green . . . ."
* Charles Michie Smith's first appearance. He was Pogson's successor at
* Madras, and established the Kodaikánal Observatory in 1899.
* Note that Evershed, his successor, always refers to him as
* "Michie-Smith" (hyphenated) in his autobiographical note in Vistas,
* Vol. 1, p.33.
* Fisher #136, O'C #285
* April 10 issue

T. A. Dukes
“The green flash at sunset,”
Nature 42, 127 (1890).

* ". . . the sun had sunk behind a hill, when, suddenly, my companion and I
* both saw a flash of green light against the thickest cloud; it lasted
* one or two seconds, just long enough for there to be no doubt about it.
* We compared it to the glare thrown by `green fire,' extending over an
* area whose diameter appeared about four times that of the moon."
* Fisher #39

P. Henry
“Sur une méthode de mesure de la dispersion atmosphérique,”
C. R. 112, 377–380 (1891).

* First calculation of duration of green at sunset ?
* "Cette dispersion atmosphérique démontre que, dans un coucher de
* Soleil, le rayon vert doit persister, sour notre latitude, une
* seconde environ après la disparition du rayon jaune."
* (Prosper Henry)
* The Henry brothers, Paul and Prosper, invented the 13-inch astrograph
* used to make the Carte du Ciel , the monster project that absorbed the
* efforts of a whole generation (or two!) of astronomers.
* Fisher #55, O'C #50

L. Biart
“Le rayon vert,”
l'Astronomie 10, 116–117 (1891).

* cited by F.K., who blames Fisher
* This is about crepuscular rays, NOT green flashes!
* Biart's letter is confined to p.116; but the editorial comment on the
* next page is included here.
* This was *before* l'Astronomie merged with B.S.A.F.
* Fisher #8

C. Mostyn
“in `Notes',”
Nature 44, 352 (1891).

* SUNRISE better than SUNSET (according to Charles Mostyn)
* NO GF under INVERSION conditions; TWO TYPES of sunsets distinguished
* "The best displays took place took place when the refraction near the
* horizon was of such a character that the sun assumed a balloon, or vase,
* shape as he came close to the sea-line. When, on the contrary, the sun
* appeared flattened out in its horizontal diameter, the `green ray' was
* either entirely absent, or was seen only in an indistinct and uncertain
* manner."
* Seen 3 times as the ship rose and fell on waves in "the Southern Ocean."
* Apparently, this refers to Mostyn's trip from London to Sydney at the end
* of 1890 and beginning of 1891 (thanks to Edward Gilbert for the info!)
* This is the Aug. 13 issue.
* Fisher #103, O'C #253

“Notes and News,”
Science 18, No. 450, 159 (1891).

* Mostyn's note reprinted (with slight editing) in "Science"
* Sept. 18, 1891 issue; the column runs from pp. 157-159.

E. R. Blakeley
“A green ray [32643],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 54, 40 (1891).

* The 1891 E.M. series begins with E.Reginald Blakeley, who saw a
* crepuscular ray:
* "Surely it could not be the green ray Verne has written about?"
* No. 1379, Aug. 28, 1891

T. R. Clapham
“Green ray [32662],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 54, 40 (1891).

* A reply to E.Reginald Blakeley, pointing out that what he saw were
* crepuscular rays (though not so named).
* No. 1380, Sept. 4, 1891

H. B. F.
“Green ray [32663],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 54, 40 (1891).

* HBF's 4th letter: he continues to accept the "wave" story:
* "I have not the least doubt but that the explanation of the phenomenon
* given by `E.L.G.' (letter 30324) is the correct one . . . ."
* But there is a nice account here of a double flash at sunset made
* visible by "the sea . . . swelling in great easy rolls."
* No. 1380, Sept. 4, 1891
* Fisher #170

C. Mostyn
“The green ray,”
Scientific American 65, 168 (1891).

* Mostyn's Nature letter replayed by Scientific American
* Sept. 12 issue -- must have been a weekly then.

D. E. Packer
“Sunset phenomena — errata [32746],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 54, 113 (1891).

* Packer points out that crepuscular rays are often mistaken for green
* flashes and other things, citing Col. Markwick's letter in No.1281.
* No. 1383, Sept. 25, 1891

E. R. Blakeley
“A green ray [32747],”
English Mechanic and World of Science 54, 113 (1891).

* Blakeley thanks Clapham and "HBF", agreeing that he saw a crepuscular ray
* and not a GF.
* No. 1383, Sept. 25, 1891

H. Crew
“An unusual sunset,”
Nature 46, 391 (1892).

* A minor GF observation (blue, actually) from Mt. Hamilton
* This is probably an observation of a flash above a Wegener's
* "BLANK STRIP", from the description. The dark strip in the drawing is
* about 2 degrees above the apparent horizon, roughly right for the dip
* there.
* Fisher #33

W. Groff
“La plus ancienne observation d'un phénomène naturel ou astronomique,”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 4, 149–156 (1893).

* William N. GROFF's work on ANCIENT EGYPTIAN depictions
* contains some of his own observations
* Groff was an interesting character about whom little is known. He was
* born in 1857 in Cincinnati, Ohio, and died relatively young in 1901 in
* Athens, Greece. I'd guess he picked up his astronomical interest in
* Cincy, as the observatory there was important in the mid-19th Century.
* He was obviously an experienced GF observer; so we take his GF work
* seriously. He seems to have learned most of his astronomy from
* Flammarion's "Astronomie Populaire" and Burritt's "Geography of the
* Heavens". With such a weak scientific background, it is remarkable that
* he managed to figure out the correct cause of the GF on his own.
* Note that he describes the green flash at sea as ``le `soleil vert' des
* matelots,'' which confirms my opinion that these phenomena were long known
* to sailors.
* N.B.: Each volume, or "No." as it is called, was printed in the year
* after the date of the meeting in which the paper was given. Thus
* "1893" here really means "given in 1893, published in 1894".
* Fisher #50; O'C #40

Dr. Abbate pacha
“(discussion at a meeting),”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, , No. 4, 326–327 (1894).

* comment on Groff's paper
* Dr. Abbate pacha thinks it is an afterimage.
* His comment that "Newton . . . a été le premier à parler de ce
* phénomène intraoptique, tout en le rapportant au changement qui
* survient du rouge intense à la couleur complémentaire, le vert"
* seems to have given rise to a mistaken impression that Newton commented
* on green flashes, not just on afterimages.
* Dr. Abbate seems really to be the FIRST to believe the Verne "LEGEND":
* ". . . le charmant petit livre a J. Verne, Le Rayon Vert . . . . Ceux qui
* le consulteront, sûrement avec plaisir, trouveront comme récompense,
* outre la délicate illusion qui est produite par la peine d'observer
* attentivement le phénomène du rayon vert , un bonheur ineffable,
* mystique, qui s'y rattache, selon la vielle légende, née au pays des
* Highlanders, en Ecosse."
* O'C #1

W. Groff
“Note sur la plus ancienne observation d'un phénomène naturel ou astronomique,”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 4, 360–364 (1893).

* Groff's 2nd paper
* This is the second of two notes published as a single item; the first is
* on the Nile. These notes were additions to earlier papers.
* Fisher #51; O'C #41

W. Groff
“Quelques notes. III. Sur l'emploi des couleurs verte et bleue chez les anciens Égyptiens,”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 5, 179–181 (1894).

* Groff's 3rd paper
* This is a short note mentioning the green flash, but associating green
* and blue with the "other world" and death (via the setting of the Sun).
* [Note that the "III" here means it is the third note in this group, not
* the third in the GF series (though it is that as well).]

W. Groff
“Note sur le role joué par les couleurs dans les représentations chez les anciens Égyptiens,”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 5, 221–223 (1894).

* Groff's 4th paper
* This is a short note giving further examples.

(unsigned news item)
“Météorologie: Le rayon vert du soleil,”
Cosmos 30, 543–544 (1895).

* Popular summary of Groff's work
* in No.531, 30 Mars 1895

G. Daressy
“Note sur un signe hiéroglyphique,”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 5, 253–256 (1894).

* Daressy objects to Groff's view that the Egyptians meant to depict the
* green flash: "Est-il probable qu'en peignant ainsi le caractère
* hiéroglyphique, les Egyptiens aient eu l'intention de représenter
* le phénomène du rayon vert? Plusiers arguments me semblent indiquer
* que telle n'a pas été leur pensée."
* Unfortunately, his second reason is that "On sait que le rayon vert est
* un phénomène dû à une illusion d'optique . . . d'une durée
* infiniment courte . . . ." -- and, as "mon honorable confrère parle d'un
* rayon vert au lever du soleil" when Daressy thinks "Les conditions
* requises ne se trouvent plus réunies: l'astre étant plus brillant que le
* ciel, son apparition ne peut donner lieu à une impression lumineuse de
* couleur inverse . . . ." Worse, he asserts that "Ce ne peut donc être que
* par une prédisposition spéciale aux illusions d'optique, une sorte de
* daltonisme, que certaines personnes croient voir le disque émettre une
* lumière verte à son lever." [Talk about adding insult to injury!]
* "Si donc les Egyptiens n'ont pas représenté le rayon vert avec le
* soleil couchant, il est fort improbable qu'ils l'aient reproduit avec le
* soleil levant."
* Fortunately, his later arguments are sounder; he argues that the colors
* are chosen for religious rather than observational reasons, and that
* the "sunrise" symbol is derived from the rounded shape of a box lid.

Mrs. F. A. Steel
Red Rowans
(Macmillan, London, 1895), pp. 125, 161–165.

* "And Marjory, cresting the knoll, thought instantly that here, indeed,
* was a chance of the Green Ray. For ever since she had read Jules
* Verne's book the idea of this, the last legacy of a dying day, had
* remained with her fancifully. . . . Even if the legend was no legend, and
* the phenomenon simply a natural one, due to refraction, there must be
* something exhilirating in seeing that which other people had not seen
* . . . ." (p.125)
* "`I have often heard you mention this Green Ray, Miss Marjory, but I am
* not quite sure to what you allude.'
* `To a fiction of Jules Verne's, that is all,' put in Paul quickly.
* `Nothing of the sort; people have seen it,' corrected the girl,
* eagerly." (p.161)
* " `. . . it is like the Green Ray, something to dream about.'" (p.162)
* Fisher #140 says "Flora Annie Steel" but not read

W. Groff
“Le soleil levant: les couleurs du soleil d'après les anciens Égyptiens,”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 6, 243–262 (1895).

* Groff's 5th paper
* This is his long paper that discusses the green flash in detail.
* "En traitant des questions scientifiques on rencontre deux difficultés:
* si l'on se borne à annoncer les résultats des recherches, on court le
* risque d'être obscur, ou même d'être incompris; si l'on donne, en
* détail, des preuves à l'appui de chaque assertion, on se perd dans des
* digressions et on court le risque d'être inintelligible."
* Well said! So, "Peut-être la meilleure méthode est-elle, tout en
* donnant les résultats des recherches, d'indiquer brièvement sur quoi
* elles sont fondées, puis, si l'occasion s'en présente, de discuter plus
* en détail le sujet et de développer à l'appui des conclusions ce qu'on
* n'avait fait qu'indiquer." So Daressy's note gives him this
* opportunity.
* "Nous disons rayon , mais il serait plus correct de dire
* zone lumineuse , zone lumineuse rouge, orange, jaune, verte, bleue
* (indigo ou violet), qui s'appliquerait à la lumière (en apparence)
* émise par le disque du soleil à l'horizon, et que differentes personnes,
* sur une même méridienne observeraient simultanément."
* Regarding AFTERIMAGES:
* "Si l'on regarde un objet rouge ou rougeâtre -- le disque du soleil,
* par exemple, puis qu'on ferme les yeux, on peut bien voir la couleur
* complémentaire verte ou verdâtre, mais on distingue bien entre le
* phénomène d'optique et la couleur verte du disque du soleil apparaissant
* ou disparaissant -- la sensation est tout autre."
* The TURNING-AROUND EXPERIMENT (this seems to be the FIRST mention of it):
* "Si plusiers personnes A, B et C par exemple, vont constater la couleur
* du dernier rayon du soleil couchant, A regarde le soleil, B et C ont le
* dos tourné vers l'occident; quand A voit la dernière partie du disque
* disparaissant prendre la couleur verte (ou bleue); il dit à B et C de
* regarder; B et C, qui n'avaient pas regardé le disque tournent et peuvent
* bien voir le disque disparaissant de couleur verte (ou bleue), mais est-ce
* à dire qu'on ne voit jamais la couleur complémentaire au moment du
* coucher du soleil? je crois l'avoir constatée, mais la sensation est tout
* autre que celle produite sur l'observateur par la couleur réelle, ou
* apparent du disque."
* ". . . j'avais espèré trouver le phénomène étudiée et expliqué dans
* des ouvrages et avoir, ou la confirmation de l'hypothèse à laquelle
* j'étais arrivé, ou la vraie explication. Mais, malgré toutes mes
* recherches, je n'ai rencontré nulle part l'étude du phénomène du
* premier et du dernier rayon (zône lumineuse) du soleil à l'horizon sur
* le désert. Mais assurément le phénomène des couleurs du soleil à son
* lever et à son coucher sur le désert a dû être étudié et expliqué
* et j'espère pouvoir compléter plus tard les indications données ici à
* ce sujet: la seule indication directe que j'aie rencontrée jusqu'ici est
* dans Jules Verne, Le Rayon vert, p. 181 s. . . . " [p.248]
* LATITUDE effect:
* He also predicted that the flash would be visible much longer in the
* polar regions: "Dans le pays du nord (et même près di pôle sud) où
* l'atmosphère est très lourde, le disque du soleil surgit et disparaît
* très lentement, le phénomène des couleurs du soleil à l'horizon (si
* l'atmosphère est assez pure), doit être plus long et plus marqué que
* dans les pays plus près de l'équateur." [Note, p. 250]

E. Franceschi
“Les couleurs du disque solaire à l'horizon, dans de désert et sur la mer,”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 7, 271–277 (1896).

* Mostly about scattering, which the author calls "diffraction".
* Having (correctly) attributed the red color of the normal sunset to
* this, he then gets into the green (or blue) flash. The whole paper is
* purely qualitative argument from analogy -- the worst kind of sloppy
* thinking. "Relativement au rayon bleu, je pense pouvoir dire aujourd'hui,
* presque avec certitude, qu'il n'est engendré ni par la réfraction ni par
* la diffraction." He tries to observe the spectrum of the setting Sun, but
* it fades out on him; so he argues it can't be due to refraction, which
* would cause one color to be left at the end.
* "Pour démontrer que le phénomène du rayon vert ou bleu, etc., n'est
* pas engendré par la réfraction, on pourrait citer beaucoup d'autres
* faits, mais j'ai hâte de finir." Yeah, sure.
* "On peut donc conclure que le phénomène du rayon vert ou bleu est un
* phénomène intraoptique, et je crois qu'il tire son origine du contraste
* entre la couleur orangée ou jaune du Soleil et la couleur bleu du Ciel;
* ou encore, entre la couleur blanch de l'auréole qui entoure le Soleil et
* la couleur noirâtre du désert et de la mer." (!!!) All garbage!

W. Groff
“Étude archéologique (Suite et fin),”
Bull. Inst. Égypt. , series 3, 7, 279–301 (1896).

* Groff's 6th paper
* This is the continuation of the long paper of the previous year.
* Mostly, it supplies examples of the uses of blue and green coloring in
* ancient art and writing to support his inferences about the sunrise
* and the green flash, so that ". . . par ces mentions, représentations et
* usages nous avons été induits à reconnaître que le phénomène naturel
* ou astronomique, le plus ancien dont on possède des attestations sur des
* monuments originaux, est le phénomène du rayon vert ou bleu."

H. Ekama
“Das blaugrüne Flämmchen,”
Meteorol. Zs. 13, 427 (1896).

* a novice's useless report
* Fisher #40

“The blue sun,”
J. B. A. A. 7, 23 (1896).

* (report of Captain Salveson of the Royal Norwegian Navy)
* Is this the first GF report in JBAA? (probably)

C. T. Whitmell
“The Green Ray,”
J. B. A. A. 7, 514 (1897).

* note change of year but not volume number
* Goodacre (1905) thought this was the first in JBAA; it is not.
* But it is almost certainly Whitmell's first paper.
* (Note a paper by the infamous "Leo Brenner" (Gopchevic) above this!)
* Fisher #146

A. Cornu
BSAF 11, 427 (1897).

* Comment by "M. le President" on Schmoll's observations of a deformed Sun
* This seems to be the first GF mentioned in BSAF.
* Fisher #30, O'C #196

E. Wölffing
“Blaugrünes Flämmchen,”
Met. Z. 14, 199 (1897).

* Ernst Wölffing's adds to Ekama's observation his own (useless)
* Fisher #162

W. Noble
“The green ray,”
J. B. A. A. 8, 46 (1897).

* Mostly citations of earlier works, esp. in Eng.Mech., and Ranyard's
* "Knowledge" article (1889)
* Note change in volume number but not year: JBAA changed volumes
* between the Sept. and Oct. issues.

E. Brown
“The green ray,”
J. B. A. A. 8, 46 (1897).

* GF refs. in Nature
* Observations of green *Sun* and refs.

R. T. Mallet
“The green ray,”
J. B. A. A. 8, 94 (1897).

* unidentified PLANET flash
* Fisher #83

C. T. Whitmell
“The green ray and the green sun,”
J. B. A. A. 8, 95–96 (1897).

* Mostly citations of earlier works
* O'C #153

A. Mee
“Lettre de M. Arthur Mee,”
BSAF 12, 45–46 (1898).

* Arthur Mee indulges in purple prose
* Mostly references to JBAA reports; requests observations from SAF members.
* O'C #246

A. Mee
“The green ray — Meteors in India,”
J. B. A. A. 8, 136–137 (1898).

* relay of a GF report from J.F.Young; not useful, and confuses additive
* and subtractive color mixing (cf. his BSAF paper above)
* Note change of year but not volume number
* Fisher #163, O'C #245

H. MacEwen
“The green ray,”
J. B. A. A. 8, 190 (1898).

* Not about green flash or "green ray" at all, but green *Sun*
* (Note a paper by the infamous "Leo Brenner" (Gopchevic) immediately above!)

C. T. Whitmell
“The green ray, and the Astronomical Society of France,”
J. B. A. A. 8, 190–191 (1898).

* Whitmell corrects confusion between additive and subtractive color
* mixing, and provides some references
* Letter is dated 24 Jan. 1898.

C. T. Whitmell
“The green ray,”
Leeds Astronomical Soc. Journal & Transactions 5, 63–64 (1897).

* Whitmell summarizes his earlier papers
* The item is dated 5 March 1898, but the Journal is for 1897.
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

E. Franceschi
“Les couleurs du disque solaire à l'horizon, dans de désert et sur la mer,”
Ciel et Terre 19, 125–132 (1898).

* Seems to be an exact reprint of his 1896 paper in Bull.Inst.Egypt.

C. T. Whitmell
“The green ray, 1898,”
Leeds Astronomical Soc. Journal & Transactions 6, 92 (1898).

* Whitmell reports seeing the colored rims
* One of a series of "Miscellaneous" items, signed by Whitmell, p.93.
* (This seems to have appeared about mid-year, 1898.)
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

H. de Maubeuge
“Sur une observation du rayon vert, au moment du lever du Soleil,”
C. R. 127, 453 (1898).

* SUNRISE observation of GF over the Sinai (cf. Escher, 1930)
* ". . . ce fait, que le rayon vert ne se voit pas toujours , même dans
* les meilleures conditions de pureté d'atmosphère."
* Fisher #89, O'C #240

de Maubeuge
“Rayon solaire de couleur verte,”
La Nature 26:2, No. 1322, 287 (1 Oct., 1898).

* Abstract of de Maubeuge's report to the Académie des Sciences
* This version reports "un rayon de couleur vert émeraude, qui a couvert
* un arc de 10° au-dessus de l'horizon." But the C.R. version merely
* says "Le sommet des montagnes était à environ 10° au-dessus de
* l'horizon." Probably this was a typo, and 1 degree was intended; in any
* case, the C.R. report makes this appear to be a normal flash, not a green
* ray. Cf. his 1886 letter, in which the altitude is 1° or 2°.
* O'C #239; Fisher #90

H. de Maubeuge
“Une observation du rayon vert, au moment du lever du Soleil,”
Revue Scientifique , series 4, 10, 471 (1898).

* Report of de Maubeuge's letter, in the account of "Académie des
* Sciences de Paris, 26 Septembre --- 3 Octobre 1898"
* O'C #241; Fisher #91

L. Libert
“Sur le rayon vert, extrait d'une Lettre de M. L.Libert à M. A.Cornu,”
C. R. 127, 792 (1898).

* Another remark on the shape that predicts the inf.-mir. flash:
* ". . . le spectacle est souvent accompagné de déformations du disque
* solaire, déformations des plus curieuses, imitant depuis la forme d'un
* ballon jusqu'à celle d'une ligne brisée."
* Fisher #72

[J]. Piot-Bey
“A propos du rayon vert,”
C. R. 127, 893–894 (1898).

* PIOT-BEY invokes Groff and de Maubeuge
* "Peu de contrées paraissent se prêter autant que l'Égypte à la
* manifestation du rayon vert."
* Fisher #117, O'C #106

Piot Bey
“Physique du Globe. — A propos du rayon vert,”
Revue Scientifique , series 4, 10, 755 (1898).

* An account of Piot-Bey's C.R. paper
* MIS-cited by F.K., who gave the year as 1915!
* Fisher #118 has it right

W. Prinz
“Photographies du soleil couchant,” in XXV Anniversaire de la Fondation, 1874-1898: Album Jubilaire
(E.Bruylant, Bruxelles, 1898), pp. 111–119.

* RED and VIOLET rims observed; photographs of flattened sunsets
* Drawings of typical sunset distortions
* O'C #109 -- he has the wrong date

“Der grüne Strahl bei Sonnenaufgang,”
Prometheus 10, 95–96 (1898).

* A report of de Maubeuge's CR paper, propagating the 10° error
* and giving his initial as K., not H.

“Le rayon vert [Question 536],”
l'Intermédiaire de l'AFAS (Bulletin Mensuel) 3, 237 (1898).

* Hix sets off a thread with Question 536
* Brocard (below) says Hix refers to de Maubeuge's CR paper.
* AFAS = Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences

H. de Maubeuge
Naturwiss. Rundschau 13, 636 (1898).

* Report on de Maubeuge's CR 127, 453 paper; cited by Plassmann
* This is issue Nr. 48

J. Plassmann
Naturwiss. Rundschau 13, 672 (1898).

* Plassmann objects to de Maubeuge's explanation in Nr.48
* He cites the obvious objections: that solar protuberances would be
* seen easily at eclipses, and that the green would be transmitted far
* better high in the sky. He then suggests it might be due to selective
* atmospheric absorption, giving a very vague and arm-waving concept,
* and suggests "Fortgesetzte Spectralbeobachtungen".
* This is Nr. 51, 17.Dez. 1898 of Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau,
* Wöchentliche Berichte über die Fortschritte auf dem Gesammtgebiete der
* Naturwissenschaften.

A. Schülke
Naturwiss. Rundschau 14, 16 (1899).

* An experienced observer supports the refraction explanation
* Comments on the items in Nr. 48 (de Maubeuge) and Nr. 51 (Plassmann)
* Fisher #134, not read

(editorial summary)
Naturwiss. Rundschau 14, 39 (1899).

* Report on Libert's letter to Cornu in CR 127, 792 (1898)
* This is issue Nr. 3

(editorial summary)
“Astronomische Mittheilungen,”
Naturwiss. Rundschau 14, 80 (1899).

* Report on Piot-Bey, Groff, and de Maubeuge
* This is issue Nr. 6

A. Guébhard
“Le rayon vert,”
l'Intermédiaire de l'AFAS (Bulletin Mensuel) 4, 19–20 (1899).

* Reply to Hix (Question 536)
* "L'explication, toute physico-physiologique, et, par conséquent, je le
* répète, purement subjective, est des plus simples."
* AFAS = Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences

“Le rayon vert,”
l'Intermédiaire de l'AFAS (Bulletin Mensuel) 4, 20 (1899).

* Reply to Hix (Question 536), citing Piot-Bey and Groff
* "De ses observations M. Piot-Bey conclut que le rayon vert est un
* phénomène absolument objectif." [ A nice juxtaposition! ]
* AFAS = Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences

“Rayon vert,”
l'Intermédiaire de l'AFAS (Bulletin Mensuel) 4, 38 (1899).

* Reply to Hix (Question 536), naming (but not citing) Cornu.
* AFAS = Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences

J. Garnier
“Le rayon vert,”
l'Intermédiaire de l'AFAS (Bulletin Mensuel) 4, 38–39 (1899).

* Reply to Hix (Question 536)
* A curious explanation: at sea, he will have the waves be the prism; but
* on land. "l'effet de prisme y est formé par la couche atmosphérique
* ondulée, plus dense, qui avoisine le sol . . . ."
* Perhaps we could regard this as a precursor to Fraser's INVERSION-WAVE
* suggestion?
* AFAS = Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences

H. Brocard
“Le rayon vert,”
l'Intermédiaire de l'AFAS (Bulletin Mensuel) 4, 39–40 (1899).

* Final reply to Hix (Question 536)
* This remarkable letter terminated the discussion; and no wonder:
* it contains a remarkably complete bibliography.
* Brocard cites all of Groff's papers in Bull.Inst.Égypt,
* 14 references in all.
* AFAS = Association Française pour l'Avancement des Sciences

“Der grüne Strahl,”
Prometheus 10, 415 (1899).

* Another reference to de Maubeuge giving his initial as K., not H.
* This is mainly about the reports of Plassmann and Schülke, however.
* Probably this is the note cited in Prometheus 14, 48 (1903), though
* the page number given there is 425.
* Note that volumes overlap years!
* 29 March, No.494

“Das ``grüne Flämmchen'',”
Met. Zs. 16, 281 (1899).

* reviews of the works of Piot-Bey, Groff and de Maubeuge

A. Guébhard
“Le `rayon vert'; sa pure subjectivité,”
Séances de la Société Française de Physique , pp.41*–43* (1899).

* Guébhard's talk at the 21 Avril 1899 Séance de la Physique
* Guébhard mis-cites "Trèves" in C.R. 101, 845, as well as citing
* Dr. Abbate Pacha, Groff, and Daressy. He seems never to have seen
* a GF. His paper is contested by Pellat (see below), who cites his own
* observations in 1887. Then Guébhard cites Franceschi back at him.
* These discussions were reviewed in Ciel et Terre later in 1899
* (see below).
* Note that these are in the section "Résumés des Communications"
* where the page numbers bear a superscripted asterisk, not the
* full-length papers printed with simple page numbers.
* [This volume contains papers by the Curies and by Becquerel on radium;
* papers by Cornu on optics, by Amagat on the equation of state; by
* Poincaré and by Deslandres; by Pellin and Broca on their
* constant-deviation spectrometer; etc.! What a wonderful time this
* must have been to be a French physicist!]

H. Pellat
[comment on Guébhard's talk]
Séances de la Société Française de Physique , p.42* (1899).

* Pellat refutes Guébhard
* "M.Pellat, tout en reconnaissant que le phénomène des couleurs
* consécutives peut jouer un rôle dans la vision du rayon vert,
* considère le rayon vert comme ayant une existence réelle."
* He then cites his own 1887 paper and observations.

C. Raveau
[comment on Pellat's comment]
Séances de la Société Française de Physique , p.43* (1899).

* Raveau's GREEN RAY BELOW the horizon
* "M.Raveau a observé un phénomène très différent de celui que
* décrit M. Pellat. Au moment où le bord supérieur du soleil venait de
* disparaître, il a vu la mer s'éclairer, pendant un temps très court,
* d'une lueur verte; cette lueur a occupé d'abord un petit triangle, ayant
* sa base sur l'horizon, à l'endroit où s'était évanouie la petite ligne
* lumineuse qui constituait la dernière partie visible du disque du soleil.
* La région éclairée s'est graduellement resserrée vers l'horizon et a
* disparu, l'ensemble du phénomène ressemblant à l'écoulement rapide
* d'un liquide lumineux."

V. Turquan
“Rayon vert et rayon rouge,”
B. S. A. F. 13, 444–446 (1899).

* long, sensible account; RED FLASH DISCOVERED
* ". . . nombreuses observations que j'en ai faites."
* "J'avais . . . été frappé par ce phénomène réputé extrèmement rare
* (si l'on en croit la romanesque idylle de Jules Verne) . . . ."
* "Piqué au vif, par ces observations fréquentes et faciles . . . j'ai
* exploré avec un assez fort groissement, l'extrême bord apparent de
* l'astre radieux et j'ai eu la satisfaction de constater, au moment
* où le point opposé du limbe du Soleil quitte la Terre, un
* rayon rouge fort vif ."
* "Avec une lunette, il est facile de constater le rayon rouge et orange
* du dessous du limbe solaire, lorsque celui-ci prend contact, ou bien
* perd contact (au lever) avec l'horizon."
* "Le rayon vert est un simple phénomène de réfraction et il doit se
* produire aussi bien pour la Lune et pour les étoiles que pour le Soleil,
* aussi bien au lever qu'au coucher d'un astre suffisamment brillant, et
* le rayon rouge pourra être observé, avec certaines précautions; ces
* deux rayons complémentaires sont observables en montagne, aussi bien
* qu'en plaine et qu'en mer; . . . ."
* (Unfortunately, he then tries to connect the red ray with the color of
* lunar eclipses.)
*      This is almost identical to Turquan's note in Revue Scientifique (4),
* Vol. 11:1, No. 4, pp. 122-123 (28 Jan. 1899), which evidently appeared
* before the BSAF version.
* Fisher #143, O'C #143

F.-A. Mavrogordato
“Le rayon vert se réflète-t-il sur les nuages?,”
B. S. A. F. 13, 446–447 (1899).

* Useless nonsense; contrast colors
* O'C #85

J. J. T. Chabot
“Ueber die Grünstrahlung beim sogenannten Sonnenuntergang,”
Met. Zs. 16, 425–427 (1899).

* Wordy description of mock-mirage flashes. He seems to think some of
* this has to do with the Sun's atmosphere. Nice use of colored filters to
* bring out the red and green limbs.
* Early mention of WAVELENGTH DEPENDENCE of LIMB DARKENING: he knows the
* limb is redder than the center. He also invokes atmospheric dispersion,
* but apparently is flummoxed by the mock mirages.; vague references to
* the "black drop" at Venus transits, and atmospheric scattering.
* J.J.Taudin Chabot writes German as if it were French.
* See corrections of typos here in Met.Z.16,p.523. (Fisher #19)
* See corrections of typos here in his 1900 paper, Met.Z.17,p.335.
* Fisher #18

“Blue ray of sunrise over Mont Blanc,”
Nature 60, 411 (1899).

* LORD KELVIN's incredible estimate
* ". . . in an instant I saw a blue light . . . which, in less than the
* one-twentieth of a second became dazzlingly white . . . ."
* See further discussion in 1910 !!
*      This is in the 31 August issue.
* An Erratum appeared in the 1 Sept. issue, saying that 5 o'clock should be
* 4 o'clock, and that "of sunrise" should be added after "light" in line 7.
* Fisher #64, O'C #69

(editorial note)
“Blauen Lichtstrahl bei Sonnenaufgang,”
Naturwiss. Rundschau 14, 515–516 (1899).

* Report on Kelvin's letter to Nature
* This is issue Nr. 40

anonymous report
“Le rayon vert,”
Ciel et Terre 20, 425–426 (1899).

* (This is a report of the discussion at a meeting of the French
* physical society, involving Guébhard, H. Pellat, and Raveau.)
* "Guébhart" is Paul Émile Adrien Guébhard, who had recently
* published several papers on vision, and as a medical man was
* predisposed to a physiological theory of green flashes.
* Guébhart's "bibliographie complète dans un mémoire
* présenté à la Société française de physique" is probably no
* more than the references cited in the "Séances" (1899).
* Is Raveau's observation that "la mer s'éclairer, pendant un temps
* très court, d'une lueur verte" a green fog below eye level?

R. S.
“Ueber den grünen Sonnenstrahl,”
Die Natur 49, 274 (1900).

* Seems to be a summary of Groff's work; all derivative, anyway (no refs.)

Lebrison,Gérard,Le Blanc,A. O'Langer,Picard,G. Delcroix Legrand
“Le rayon vert,”
B. S. A. F. 14, 236 (1900).

* passengers on board the "Saint-Laurent"
* part of O'C. #303

Lebrison,Gérard,Le Blanc,A. O'Lanyer,Picard,G. Delcroix Legrand
“Sur le rayon vert,”
Revue Scientifique , series 4, 13, 406 (1900).

* passengers on board the "Saint-Laurent"
* Note discrepancy in 5th passenger's name.
* 31 Mars issue
* Fisher #176
* part of O'C. #303

(editorial report)
Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 15, Nr. 20, 259 (1900).

* translated from the Revue Scientifique account
* part of O'C. #303

J. Garnier
“Sur le rayon vert,”
Revue Scientifique , series 4, 13, 505 (1900).

* Jules Garnier refers both to the St.Laurent report and his own in 1899
* This time he omits mentioning the waves; only atmospheric refraction
* forms "un spectre . . . devant l'oeil de l'observateur, lequel ne retient
* des sept couleurs de ce spectre que le vert, qui est la couleur la plus
* intense . . . ." [Seems to be the first to claim that green is seen
* because it is "brightest" to the eye!]
* 21 Avril issue

anon. [H. H. Turner]
“From an Oxford Note-Book,”
Obs. 23, 297–300 (1900).

* H.H.Turner sees a GF at the May 23 eclipse in Algiers -- see item on p.300

J. J. T. Chabot
“Die grüne Strahlung,”
Meteorologische Zeitschrift 17, 335–336 (1900).

* J.J.Taudin Chabot, thinking the "green radiation" has something to do
* with the Sun or Moon, observes a partial solar eclipse without result.
* Footnote corrects his earlier paper in Met.Z.(1899)
* Fisher #20

J. J. T. Chabot
Meteorologische Zeitschrift 17, 426 (1900).

* cites his earlier paper in Met.Z.(1899)
* As the Sun followed the slope of a mountain, "blieb dieses Mal eine
* grün leuchtende Stelle nahezu 30 Sekunden lang sichtbar"
* O'C #191; Fisher #21

(7 passengers on the Saint-Laurent)
“Grüner Strahl beim Venus-Untergang,”
Meteorologische Zeitschrift 17, 426 (1900).

* abstract of the 7 passengers' account in Revue Scientifique
* Fisher #177
* part of O'C. #303

E. E. Markwick
“Observation of the `Green Ray',”
JBAA 10, 364 (1900).

* not useful
* Col. E. E. Markwick, F.R.A.S.
* Fisher #84

F. S. Archenhold
“Die Beobachtung der totalen Sonnenfinsternis am 28. Mai 1900 in Bouzareah bei Algier,”
Das Weltall 1, 2–7 (1900).

* Not a very useful observation; only a couple of sentences on p.5
* This is the lead article in Vol. 1, No. 1 of "Das Weltall"

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
JBAA 11, 75 (1900).

* WHITMELL's first land-horizon flash (2nd GF)
* "Green Flash is a more suitable name than Green Ray."
* Fisher #147

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash seen from Woodhouse Moor, Leeds,”
Leeds Astronomical Soc. Journal & Transactions 8, 107 (1900).

* The same item, cut down slightly, and citing his vol. 5 note.

“Sur le rayon vert,”
B. S. A. F. 14, 508–509 (1900).

* reference to previous year's Intermediaire de l' pour
* l'avancement des sciences

J. Janssen
“Note sur les travaux exécutés a l'observatoire du sommet du Mont Blanc en 1900,”
Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes pour l'an 1901, F.1–F.10 (1901).

* JANSSEN reports Hansky's GF on Mont Blanc, and adds his own
*      Aleksey Pavlovitch Hansky was an assistant at Pulkovo who spent
* some time at the Meudon Observatory. He specialized in photographing
* the solar surface, and monitoring its activity. He seems to have been
* the first person to notice the relation between the shape of the corona
* and the sunspot cycle.
*      Hansky is quoted as describing a morning flash, with the textbook
* explanation; but modified: ". . . s'il existe beaucoup de vapeur d'eau,
* il ne reste du spectra que le partie rouge et une faible bande dans le
* vert ; mais, si l'air est très sec, la partie verte du spectre est
* intense et c'est elle que nous voyons au premier moment de l'apparition
* du Soleil, quand le spectre passe devant l'œil de l'observateur."
* To this, Janssen adds: "Cette explication est exacte, mais il faut
* remarquer que c'est encore plus l'absence de brumes que de vapeur qui
* importe à la production du phénomène, car j'ai vu très nettement le
* Rayon vert dans le Pacifique."
* (Presumably this was during his 1883 trip to the Carolines -- too late
* to have influenced Jules Verne.)
*      At the end of this volume are several scientific notes in sections
* denoted by capital letters; this is section F. The Hansky quotation
* is on pp. F.7 and F.8. The index is section I.
*      Reprinted in Janssen's works, Vol. 2, pp. 544-550 (see pp. 548-549)
* in 1930. A slightly edited extract from Hansky's account was also
* reprinted in 1907 by Radau (q.v.).
*      Available at Gallica.  The volume is a sort of combination of the
* Rubber Bible and the Nautical Almanac, with the World Almanac thrown
* in: there are the tables of weights and measures (and currencies) of
* various countries; conversions among the Julian, Gregorian, Moslem and
* French Revolutionary calendars, as well as a variety of physical and
* chemical tables.

H. Krone
“Der grüne Strahl kurz vor dem Untergang der Sonne,”
Eders Jahrbuch für Photographie und Reproduktionstechnik 15, 12–17 (1901).

* a badly confused account; thinks "actinic" rays change the response of
* the eye?
* O'C #74

J. J. T. Chabot
Met. Z. 18, 90 (1901).

* J.J.Taudin Chabot has a priority fight with T.J.J.See over the use of
* colored glasses:
* ". . . erlaube ich mir die Anfrage, ob sie durch eine redaktionelle Notiz
* auf meine Priorität gegenüber Professor Thomas J. J. Se [sic], U.S.Naval
* Observatory, Washington, in Sache der Einschaltung selektiv absorbirender
* Medien zur Verdeutlichung der Beobachtung am Fernrohr hinweisen wollten."
* (and cites his paper in Met.Z.16,425(Sept.1899).)
* In fact, both were scooped by Stampfer (1851).

J. J. T. Chabot
“Grünstrahlung bei Sonnenaufgang,”
Met. Z. 18, 181 (1901).

* J.J.Taudin Chabot uses his filter method to examine colored rims, and
* finds that a smoke plume 450m away does *not* have colored edges.
* He seems not to be a "morning" person:
* "Der häufigen Beobachtung des `Sonnenaufgangs' . . . stellen sich
* Schwierigkeiten verschiedener Art in den Weg, deren nicht geringste,
* vielleicht indessen nur individuellen Charakters die ist, dass zu jener
* im Allgemeinen ziemlich frühen Tagesstunde die persönliche Schärfe
* des Wahrnehmungsvermögens sich nicht immer schon in vollem Umfange
* eingestellt hat . . . ."
* O'C #192; Fisher #22

W. H. Julius
“Le rayon vert,”
Arch. Néerlandaises des sciences exactes et naturelles 6, 385–389 (1901).

* Anomalous dispersion proposed: cf. the Julius file (far below).
* ". . . the physicist of the Committee, Dr. W.H.Julius, of Utrecht. . . "
* (from Nijland's account of the Expedition to Sumatra, Amsterdam, 1903)
* (Nijland was the Sec.-Treas. of the Eclips-Commissie; part of his report
* is on the Web at .)
* Julius proposed anomalous dispersion as the explanation of everything
* in sight: the solar limb, prominences, sunspots, stellar spectra. . . .
* (see J. Hartmann, A.N.175, Nr.4197, 341-368 (1907) for refutations.)
* Fisher #61 indicates this volume is in series 2.
* O'C #64 agrees

S. Barker
“The green flash at sunset,”
JBAA 12, 32 (1901).

* not useful
* Fisher #6

A. Senouque
“Lumière zodiacale,”
BSAF 15, 256 (1901).

* not useful; only half a sentence is devoted to GF
* The page number is mis-printed without the "2", explaining the wrong
* reference to p.56 given by O'Connell, who also mis-copied the name.
* Why did he bother with such trivia and yet reject (as he says) 200
* references?
* O'C #282

J. Franklin-Adams
“The green flash at sunset,”
M. N. 61, 484–485 (1901).

* John Franklin-Adams sees a GF like Baily's beads [WAVES!]
* ". . . the phenomenon here described may have been caused by the waves of
* the sea taking the place of the mountains of the Moon. The evening was
* calm, and the waves not large enough to make this possible unless images
* of the waves were thrown up by a mirage state of the atmosphere. I have
* twice seen from a steamer's deck mirage images of the sea waves, about
* a mile distant, thrown up sufficiently to entirely hide the horizon."
* N.B.: We often see such an effect here; I have several pictures of it.
* cf. Evans, 1914.
* This is the May 1901 paper mentioned in Admiral Maclear's 1906 letters.
* Caution: M.N. volumes do not coincide with years here (Nov.1901).
* Fisher #1

J. Franklin Adams
“The green flash at sunset,”
JBAA 11, 367 (1901).

* JBAA abstracts the above

J. Franklin-Adams
“The green flash at sunset,”
English Mechanic 73, 422 (1901).

* This appears to be a reprint of J.F.-A.'s note in M.N.
* No.1892, June 28, 1901

F. R. A. S.
“The green flash at sunset [44881],”
English Mechanic 73, 425 (1901).

* "F.R.A.S." comments on Franklin-Adams's observation;
* he is troubled by the "Baily's beads" allusion, taking it literally.
* Note that the heading is a sub-head within a long letter of many parts
* that begins on p.424; the main title is "Greenwich Observations".
* No.1892, June 28, 1901

G. McKenzie Knight
[letter 44917]
English Mechanic 73, 449–450 (1901).

* The "BILIOUSNESS" tale:
* Only the last sixth of this letter deals with the notorious GF story:
* The full heading is:
* "Sunspots and terrestrial magnetism; To ``F.R.A.S.'' -- the green flash
* a sign of biliousness"
* "I was much interested in ``F.R.A.S.'s'' observations on the ``Green
* Flash.'' I have repeatedly seen this very curious phenomena [sic] ;
* but really, I have never taken any notice of it, and it is the first time
* I have observed it mentioned in print. I remember it struck me most
* vividly when I was staying at Torquay, and I communicated my ideas to a
* medical friend, who promptly said I was suffering from biliousness, and
* there and then prescribed. I remember I looked again for it the day after
* I had taken some medicine, and my friends saying that I should not see it
* again -- at all events for some time to come -- came true, and I had
* forgotten all about it until I saw the remarks of your valuable
* correspondent."
* No.1893, July 5, 1901
* O'C #71

[letter 44918]
English Mechanic 73, 450 (1901).

* Langford [44949] identifies "Treadle" as C. Mostyn, from his letter in
* Nature 44,352(1891). Cf. similar remarks in his 1906 Knowledge paper.
* I regard this identification as secure.
* EXPERIENCED: "Having been much at sea in former years, I have had many
* opportunities of observing this very beautiful and interesting
* phenomenon. . . . many scores of observations . . . ."
* EARLY RECOGNITION of the Type A sunset and mirage effects:
* "I have noticed that a particular form of refraction was most favourable
* to its appearance. When the sun, on approaching the horizon, assumed
* curious shapes as of a goldfish-globe or a pear, then there would nearly
* always be a green or bluish flash at the moment of disappearance. On the
* other hand, when the sun assumed the shape of an oval with major axis
* horizontal, the flash did not appear."
* He correctly diagnoses Franklin-Adams's "beads": "I fancy they must be
* caused by ripples on the sea-surface at the horizon. . . ."
* His triple flash was seen from "the old Macquarie , now a training-ship
* for officers under Lord Brassey's scheme."
*       Edward Gilbert finds that this trip from London to Sydney was from
* October 28, 1890 to January 29, 1891, and that the ship was built in
* 1875 as the Melbourne ; renamed Macquarie in 1888, and renamed again
* to Fortuna in 1904, before being broken up in 1953. Gilbert also says
* that the pseudonym "Treadle" was taken from Mostyn's interest in treadle
* bicycles.
* No.1893, July 5, 1901
* Fisher #104

"F. R."
[letter 44919]
English Mechanic 73, 450 (1901).

* Completely irrelevant remarks that have nothing to do with green
* flashes, as Langford [44949] soon makes clear.
* No.1893, July 5, 1901

E. Smith
“The green (or red) flash at sunset [44947],”
English Mechanic 73, 474 (1901).

* The citation of letter 44819 of "T.R." actually means 44919 of "F.R."
* -- an example of the numerous typos in the E.M.'s letter columns.
* "But to some eyes it was red , not green."
* No.1894, July 12, 1901

[letter 44949]
English Mechanic 73, 474 (1901).

* Langford identifies "Treadle" as Mostyn, and implicitly chastises "F.R.".
* He succinctly summarizes the subject in 1 paragraph!
* No.1894, July 12, 1901

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 45130],”
English Mechanic 74, 86 (1901).

* Whitmell's 1-sentence announcement of a cloud-top flash
* No.1902, Sept. 6, 1901
* Fisher #150

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Leeds Astronomical Soc. Journal & Transactions 9, 100–101 (1901).

* Whitmell's full report of the above observation
* "I also noticed that, before sunset, the decreasing segment of the
* setting Solar disc, originally yellow, became gradually whiter in tint.
* Mr. Scriven Bolton, who was with me, also observed the flash. We both
* used opera-glasses."
* (This seems to be vol. 9, 1901).
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

W. H. Pickering
“The green flash at sunset,”
M. N. 61, 629 (1901).

* PICKERING's original GF note, "confirming" Franklin-Adams's observation
* -- but without the beads!
* Cited as a "minor publication" in HCO's Annual Report for 1901/02, p.15
* Caution: M.N. volumes do not coincide with years here (Nov.1901).
* Fisher #113

W. H. Pickering
“The green flash at sunset,”
JBAA 12, 83 (1901).

* JBAA abstracts the above

W. H. Pickering
Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau 16, 648 (1901).

* Naturwiss.Rundschau abstracts Pickering's report
* Nr. 50
* Fisher #115

W. H. Pickering
“Additional note on the green flash,”
M. N. 62, 85 (1901).

* PICKERING's "optical illusion" paper
* Caution: M.N. volumes do not coincide with years here (Nov.1901).
* "The effect, I presume, is subjective, and merely a case of
* complementary colours . . . . The fact that my assistant could not see it at
* sunrise . . . confirms this view."
* Fisher #116, O'C #105

A. A. Nijland
“Over den ``groenen straal'' en eenige andere hemelsverschijnselen,”
De Zee 24, 60–68 (1902).

* This is the NIJLAND paper that prompted HAVINGA to observe!
* EXCELLENT ADVICE to amateur observers!
* ". . . Prof. W.H.Julius and J.H.Wilterdink, and me, members of the Dutch
* expedition to observe the total solar eclipse of 18 May near Padang . . . "
* Early use of the term "GREEN SEGMENT" (it was first used by Winstanley):
* "This green segment , that I have observed more, though not so
* brilliant, is badly conveyed by the name ``flamelet''."

A. A. Nijland
“Ueber den grünen Strahl bei Auf- und Untergang der Sonne,”
A. N. 158, 93–96 (1902).

* 530 nm given twice
* double flash observed "Durch die Bewegung des Schiffes". (WAVES)
* (For the benefit of people unfamiliar with Astronomische Nachrichten ,
* I should point out that its columns are numbered, rather than pages.)
* Fisher #107

(Anonymous abstract)
“The green flash,”
JBAA 12, 143 (1902).

* JBAA abstracts the above

T. W. Backhouse
“The green flash,”
M. N. 62, 430–431 (1902).

* DISPERSION proposed (!) -- red and green rims seen
* Abstracted in JBAA 12, 299 (1902), which also mentions Hills (next).
* (I file the JBAA summary after Hills, some months too early.)
* See his obit. in M.N. 81, 245 (1921), which mentions his GF observations.
* He was VP of the RMS in 1918 and 1919.
* Fisher #4

E. H. Hills
“The green flash,”
M. N. 62, 431–432 (1902).

* BLUE and VIOLET seen after green with 12x binocular
* ". . . the narrowing segment . . . is first seen to turn green at its two
* extremities; the green colour then appears to run inwards until the whole
* area of the segment appears coloured. . . . after . . . about a second the
* green fades away and is momentarily replaced by a blue or blue-violet.
* The latter is immeasurably more feeble than the green . . . ."
* Major E.H.Hills, R.E.
* Fisher #57, O'C #51

A. Schmidt
“Der erste under der letzte Sonnenstrahl,”
Deutsche Revue 27, 108–110 (1902).

* Schmidt discusses Julius's chromospheric and GF theories, both based on
* anomalous dispersion. It seems the English word "FLASH" has led to this
* confusion (cf. "flash spectrum"). Schmidt compares Julius's theories to
* his own for the solar atmosphere, involving critical refraction --
* essentially, an early example of Hasse's ``Kimmfläche''. Schmidt doesn't
* accept Julius's chromospheric model, but seems favorably inclined toward
* his GF theory.
* cf. the shorter version in Met.Z. 19, 337 later in the year (below)
* Fisher #131

A. R[iccò]
“Photographies des déformations du soleil couchant – Nota del Prof. W. Prinz dell'Osservatorio Reale Belga a Uccle (Bruxelles),”
Mem. Soc. Spett. Ital. 31, 36–39 (1902).

* Ricco quotes from, and comments on, Prinz:
* He seems to draw no distinction between the green rim and "punto verde".
* the 2 photos reproduced show flattening, not distortion
* WARNING: the nutty librarians seem to catalog this journal as
* "Società Astronomica Italiana. Memorie" -- though nothing of
* the sort appears in the published volumes! (That's because the Italian
* Astronomical Society took it over later.)
* O'C #118

(W. H. Pickering)
“Zur meteorologischen Optik,”
Met. Z. 19, 282 (1902).

* Belated account of Pickering's *first* paper in M.N.
* Fisher #114

W.-H. Julius
“Le rayon vert,”
Ciel et Terre 23, 209–215 (1902).

* JULIUS republishes his SCALED REFRACTION calculation
* (This appears to be an exact reprint of the 1901 paper)
* NOTE: this appears to be Julius's last GF publication.
* O'C #65; Fisher #63

H. Keatley Moore
“Reply [to Query No. 69],”
J. B. A. A. 12, 218 (1902).

* Keatley Moore replies to Query No. 69
* and refers to Col. Markwick (see above, 1900)
* He believes it is an afterimage: "The ghosts persist with me about 2
* seconds, which is also the time the green flash lasted."
*      Incorrectly cited by Mulder (1922), whose error was copied by
* Feenstra Kuiper (1926). Fisher has it right.
* Fisher #102

H. Keatley Moore
“The green flash,”
J. B. A. A. 12, 248 (1902).

* Keatley Moore receives Whitmell's response (below)

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
J. B. A. A. 12, 248–249 (1902).

* Whitmell counters Moore with earlier references
* Fisher #148

H. R. Mill
“The voyage southward of the "Discovery". I. London to Madeira,”
Geographical J. 19, No. 4, 417–423 (April, 1902).

* HUGH ROBERT MILL's first GF report: green, blue, violet
* ". . . there was only one night on which the sunset was sufficiently clear
* to show the interesting phenomenon of the green ray. This was on Sunday,
* August 11, when, as the upper edge of the sun touched the sea-horizon, a
* beam of yellow light, almost instantaneously passing through green to blue
* and dying away in violet, was distinctly visible. It is remarkable that
* so few observers have noticed this striking appearance, which must [sic]
* be visible every time the unclouded sun dips beneath a sharp horizon."
* (pp. 418/419) -- so he evidently believed the "textbook" story.
*      This was the Antarctic expedition organized by the Royal Geographical
* Society in 1901 and led by Robert Falcon Scott. Mill notes on p. 422
* that "Lieut. E. H. Shackleton undertook the salinity determinations, and
* proved a very apt and enthusiastic pupil" -- a prophetic remark that
* reminds me of Picard's remark (1680) about Römer.
* A nice halftone photo of this sailing ship is on p. 421.

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash and the red,”
Yorkshire Post , 9 (28 April, 1902).

* RED FLASH discovery? [No; it appears Turquan (1899) beat him to it.]
* "It occurred to me some time ago that, under suitable conditions, there
* might be seen at sunrise and at sunset not only a green flash but also a
* red flash. . . ."
*      "In the belfry of the Wesleyan Chapel, on the west side of Woodhouse
* Moor, there are narrow horizontal openings, through which, at certain
* times, the setting sun can send his rays to an observer at the large
* band stand, about 300 yards away.
*      "On Saturday, 26th April, between 7 1/4 and 7 1/2 p.m., I was so
* exceptionally fortunate as to observe through the openings no fewer
* than three green and three red flashes."
* (Monday, 28th April, 1902; col. 4.)

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash and the red,”
J. B. A. A. 12, 289–290 (1902).

* Reprint of the above item, with minor differences in editing:
* "In the belfry of the Wesleyan Chapel, there are narrow horizontal
* openings, through which, at certain times, the setting sun can send
* his rays to an observer at the large Band stand, about 300 yards away."
*      An account of Whitmell's talk appears in Obs. 25, 226 (1902).
* Fisher #149, O'C #296

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash and the red,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 10, 77–79 (1902).

* The original manuscript of the above, printed in full, it appears. The
* JBAA version is improved by editing. But this version has appended the
* text of Prof. E. E. BARNARD's letter from Mt. Hamilton, in addition to
* an observation of a red flash due to cloud, as suggested by Whitmell.
* Barnard, in his letter, says "I have seen the phenomenon (at sunset),
* many, many times in the past fifteen years." (But, clearly, never at
* sunrise.)

C. T. Whitmell
“Reply [to Query No. 72],”
J. B. A. A. 12, 294 (1902).

* Whitmell answers Query No.72, adding further evidence

Mr. Backhouse
“The green flash,”
J. B. A. A. 12, 299 (1902).

* summary of Backhouse's M.N. paper in March

“(item under "General Notes"),”
Pub. A. S. P. 14, 118 (1902).

* A summary of W. H. Pickering's M.N. report
* This is the item mentioned by Katherine Bracher in 1992. It mentions
* Kelvin's observation "three years ago", and that "Professor Nijland, of
* Utrecht, Holland, has lately seen it several times at sea." As it says
* that ". . . Pickering calls attention . . . to what he names the `green flash'
* at sunset", one can see how the notion arose that WHP had named it.
* "Observations may be made with the naked eye, though a small telescope
* or opera-glasses will be found advantageous."

A. A. Nijland
“Ueber den grünen Strahl bei Auf- und Untergang der Sonne,”
Met. Zs. 19, 335–336 (1902).

* reprinted from A.N., with typos & other editorial changes added!
* Juli 1902 issue
* Fisher #108, O'C #255

M. Jautz
“Der ``grüne Strahl'' der untergehenden Sonne,”
Met. Z. 19, 336 (1902).

* a series of GF papers followed Nijland's:
* First, a simple visual observation of a few sec. duration.
* "Frau Marie Jautz aus Wien in St. Andra" bei Triest" sees a classic
* inf.-mir. flash:
* ". . . verwandelte sich der noch sichbare Rest derselben in ein flaches,
* grünes Scheibchen, welches auf der Meeresoberfläche zu schwimmen
* schien." [nice observation of the mirage!]
* Fisher #175 ?

J. J. T. Chabot
“Der ``grüne Strahl'',”
Met. Zs. 19, 337 (1902).

* J.J.Taudin Chabot's attempt to observe a GF at a partially-eclipsed
* sunrise was clouded out.
* Fisher #23

“Die Theorie des ``grünen Strahls'',”
Met. Zs. 19, 337–338 (1902).

* Condensed version of Schmidt's Deutsche Revue paper in April (above)
* Only the first half of Schmidt's D.R. paper is quoted here; the part
* comparing his solar theory with Julius's is omitted.
* Fisher #132

A. S. Herschel
“Heights of sunset after-glows in June, 1902,”
Nature 66, 294–296 (1902).

* Alexander Herschel's GF over cumuli (see footnote, p.294)
* Cites Hopkins (1883) and Swan.
* July 24 issue
* Fisher #56

G. Verhas
“Phénomènes d'optique atmosphérique,”
BSAF 16, 163 (1902).

* BOILING associated with an inferior-mirage flash
* O'C #293

J. Garcin
“Déformation du disque solaire,”
La Nature 30:2, 162–163 (1902).

* Brief review, citing Biot's text, Krifka/Sterneck, and Arctowski
* (Properly belongs in the "distorted sunsets" file; but kept here, as it
* elicited the following GF observations)
* (#1525, 16 Août 1902)

Em. Roger
“Un curieux phénomène d'optique,”
La Nature 30:2, 251 (1902).

* Seems to be a GREEN FOG observation
* ". . . tout à fait à l'horizon même, l'épais rideau de nuages noirs et
* pluvieux ainsi que le fond éloingé du paysage prirent une teinte
* verdâtre bien prononcée pendant quelques instants seulement,
* comme s'ils eussent été éclairés par la lumière électrique."
* (#1530, 20 Sept. 1902)

C. T. Whitmell
“Green ray or flash [reply to query 285],”
English Mechanic 76, 154–155 (1902).

* Whitmell corrects "H.P.", and argues TERMINOLOGY:
* "The term ``green ray'' is a bad one. ``Green flash'' is much better.
* . . . There is nothing like a ``ray.''"
* "On August 24 I witnessed three green flashes in succession, as the
* sun's tip sank behind two strips of clouds and the horizon."
* No.1957, Sept. 26, 1902

“Green ray [reply to query 285],”
English Mechanic 76, 155 (1902).

* "Sigma" corrects "H.P." in a strange way
* "What ``H.P.'' describes is not the green ray, but only a dispersion
* effect among the clouds."
* Eric Hutton has identified "Sigma" (Mr Sprague) [ref. No. 3105 p326]
* No.1957, Sept. 26, 1902

"A Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society"
[letter 200]
English Mechanic 76, 166 (1902).

* FRAS corrects "H.P"'s crepuscular-ray observation (query 285, p.135)
* One paragraph headed "The Green Ray" in a much longer letter
* No.1958, Oct. 3, 1902

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 285],”
English Mechanic 76, 175 (1902).

* Whitmell takes "Sigma" to task:
* "The letter by ``Sigma'' (p.154) affords an excellent illustration of
* the danger of a writer dealing with a subject about which he is ignorant."
* No.1958, Oct. 3, 1902

(editorial report)
“Déformations du disque solaire,”
La Nature 30:2, 302 (1902).

* Refers to Prinz's paper (1898) and Riccò's work
* (#1533, 11 Oct. 1902)

L. Libert
“Déformations solaires et rayon vert,”
La Nature 30:2, 332 (1902).

* long observations of "green ray" [probably visual illusion; see below]
* "Le 13 mars 1899, il a duré 112 secondes 1/2, et le 14 mars 1899, 364
* secondes. A cette dernière date, beaucoup de personnes ont été
* frappées de la coloration verte si prolongée. Le 23 mars de cette
* année, j'ai encore revu le phénomène pendant 107 secondes.
* . . . Dans l'ordre de décomposition apparaìt d'abord le rouge, puis
* l'orangé et le jaune et enfin le vert."
* cf. Cornsweet et al. in VISION file for probable explanation (BLEACHING).
* (#1535, 25 Oct. 1902)
* Fisher #71, O'C #80

“The weather in the British Isles in October, 1902 [439.] The `green flash',”
English Mechanic 76, 317 (1902).

* ". . . the flash was very distinct, but seemed to my vision to be such a pale
* green as to be almost white."
* No.1965, Nov. 21, 1902
* Fisher #96

“Deformationen der Sonnenscheibe und grüner Strahl beim Sonnenuntergang,”
Met. Zs. 19, 566 (1902).

* a 3-sentence abstract of Libert's La Nature 30:2, 332 (1902) paper,
* calling him "Lucian" (instead of Lucien) Libert;
* also mentions the original report in No.1525, (wrong) p. 161 (copied
* from Libert)
* also mentions Garcin's paper on p. 161 in Aug. 1902 (not naming Garcin).
* Dez. issue

F. Exner
“Der Grüne Strahl der untergehenden Sonne,”
Meteorol. Zs. 20, 42 (1903).

* WHITE, then GREEN FLASH -- evidence for ADAPTATION
* "Da ich den Sonnenuntergang mit Rücksicht auf das eventuell auftretende
* Phänomen erwartete . . . ."
* Clearly an inf.-mir. flash: ". . . den ganzen Tag über herrschte leichte
* Bora . . . ."
* Fisher #45

(editorial report)
“Der grüne Strahl,”
Prometheus 14, 48 (1903).

* a 3rd-hand account of the GF and Julius's theory, attributed to Met.Z.

P.-A. Conil
“Phénomènes d'optique atmosphérique,”
BSAF 17, 72 (1903).

* sounds like a useless novice report, but might be a real GREEN RAY?
* "Au moment précis où le disque solaire s'effeçait derrière la ligne
* des eaux, instantanément éclata à l'horizon un foyer d'un
* vert émeraude intense projetant dans tous les directions des rayons
* qui se détachaient sur une atmosphére émeraude très clair. Notre
* correspondant insiste sur la beauté féerique de ce phénomène
* absolument remarquable."

“Der grüne Strahl,”
Himmel und Erde 15, 283 (1903).

* Nice summary of how the inf.-mir. "segment" becomes green from the ends
* and is followed by blue and violet (nameless observer using binoculars)

G. McKenzie Knight
[letter 250]
English Mechanic 78, 205 (1903).

* Knight again, observing in Italy
* "I am inclined to believe that a change in latitude affects its colour
* to a certain extent. Such is my opinion from thirty-three observations
* made in Italy since Aug. 17 to [Sept. 25]."
* GF mentioned only in short 2nd paragraph of longer letter.
* No. 2011, Oct. 9, 1903
* Fisher #66

T. R. Clapham
[letter 318]
English Mechanic 78, 248 (1903).

* Clapham is uninformative
* ". . . observed on several occasions, and always found it best to be seen
* on a clear sea horizon."
* No. 2013, Oct. 23, 1903

J. J. T. Chabot
“Sonnenaufgang und Sonnenuntergang,”
Das Weltall 3, 266–272 (1903).

* Chabot seems confused -- useless
* O'C #14 -- why did he bother with this? There are mentions of
* green and red rims, and the use of copper- and cobalt-glass filters.
* But Chabot's earlier papers are more interesting.

E. Dorn
“Eine Beobachtung des `Grünen Strahls',”
Met. Zs. 21, 197 (1904).

* MOUNTAIN sunset GF from 2565m
* Fisher #36

G. Jones
“Jules Verne at home,”
Temple Bar 129, 664–671 (1904).

* The interview with Jules Verne that was excerpted in "T.P.'s Weekly",
* in which Verne cannot recall the name of his novel, and has to be
* reminded of it by his wife: "'. . . a visit to Fingal's Cave . . . was the
* origin of my book, "The -- the --"' M. Verne paused. 'I really forget
* the name,' said he. 'Do you remember it?' he asked, turning to his wife.
*      '"The Green Ray," was it not,' suggested Madame Verne.
*      'Oh yes, that was it, of course -- "The Green Ray."  One must be
* excused,' added he, laughing, 'if, among so many titles the right one
* is not for the moment forthcoming.'"
* The interviewer was Gordon Jones.
* Available at HathiTrust:
* and at Google Books.
*      June, 1904 issue of this monthly.

“Jules Verne,”
T. P. 's Weekly 3, 752 (1904).

* BEGIN T.P.'s WEEKLY series
* As these items are mostly in the "T.P.'s Letter Box" section, and
* unsigned except for initials or pseudonyms, they are a bit difficult to
* give in standard bibliographical form. This magazine lacked the useful
* identifying numbers of English Mechanic, too.
* This is the item that started it off, merely by mentioning Verne's
* book:
* No GF, but an interview with Verne from "the current number of 'Temple Bar'"
* is quoted in which he mentions "Le Rayon Vert" -- as well as H.G.Wells.
*      Some of these early issues are now (2019) available at the HathiTrust
* website:
* as well as at Google Books. From the information in their catalog,
* one learns that "T.P." was Thomas Power O'Connor (1848-1929).
* Note: Part II of Joseph Conrad's "Nostromo" begins on the facing page!
* No. 83, June 10, 1904

"S. W."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 3, 841 (1904).

* A novice relates 2 sightings, with no useful details, and asks for an
* explanation: "I am curious to know whether it is only seen when the sun
* is setting over the sea."
* June 24, 1904

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 543],”
English Mechanic 79, 556 (1904).

* Whitmell stirs up enthusiasm again, noticing the YELLOW stage:
* Another Southport flash!
* "The disc of the setting sun was decidedly orange. As it sunk below
* the horizon, the diminishing segment paled to yellow, the colour
* changing to a beautiful green when only the tip of the sun was left."
* No.2052, July 22, 1904
* Fisher #151

“The green flash, &c. [letter 559],”
English Mechanic 79, 576 (1904).

* Responses to Whitmell begin here:
* "Phusis" fails because of his "low-lying hill horizon"
* "I have looked for this phenomenon rather vainly for a long time. Is it
* necessary that the horizon should be a sea level?"
* (The similarity to "S.W."'s question in TPW is remarkable.)
* No.2053, July 29, 1904

G. Whittle
“The green flash, &c. [letter 560],”
English Mechanic 79, 576 (1904).

* Whittle criticises "the crude idea that the sea water is the cause of
* the green ray, as if it were possible for light to pass through at such an
* angle."
* No.2053, July 29, 1904

T. R. Clapham
“The green flash, &c. [letter 561],”
English Mechanic 79, 576 (1904).

* "I examined it with a binocular, and distinctly saw the feather wisp as
* described by Mr. Whitmell at the final disappearance of the sun's limb."
* No.2053, July 29, 1904

"All my eye"
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 157 (1904).

* We now interleave the letters to E.M. and T.P. in chronological order:
* Responses to "S.W." begin here:
* Another novice responds with the "Pears' Soap ad" theory, with a good
* description of the ad itself.
* July 29, 1904

E. J. Cope
“The green flash [letter 19],”
English Mechanic 80, 14 (1904).

* Cope reports an INFERIOR-MIRAGE flash over LAND horizon
* "Through a field-glass the last visible part of the sun appeared to
* assume an oval shape, with its longest axis horizontal, and at the same
* time the two ends became of a beautiful green colour, which extended
* towards the centre . . . ."
* No.2055, Aug. 12, 1904
* Fisher #29

"M. D."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 284 (1904).

* A more experienced observer refutes the "Pears' Soap ad" theory.
* ". . . several of us tested it, but with negative results. We looked
* fixedly at the red sun, and then looked quickly up at a white cloud, with
* the result that some saw a green image of the sun; but that is entirely
* different from the ``green flash,'' which is horizontal and very little
* more than momentary, whereas the visual impression of the sun on the cloud
* (and in Pears' experiment) lasts for some time."
* Aug. 26, 1904

"Another Engineer Officer"
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 348 (1904).

* This issue has 3 replies. The first is a SPLENDIDLY CLEAR account of the
* difference between green flashes and GREEN RAYs:
* "In the course of sixteen years sailing the seven seas I have very
* frequently seen the green flash and also the green ray. Fine weather and
* an absolutely clear horizon are, or course, essential, but this form of
* refracted light requires other atmospheric conditions, which have not yet
* been scientifically explained, and the flash may be often looked for in
* vain when the conditions seem to be most favourable. The flash appears
* like a magnificent emerald the moment the sun sinks -- sometimes vanishes
* instantly and sometimes fades in three or four seconds. Occasionally, in
* the latter case, a luminous green ray springs from the flash and shoots
* vertically upwards to a height of about five of the sun's apparent
* diameters. Strangely enough, this phenomenon is not commonly known among
* British seamen, although it has been described for many years in a
* standard French Naval Instruction Book as a sure sign of continued fine
* weather." [cf. Trève (1885) and Wegener (1926).]
* Sept. 9, 1904

"T. H. T."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 348 (1904).

* Confusion between "green Sun" and green flash; ignore
* Sept. 9, 1904

"T. D."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 348 (1904).

* A beginner notices the HEIGHT effect:
* "Although both of us gave our undivided attention, there was no green
* ray visible. At the same time, however, two other friends at a distance
* of several hundred yards from us, and on slightly lower ground, declare
* they witnessed the phenomenon."
* [This is evidently the paper "Phusis" (E.M., Oct.14) had in mind.]
* Sept. 9, 1904

"F. K."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 380 (1904).

* a fuzzy-minded promoter of "color is entirely subjective" nonsense.
* Sept. 16, 1904

"J. G."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 380 (1904).

* Another refutation of "Pears' Soap"
* "I know the ``Pears' Soap'' effect well, and have seen green suns often,
* but this flash could have nothing of the same character. . . ."
* Sept. 16, 1904

[letter 165]
English Mechanic 80, 159 (1904).

* "Phusis" cites a troubling argument (evidence for ADAPTATION):
* ". . . the theory has been advanced that it is an optical illusion. How
* in else manner can any of our readers account for its visibility to some
* and its invisibility to other observers at the same time? In other words,
* is the colour flash produced by dispersion, or is it a complementary
* colour effect? If it is the former, then it should be visible to all."
* No.2061, Sept.23, 1904

"W. R."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 412 (1904).

* Another after-imager.
* Sept. 23, 1904

"C. B. S."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 412 (1904).

* "C.B.S." quotes an irrelevant passage from Longfellow; ignore.
* Sept. 23, 1904

"W. T. N."
“The green flash [188],”
English Mechanic 80, 182 (1904).

* Good explanation of the standard textbook story
* "`Phusis' . . . seems to doubt whether the phenomenon known as the `green
* flash' is anything more than an optical illusion due to a complementary
* colour effect (query, complementary to what?)"
* No.2062, Sept.30, 1904

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [189],”
English Mechanic 80, 182–183 (1904).

* Whitmell recommends a telescope, and mentions RED flash:
* "I have seen it once or twice, and believe I am the first to draw
* attention to it."
* No.2062, Sept.30, 1904

[letter 190]
English Mechanic 80, 183 (1904).

* "Treadle" (Mostyn) relates a beautiful sunrise flash, and adds:
* "It is never seen unless a great deal of refraction is about, as is
* evidenced by the sun assuming curious shapes --- a goldfish globe, &c."
* A clue to his identity: of the "Bedford Level Experiment," he says
* "I was concerned in it."
* No.2062, Sept.30, 1904
* Fisher #105

"G. B. H."
“The green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 444 (1904).

* Another ignoramus pushes after-images; ignore.
* "Though not having seen the green flash personally, . . . ."
* Sept. 30, 1904

L. Rudaux
“Observation du rayon vert,”
La Nature 32:2, No. 1637, 294 (8 Oct., 1904).

* "FOG" in blank strips; GF in "cap"
* Fisher #128, O'C #272

L. Libert
“Le Soleil vert,”
La Nature 32:2, No. 1637, 294 (8 Oct., 1904).

* GREEN SUN distinguished from green flash
* "J'ai à plusiers reprises observé le rayon vert, mais le soleil vert
* en différait par sa longue durée d'abord, par la situation du soleil
* au-dessus de l'horizon ensuite, et c'est à ce titre que j'ai voulu le
* signaler."

Dr. Polo
La Nature Suppl. ``Nouvelles Scientifiques'' 32:2, No. 1637, 74 (8 Oct., 1904).

* letter to editor from a first-time observer who claims a green flash;
* but the description clearly shows that this was only a crepuscular ray.
* An example of CONFUSION due to inappropriate TERMINOLOGY.

“The green flash [264],”
English Mechanic 80, 233–234 (1904).

* "Phusis" points out some visual effects (evidence of ADAPTATION)
* "Two persons watching the sun at the same time : one sees the flash and
* the other does not, although both are careful observers."
* (attributed to T.P.'s Weekly, Sept.30, p.444 and "previous issues for
* the past few weeks.") Cf. "T.D.", Sept.9, in TPW.
* No.2064, Oct.14, 1904

“Explanation of green flash at sunset,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 508 (1904).

* More after-imagery; though "If fatigued by a red light and then exposed
* to a yellowish light, the yellow will appear green."
* Oct. 14, 1904

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [283],”
English Mechanic 80, 253 (1904).

* Whitmell cites some earlier works ("Phusis", Kelvin)
* No.2065, Oct.21, 1904

“The green flash [284],”
English Mechanic 80, 253 (1904).

* Mostyn ("Treadle") counters "Phusis"
* "When I was at sea, the officers of the watch had orders to send and call
* me. . . " makes it sound as if he was the captain; but Edward Gilbert finds
* that Mostyn was only a passenger.
* No.2065, Oct.21, 1904

"D. Sc."
“The green ray,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 548 (1904).

* This might be Rambaut? There is a reference to Froude's "Leaves from a
* South African Journal" without details; see Froude (1877).
* ". . . take care not to fatigue the eyes by staring at the setting sun. A
* wise plan is to turn the back to the sun, turning round from time to time
* for a brief glimpse, to make sure that it has not disappeared, and only
* fixing the eyes upon it finally when nothing remains visible but the upper
* edge of the disc. Unless the horizon is distant and low, the watch may be
* in vain."
* Oct. 21, 1904

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [316],”
English Mechanic 80, 275 (1904).

* Whitmell gives several references, and confirms that "Treadle" is Mostyn
* No.2066, Oct.28, 1904

"C. M."
“Green flash at sunrise,”
T. P. 's Weekly 4, 588 (1904).

* Clearly this is Charles Mostyn, finishing the TPW series.
* "I have seen it dozens, nay, scores, of times at sunrise at sea. The
* horizon is much more frequently clear in morning than in evening."
* Oct. 28, 1904

E. A. Childe
“The green flash [348],”
English Mechanic 80, 299 (1904).

* VIOLET flash
* ". . . what we saw was a flash that was distinctly violet in colour."
* No.2067, Nov.4, 1904
* O'C #193; Fisher #25

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [373],”
English Mechanic 80, 321 (1904).

* Whitmell admits the simple explanation is not adequate:
* "Mr. Childe's question as to why the flash is often absent, though
* circumstances seem favourable to its production, is not easily answered."
* No.2068, Nov.11, 1904

“The green flash [396],”
English Mechanic 80, 340–341 (1904).

* Mostyn ("Treadle") notices the symptoms of INFERIOR MIRAGE for shipboard
* flashes (again!)
* "I used to observe that the flash was most often seen when the sun, as
* it approached the horizon, was distorted horizontally and assumed the
* appearance of a gold-fish globe or an egg on its side . . . . On the other
* hand, when the refraction was vertical --- when the sun took on the shape
* of an egg on its end . . . --- the flash was seldom if ever to be seen."
* ("Treadle" was identified as C. Mostyn by Langford in 1901.)
* No.2067, Nov.4, 1904
* Fisher #106, O'C #291

J. W. Wilkins
“The green flash [397],”
English Mechanic 80, 341 (1904).

* Wilkins proposes sunlight shining through waves (!) despite Whittle's
* July letter
* No.2067, Nov.4, 1904

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 430],”
English Mechanic 80, 366 (1904).

* Great line criticizing the "ocean waves" notion of Wilkin [sic]:
* "The horizon may be of sea, land, or cloud. Of course, this utterly
* demolishes Mr. Wilkin's explanation, which on other grounds also is quite
* untenable. Over land the flash might with equal probability be ascribed
* to waves of grass."
* No.2070, Nov.25, 1904

"W. T. N."
“The green flash [letter 431],”
English Mechanic 80, 366 (1904).

* Another put-down of Wilkins's "waves":
* "If Mr. Wilkins possessed the most elementary acquaintance with the laws
* governing the transmission of light through media of different densities,
* he would see at once that a horizontal ray of light entering a wave-shaped
* body of water would be deflected downward, and therefore could not
* possibly emerge from its opposite face to continue its original course in
* a straight line to the eye of a distant observer."
* No.2070, Nov.25, 1904

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 12, 70–73 (1904).

* Most, but not all, of Whitmell's GF letters to E.M. during 1904;
* Contains several references to other people's letters, including Childe's.

H. Schering
“Referate. Astrophysik. W. H. Julius, Le Rayon Vert,”
Physik. Zs. 6, 24 (1905).

* SCHERING refutes Julius's anomalous-dispersion theory
* See Mon.Wea.Rev.33,408-409(1905) for a translation.
* Phys.Z. strangely indexes this under "Julius" and not "Schering", which
* explains Fisher's listing it under "Julius" as his #62.
* Hartmann's long refutation of Julius's other anomalous-dispersion
* theories in A.N.4197 mistakenly gives the year as 1904.
* 1 Jan. 1905 issue
* Fisher #62 ("Julius") *and* #129 ("Schering")!

J. Möller
“Beobachtungen von Dämmerungserscheinungen, angestellt auf See,”
Ann. Hydrog. 33, 55–58 (1905).

* Mentions GF only in 1 sentence: ". . . der übrigens sehr oft, aber nicht
* immer, im letzten Moment den viel erwähnten grünen Strahl zeigte . . . ."
* Feb. issue
* Fisher #100

Wm. F. A. Ellison
“The green flash [224],”
English Mechanic 81, 155 (1905).

* telescopic JUPITER FLASH
* No. 2087, March 24, 1905
* O'C #205; Fisher #41

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 258],”
English Mechanic 81, 179 (1905).

* Whitmell's comment on Ellison's Jupiter flash
* No. 2088, March 31, 1905

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 13, 96 (1905).

* An exact reprint of Whitmell's E.M. letter [258].
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

Mr. Hardcastle
“(meeting report),”
JBAA 15, 265–267 (1905).

* Discussion of Whitmell's paper on the Sun's supposed reflection in the sea
* These two items really belong with the Ricco and Forel files, as they
* depend mainly on their work.
* "If one only occasionally watched the sun rise and set, one did not know
* what were unusual phenomena and what were not, and if one then saw an
* unusual phenomenon, one did not recognise it as such, because one did not
* know what the usual appearances were."
* ". . . it was noticeably green for a period of two seconds, not what might
* be called a flash, but lasting a sufficient time for it to be seen that it
* was green; . . . ."
* Fisher #53

C. T. Whitmell
“The Earth's rotundity proved by reflection,”
JBAA 15, 276–284 (1905).

* Whitmell's report on rotundity (cf. Forel and Ricco, whom he cites)
* ". . . I have left out of account the influence of refraction. Doubtless
* it would modify some of the results, but would not affect the general
* reasoning."
* "M. Ricco appears to have been the first to observe the contraction in
* the sun's image reflected from the sea." [but cf. Bravais, 1853!]
* Properly, this should be filed with either the Ricco or the
* Forel/Dufours file; but it is here as it logically follows Mr.
* Hardcastle's comments on green flashes (previous item).

Mr. Hardcastle (and others)
“(meeting report),”
JBAA 15, 366–367 (1905).

* Comment on oral presentation of Goodacre's paper (next item)
* and discussion by Goodacre:
* ". . . Mr. Goodacre said he always saw the flash with unaided vision,
* though he had read that it was much better seen with a binocular."
* "Mr. Hardcastle . . . would describe the duration of the flash as being
* two seconds, but, of course, a far greater amount of the sun was visible
* within two seconds of its rising than ought to be according to the
* movement of the sun. It occurred rapidly, as one saw it rising, evidently
* due to refraction, and not to the movement of the earth."
* Joseph Alfred Hardcastle was a grandson of Sir John Herschel, and worked
* as a professional astronomer (see his obits in JBAA 28, 28-29 (1917).
* and M.N. 78, 246-248 (1918).)
* Fisher #49 (listed under Goodacre); O'C #218

W. Goodacre
“The Green Flash,”
J. B. A. A. 15, 382–384 (1905).

* third mention of VARIATIONS IN DURATION and SIZE of flashes ?

[unsigned editorial]
“The green ray at sunset,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 33, 408–409 (1905).

* This is mostly a translation of Schering's Phys.Z. paper, but
* the editor has an introductory paragraph that mentions Tyndall:
* ". . . the green ray seen just as the last glimpse of the sun disappears
* below the sea horizon was originally introduced into meteorology by
* Tyndall as an evidence of the special absorptive power of the aqueous
* vapor in the lowest layer of the atmosphere." He then mentions Julius's
* paper, and Schering's review of it.
* Fisher #130

C. T. Whitmell
“The Green Flash,”
J. B. A. A. 16, 23–25 (1905).

* "If we take the horizontal refraction as 32', the factor 1/40 gives
* about 50" for the vertical length of the spectrum of a luminous point,
* such as a star or the tip of the sun when on the horizon."
* "With a telescope it is quite easy to observe, at low altitudes,
* a bluish-green fringe on the upper part of the sun's limb. The
* final development and sudden disappearance at sunset of this dispersion
* phenomenon constitute the green flash."
* Fisher #152

T. Molyneux
“The Green Flash,”
J. B. A. A. 16, 31 (1905).

* useless novice observation of sunrise GF
* Fisher #101, O'C #251

G. Napier Clark
“The green flash,”
English Mechanic and World of Science 82, 183 (1905).

* A dubious first-time observation; possible green RAY ??
* ". . . suddenly there shot out from the point where we had seen the last
* of the sun a brilliant flash like a beam of electric light.
* It appeared to flash white, blue, and green in succession . . . ."
* No. 2114, Sept.29, 1905
* Fisher #26; O'C #206? (garbled)

"A. R. H."
“The Astronomical Society of the Atlantic,”
Obs. 28, 414–418 (1905).

* Jocular account of an eclipse expedition, with passing mention of GF
* "The green flash has excited general interest, and some surprising
* observations have been made. A lady has seen a green flash extend almost
* to the zenith several minutes after the Sun went down, and it has been
* quite common to see the Sun reappear somewhat faintly, but distinctly
* green all over! It is, in fact, not quite easy to separate the real
* green flash from the effects of retinal fatigue, and the writer is not
* sure that he has ever succeeded. The last segment of the disappearing
* Sun certainly changes colour, but the result is not always a brilliant
* green. . . . it is to be wished that some observer returning from an
* eclipse could set up his instrument and get the `green flash' spectrum."
* [pp. 416-417] -- "A.R.H." may be A.R.Hinks.
* Thanks to the NASA ADS full-text search for turning this up!

J. P. Maclear
“Green flash at sunset,”
Knowledge (new series) 3, 353 (1906).

* Admiral Maclear: (has some earlier refs.)
* Apparently the Admiral sent nearly the same letter to Symons's (see below).
* Here, he says "stars"; there, "planet". There are other minor changes.
* Prof. W.M.Davis's "Elementary Meteorology" cited (p.50).
* The full title is "Knowledge & Illustrated Scientific News"
* conducted by Major B. Baden-Powell and E.S. Grew, M.A.
* (N.B.: this "volume" *begins* on p.315, though it spans a calendar year.)
* O'C #234

J. H. Worthington
“The green flash at sunset,”
Knowledge (new series) 3, 376 (1906).

* replies to Admiral Maclear (March issue)
* Many interesting observations described, including a sunset with
* multiple flashes. One observation notes the red lower limb.
* "I have seen the green, or rather many-coloured flash also behind the
* mountains at sunset in Egypt; but it is neither so clear nor of such long
* duration when seen over land as at sea."
* Evidence of ADAPTATION:
* "At first the whole of the visible portion of the disc of the sun
* turned intense fiery red. Then when a little more than half the disc
* had disappeared it changed to yellow."
* Good color description:
* "Then when the sun is almost down the whole visible part became greenish
* with violet flashes. Then the rest of the disc becomes a line with deep
* violet at each end, blue next to the violet, and green in the middle parts
* of the line."
* ". . . the altitude above sea level about 55 feet; weather calm, light
* S.W. wind . . . ."
* "I used no dark glass on the telescope."
* Full title: Knowledge and Scientific News (March, 1906)

C. Mostyn
“The green flash at sunset,”
Knowledge (new series) 3, 376–377 (1906).

* CHARLES MOSTYN again -- an experienced and careful observer.
* ". . . in a favorable display . . . the `flash' changes rapidly from green
* to blue and violet . . . ."
* SUNRISE better than sunset:
* ". . . far the finest view of the `green flash' is to be obtained,
* according to my experience, oft repeated, at sunrise . . . ."
* "And the horizon is more apt to be clear and sharp at sunrise than at
* sunset, while the brilliance of the flash to the un-tired eye is
* magnificent."
* "Also, the best shows were when the sun, on the horizon, was much
* distorted by refraction."
* [cf. his E.M. letter where this is made explicit.]

J. P. Maclear
“Green flash at sunset,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 32, 67 (1906).

* Admiral Maclear: (has several earlier refs.)
* "The phenomenon is frequently observed, but very little has been
* published about it. . . ."
* [The Editor follows with a quote of the MWR Sept. 1905 paper, which
* mentions Tyndall. This quote continues on the next page.]
* Fisher #81

J. P. Maclear
“Green flash at sunset,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 40, 227 (1906).

* CAREFUL about Symons's dates: last issue of each volume (ca. p.210ff.)
* was always in Jan. of following year!
* Admiral Maclear: (has some earlier refs.)
* ". . . it is stated that after sunset every solar beam will be broken up
* into a short vertical spectrum; is this the explanation? if so why should
* the last flash be green? . . . I would like to see that matter worked out."
* Fisher #82

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“Green flash at sunset,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 11 (1906).

* R.C.CANN LIPPINCOTT's crusade for afterimages begins!
* Fisher #75

G. H. Courtenay
“Green flash at sunset,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 11 (1906).

* R.C.CANN LIPPINCOTT contradicted by Major George H.Courtenay
* N.B.: the 1854 date is VERY EARLY !
* "I saw it continually on my way from Tasmania, in 1854, in the South
* Pacific. But then it occurred at sunrise . I used to get up to
* observe it morning after morning."
* "[Major Courtenay's observation of the green ray at sunrise . . . seems to
* dispose of Mr. Lippincott's argument that the appearance is due to fatigue
* of the eye . . . , a suggestion often made before seeing the phenomenon but
* rarely upheld by one who has actually observed it. -- Ed. S.M.M.]
* NOTE that this is a VERY EARLY OBSERVATION, before Joule!
* Fisher #31

E. E. Markwick
[letter 40]
English Mechanic 83, 36 (1906).

* Col. Markwick reports a small naked-eye flash
* This is only the last paragraph of a long letter mainly on other topics
* No. 2134, Feb. 16, 1906
* Fisher #85

A. A. Rambaut
“The green flash on the horizon,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 21–23, 41–45 (1906).

* N.B.: cites *nothing* but English journals!
* Dr. Arthur A. Rambaut, F.R.S.; earliest refs. are to Nature in 1883.
* Rambaut had been Radcliffe Observer since 1897.
* first mention of violet as complement to yellow?
* "It was then quite unmistakable, and those who are so fortunate as to
* see it, as I and several of my fellow-passengers on the Durham Castle
* did on that occasion, will not, I think, retain any lingering doubts
* as to the objective character of the phenomenon."
* Another independent inventor of the OCCULTING DIAPHRAGM!
* "This is an observation by which any possessor of a telescope can easily
* satisfy himself that the flashes are due to atmospheric dispersion of
* light, and is at least less expensive than building a Wesleyan Chapel
* with horizontal openings in the belfry." (cf. Whitmell's RF paper.)
* The curious figure purporting to show how the textbook flash is formed
* contains only red, yellow and blue -- suggesting that Rambaut made
* the common error of thinking that blue + yellow makes green.
* Fisher #122 and #123

R. C. Cann-Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 29 (1906).

* Cann-Lippincott again insists on afterimages, even at sunrise!

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“Green flash,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 32, 159 (1906).

* Lippincott pursues the same line in QJRMS
* This letter is dated March 24, 1906.
* Fisher #73

I. F. H. Gregg
“The green ray [query 488],”
English Mechanic 83, 206 (1906).

* Gregg starts a round by inquiring about the green ray's visibility
* No. 2141, April 6, 1906

H. P. Hollis
“The green ray [247],”
English Mechanic 83, 221 (1906).

* H.P.Hollis replies to Gregg, citing Rambaut's first installment.
* Note: this heading is a sub-head of a long letter of many parts; the
* general heading is "Magnitude of the fixed stars".
* No. 2142, April 13, 1906

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [488],”
English Mechanic 83, 227 (1906).

* Whitmell replies to Gregg, and cites papers in Leeds Astr.Soc.
* No. 2142, April 13, 1906

D. Wilson-Barker
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 67 (1906).

* Variability. . .
* "It should be noted that the green ray . . . is not always seen even when
* the sun sets at sea on a perfectly clear horizon."
* Fisher #7

“The green flash in fiction,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 68–70 (1906).

* Unsigned editorial by H.R.Mill, with a synopsis of Verne's story
* "We have seen it only a dozen times in twenty years. . . ."
* Mill seems to believe the "old Highland legend".
* Cited with title in Kimball's "Recent Papers," MWR 34, 219 (May 1906)
* Fisher #97 and 98

C. Michie Smith
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 91 (1906).

* GREEN RAY observation
* "The common `green,' or as I would rather call it `blue' flash which I
* have seen, perhaps a hundred times, is undoubtedly caused in the way
* described by Dr. Rambaut, but there is another phenomenon which I have
* seen on a few occasions, which is almost as certainly caused by
* atmospheric absorption. In it the upper part of the sun's disc when
* setting becomes a vivid green for several seconds before disappearing,
* and in the light then given objects of a green colour appear with
* extraordinary vividness. Probably closely allied with this phenomenon
* is one which I have seen here on two or three occasions, when the whole
* sky became filled at sunset with what seemed to be a green mist, which
* produced the most lurid effects." ("here" = Kodaikanal)
* Fisher #137

G. H. Courtenay
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 91 (1906).

* (mostly useless)
* Fisher #32

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 91 (1906).

* first ref. to Mrs. Steel
* "As another example of the mention of the Green Ray in fiction, I may
* instance Mrs. F. A. Steel's novel, `Red Rowans.'"

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 92 (1906).

* LIPPINCOTT refuses to give up!
* Fisher #76

A. Carpenter
“The green flash,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 32, 232–233 (1906).

* Capt. Carpenter replies to Lippincott in QJ, who responds (next item)
* "The extraordinary explanation of the above . . . by Mr. R. C. Cann
* Lippincott, needs some correction. . . . a complementary coloured spot will
* only fade away slowly, whereas the green flash is momentary, seldom
* exceeding 1 1/2 seconds."
* This is in the July issue.

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 32, 233 (1906).

* Lippincott responds to Carpenter with nonsense

G. Napier Clark
“Atmospheric conditions and the green flash [628],”
English Mechanic 83, 529–530 (1906).

* Another report from Southport !
* This seems to be associated with looming; needs to be investigated.
* Cites his earlier report in E.M.No. 2114, p.183.
* No. 2155, July 13, 1906
* Fisher #27

R. C. C. Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 32, 287–288 (1906).

* Lippincott again
* This is a further reply to Capt. Carpenter's letter in the July issue.
* Fisher #74

A. Thurburn
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 150–151 (1906).

* ramblings about particulate EXTINCTION and IRRADIATION
* "[. . . the question of the infrequency of the phenomenon is an
* interesting one, on which, perhaps, more can be said. -- Ed. S.M.M.]"

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 189–190 (1906).

* "The duration may be largely affected by the observer's latitude and the
* extent by the refractive condition of the air."
* Fisher #153

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 190 (1906).

* "I cannot believe that the phenomenon has ever been seen, unless the red
* edge or red colour or red ray of the rising or setting sun has been first
* seen above the horizon."

J. G. McKendrick
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 209 (1906).

* A "convert to the physical theory" testifies for Rambaut
* Fisher #80

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 209–210 (1906).

* Whitmell sees a a red flash below cloud

A. Thurburn
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 210 (1906).

* (Alex.Thurburn is still confused)

W. Lloyd Fox
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 234 (1907).

* Varying width of green rim (N.B.: now Jan.1907)
* Fisher #46

R. Radau
“l'Astronomie au Mont-Blanc,”
Revue des Deux Mondes (5. Pér.), Vol. 37, No. 4, 876–892 (1907).

* Hansky's sunrise flash of Sept. 4, 1900, reprinted by Rodolphe Radau
*      The GF report is an extract of Hansky's report in Janssen's Note on
* his Mont Blanc observatory in the 1901 Annuaire.
*      An English translation of this item appeared in the Annual Report of
* the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution, for the year ending
* June 30, 1906 [GPO, Washington, DC (1907]). Unfortunately, Radau's
* initial appears there as "H.", not "R." This error was then propagated
* by the Nov. 23, 1907, supplement to "Scientific American", which abstracted
* the English translations of this and earlier Radau articles on Janssen,
* omitting Hansky's GF observation.
*      Rodolphe Radau spent much of his life working at "Revue des Deux
* Mondes". He was part of the German community in Prussia, but moved to
* Paris after studying math and astronomy at Königsberg.

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 41, 234–237 (1907).

* The Editor's patience is exhausted! LIPPINCOTT's last gasp
* Note the Editor's sermon at the end!
* Fisher #77

A. Guébhard
“Sur l'interprétation de certains faits de vision colorée,”
C. R. 144, 223–225 (1907).

* Adrien Guébhard won't admit defeat, and gets in another lick:
* "Quant au prétendu météore du rayon vert , il n'a pas davantage
* d'existence colorée objective : c'est la simple ombre portée,
* au milieu du crépuscule rouge, d'une pointe se détachant sur
* le disque solaire à sa disparition . . . ."
* This article is mostly about color perception; only 1 paragraph on GF.

J. Offord
“The green tints of sunset,”
Nature 75, 342 (1907).

* NOT a green flash -- completely PHONY description.
* "As the sun there [Egypt] descends nearer and nearer to the horizon,
* apparently hastening to disappear behind one of the Libyan hills, as if
* burying itself in the sand at their base, the immensely enlarged flaming
* disc suddenly becomes, for an instant, of a brilliant green colour, and
* immediately a series of green rays suffuses the sky in many directions,
* well-nigh to the zenith." (All a fantasy; certainly not seen.)
* Fisher #109, O'C #98

J. Offord
“The green tints of sunset,”
English Mechanic 85, 34 (1907).

* Joseph Offord's awful paper reprinted in E.M.
* No.2186, Feb.15, 1907
* Fisher #110

J. Kater
“De Groene Straal bij op- en ondergang der zon,”
Hemel en Dampkring 4, 170–171 (1907).

* an account of Nijland's A.N. paper; first mention of GF in H&D?
* exact citation is vol.4, no.2, Maart 1907
* Thanks to Ernst Raimond for a copy of this!

F. B. Allison
“Sundial and G.M.T. [letter 532],”
English Mechanic 85, 494 (1907).

* The second half of this letter concerns a TELESCOPIC green flash
* "In watching the sun set to-night beneath a land horizon, through a
* small telescope without eye-screen . . . it was evident that this green
* border was the more refrangible part of a spectrum ."
* [Looks like No. 2203 or 2205 -- can't read date on photocopy: June ?]

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 576],”
English Mechanic 85, No. 2206, (1907).

* Whitmell's GF letter to E.M. published on 5 July 1907;
* refers to Allison's letter, p.494
* Whitmell discuses the prolongation of a flash at the Arctic Circle,
* calculating 12 minutes (6 each before and after midnight).
* "For such a duration the word `flash' seems scarcely suitable; but the
* disadvantage of the word `ray' lies in the fact that it conveys to many
* persons the impression that a long green streamer is seen shooting up
* towards the zenith. This is unfortunate, as observers are led to look
* for something which never occurs as part of the green flash, properly
* understood."

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 576],”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 15, 67–68 (1907).

* Reprint of Whitmell's GF letter to E.M., 5 July 1907;
* refers to Allison's letter, p.494
* Fisher #154; not read (hence the error in journal name)

W. Krebs
“Strahlungen zur Zeit gesteigerter Sonnentätigkeit. I. Die grüne Strahlung der auf- oder untergehenden Sonne.,”
Das Weltall 7, 313–314 (1907).

* He thinks a GF is a SOLAR PROMINENCE
* He sees flashes with 10x telescope; but thinks the last previous
* observations were those of Exner in 1902 and Dorn in 1903.
* "Vermutlich ist er veranlaßt durch aufflammende Gasausbrüche am
* Sonnenrande, sogen. Protuberanzen besonderer Art." At sunrise,
* "Grüne Randerscheinungen konnte ich . . . mehrmals feststellen.
* . . . Es handelte sich dabei um eine ganze Korona grünlicher Flammen, die
* sich auf je etwa 30 Grad heliographischer Breite nördlich und südlich
* (im Sonnenbild links und rechts) vom Sonnenäquator aus erstreckten."
* (The continuation of the article on p. 329 is about ordinary solar
* activity.)
* Aug.1, 1907 issue

E. E. Markwick
“Signs of the sky – IV,”
English Mechanic 86, 27–28 (1907).

* Col. Markwick's review of atmospheric optics
* One long paragraph here devoted to the GF: ". . . the sight of it is
* decidedly rare, and should be treasured up in the memory afterwards."
* "It generally lasts about a couple of seconds, and the change of colour
* is most impressive. A binocular vastly assists the eye in the observation
* of the phenomenon, which is doubtless due to atmospheric dispersion . . . ."
* No.2212, Aug. 16, 1907

J. Hartmann
“Über die Erklärung astrophysikalischer Beobachtungen durch anomale Dispersion,”
A. N. 175, Nr. 4197, 341–368 (1907).

* HARTMANN's refutation of Julius's wild applications of anomalous
* dispersion to everything in sight. He cites Schering's 1904
* refutation of the GF model.
* This item is followed by a letter from the infamous H.H.Kritzinger!

F. B. Allison
[letter 284]
English Mechanic 86, 237 (1907).

* Allison's letter, describing the MOCK MIRAGE phenomena
* "It was curious to note how the refraction of the air caused both
* notches and projections to appear upon the limbs -- especially the upper
* one -- which notches and projections remained permanent for one or two
* minutes. Sometimes two notches would approach one another, and finally
* cut off, apparently, a piece of the luminous disc which floated above the
* rest of the sun. . . . the uppermost part of the projections on the upper
* limb continually shot out green flakes . . . ."
* No.2221, Oct.18, 1907

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash and the red,”
English Mechanic 86, 264 (1907).

* Whitmell confirms what Allison's letter, p.237, reports
* Whitmell recommends using a telescope to see the green and red "flames".
* No.2222, Oct.25, 1907

W. N. Groff
Oeuvres Égyptologiques de William N. Groff, publiées par sa soeur avec l'aide de G. Maspero
(Ernst Leroux, Paris, 1908).

* GROFF's works reprinted
* The GF papers are on pp. 171-180, 190-196, 221-224, 225-227, 249-258 and
* 258-272. The biographical note is in pp. I-IV.

M. Hall
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 42, 235 (1908).

* use of PINHOLE to attenuate the Sun
* Maxwell Hall
* Fisher #52

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 43, 154 (1908).

* our "last glimpse" of R.C.CANN LIPPINCOTT !
* "I am convinced that the so-called `green flash' is the after-image or
* visionary image of the impression produced on the retina by the last rays
* of the setting, or by the first rays of the rising sun, seen in the
* complementary blue-green colour."
* (Letter dated 10 Feb. 1908)

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Yorkshire Post , 5 (26 March, 1908).

* Whitmell relays an observation by Ivo Gregg in Egypt
* ". . . where he has been staying with Professor Flinders Petrie."
* ". . . in the Libyan desert, near Wadi Halfa, he saw, with the naked
* eye, at sunset, the Green Flash, a phenomenon for which I had asked him
* to look out. Just as the solar disc disappeared, its tip assumed a fine
* green colour."
* As Whitmell asked Gregg to observe, this might be the cause of Petrie's
* 1914 report?

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 16, 49 (1908).

* The same item, reprinted in the Leeds Trans.
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

R. DeC. Ward
“Notes on weather and climate made during a summer trip to Brazil, 1908,”
Mon. Wea. Rev. 36, 333–339 (1908).

* 2 minor mentions of GF observations in a long article on other matters
* Prof. Ward calls it "the `green ray'" (in quotes) on pp. 335 & 339.
* Oct. issue.
* Fisher #145

D. Roguet
BSAF 23, 21 (1909).

* green rim + green flash
* O'C #271

R. C. Cann Lippincott
“The green flash,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 35, 50 (1909).

* R.C.Cann Lippincott sees something at last: GF or Cornsweet effect?
* Fisher #78

F. C. Lees
“The green flash,”
JBAA 19, 354 (1909).

* ORANGE LINE becomes GREEN BAND at Southport !
* "The disc was much distorted as it sank; for the last 30 seconds or so
* it seemed an unvarying bright orange line; then the orange simply faded
* and all but disappeared. I was just about to register one more failure
* when a distinct and bright green band took the position and apparent size
* of the orange of about 20 seconds previously; it continued for perhaps
* seven seconds and then gradually faded away."
* Fisher #70

Prof. Flöckher
“Eine Beobachtung des grünen Sonnenstrahles,”
Mitt. Vereinigung von Freunden der Astronomie und Kosmischen Physik 19, 125 (1909).

* GF with inf.mirage, 10. August 1909 at Zandvoort
* ". . . ein Spiegelbild auf der Meeresfläche entstand. Nur ungefähr eine
* Sekunde vor dem völligen Verschwinden   w u r d e   d a s   l e t z t e
* s e g m e n t   d e r   S o n n e   g l e i c h z e i t i g   m i t   d e m
* S p i e g e l b i l d e   grün."
* Not certain about details, "da mir die Erscheinung neu war und mich zu
* sehr überraschte." (typical BEGINNER'S REACTION)
* Also a good story about the "junge Dame": "Im Augenblick, als die Sonne
* verschwunden war, wandelte sie sich mit dem Ausdruck höchsten
* Erstaunens zu mir und sprach nur das eine Wort: grün!"

E. Hawks
“The green flash [letter 70],”
English Mechanic 90, 67 (1909).

* Ellison Hawks reports a 6-second flash, "peacock blue" at end
* Fisher has "Hawkes" in error, and F.K. does too.
* No. 2317, Aug. 20, 1909
* Fisher #54

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 98],”
English Mechanic 90, 95 (1909).

* Whitmell asks for an explanation of "the rarity of the flash although
* circumstances are apparently quite favourable for its appearance."
* "I have seen the green flash at least a score of times, but failures
* have outnumbered successes.
*      "The difficulty of the problem is enhanced by the fact that a
* telescope directed to a low sun in a clear sky invariably exhibits
* atmospheric dispersion, the upper limb being fringed with bluish-green,
* the lower with orange-red, and the green flash is simply the ultimate
* development of the former colour upon the tip of the setting sun."
* No. 2318, Aug. 27, 1909

E. Hawks
“The green flash,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 17, 50 (1909).

* Reprints of the two E.M. letters by Hawks and Whitmell
* Hawks letter [70] dated Aug. 14, 1909
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 17, 50 (1909).

* Reprints of the two E.M. letters by Hawks and Whitmell
* Whitmell letter [98] dated Aug. 27, 1909
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

A. Miethe
Prometheus (Berlin) 20, 737–740 (1909).

* pompous presentation of GF in a description of twilight phenomena
* must be # 1035, from F.K.'s citation
* O'C #90 -- there is a second installment on pp. 753-756, he says.

R. C. Lippincott
“The green flash [letter 204],”
English Mechanic 90, 188 (1909).

* LIPPINCOTT vs. WHITMELL in E.M. (1909)
* "R. Claude Lippincott" sees a green flash at last; but maintains it is
* due to "simultaneous physiological contrast".
* No. 2322, Sept. 24, 1909
* Fisher #79

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 238],”
English Mechanic 90, 211 (1909).

* Whitmell replies to Lippincott:
* No. 2323, Oct. 1, 1909

R. C. C. Lippincott
“The green flash [letter 305],”
English Mechanic 90, 261 (1909).

* Lippincott augments his description, asserting "simultaneous contrast".
* No. 2325, Oct. 15, 1909

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 324],”
English Mechanic 90, 283 (1909).

* Whitmell replies to Lippincott:
* No. 2326, Oct. 22, 1909

R. C. C. Lippincott
“The green flash [letter 385],”
English Mechanic 90, 332 (1909).

* Cann Lippincott has his final say in E.M., shooting himself in the foot
* as he does so:
* "With reference to Mr. Whitmell's suggestion that I should study the
* appearance of the sun through a telescope when it is low or setting, I may
* remark that the telescope would introduce a new condition, which would
* produce a modification of the natural phenomenon. My present residence
* is not well situated for observations of either sunrise or sunset, because
* it is surrounded by hills on which there are trees, which interfere with
* the view of the sun about the time of sunrise or sunset."
* No. 2328, Nov.5, 1909

[meeting report]
“Adunanza ordinaria del 14 Maggio [1907],”
Atti della Società dei Naturalisti e Matematici di Modena , series 4, 12, 75 (1910).

* CARLO BONACINI's early GF credential
* Short abstract of a paper presented in 1907: he saw the red and green
* rims, and realized that they should be attributed to atmospheric
* dispersion; and "that to this is connected, at least in part, the noted
* and discussed phenomenon of the `green ray'."

E. Andersson
[review of Groff's "Oeuvres égyptologiques"]
Sphinx 13, 25–31 (1910).

* Review of Groff's collected works
* Probably this belongs in the "biographies" file, but is included here
* for Ernst Andersson's comments on Groff's GF work: ". . . une série
* d'études très intéressantes." He seems to think it Groff's best work,
* and quotes at some length from Groff's conclusions.
* MANY THANKS to Orell Witthuber, Fachgebiet Aegyptologie der
* Philipps-Universität (Marburg, Germany) for providing this useful
* reference!

S. P. Thompson
“The Life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs,” in Vol.II
(Macmillan, London, 1910), p. 1147.

* LORD KELVIN's first GF
* ". . . the first time I saw it, it passed quickly from white through green,
* to intense violet. The sun was very clear, with very little of the
* redness which we generally see at sunset." That was in 1896, before the
* sunrise flash of 1899.
* (See next 2 papers for discussion.)
* Fisher #65, O'C #70

E. A. Childe
“The green ray,”
JBAA 20, 321 (1910).

* little more info from Silvanus P. Thompson; comments on violet
* Fisher #24

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
JBAA 20, 383 (1910).

* Whitmell quotes most of Kelvin's Nature paper; further comments on violet

E. Carthaus
“Über seltsame optische Phänomene im Hochgebirge von Java,”
Weltall 10, 245–248 (1910).

* Described in part of one paragraph on p.246
* This is mostly about other weather phenomena, esp. anti-crepuscular rays.
* "Hochgebiete" turns out to be 1500-2000 m.
* Full title: Das Weltall, Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Astronomie und
* verwandte Gebiete, herausgegeben von Dr. F.S.Archenhold, Direktor der
* Treptow-Sternwarte

G. H. Baines
“The `green flash' at sunset,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 45, 53 (1910).

* ". . . about ten (or less) seconds after it had disappeared a bright green
* single flash, just like a railway signal lamp, but brighter far, met our
* view. . . "
* Fisher #5

H. R. Mill
“Three green rays in one sunset,”
Symons's Met. Mag. 45, 102–103 (1910).

* 3 GFs on an island horizon
* ". . . the reputed rareness . . . is a striking proof of the unobservant
* habits of most people."
* error: "Whitmill" for Whitmell
* Fisher #99

W. Krebs
“Seltene Erscheinungen auf der Sonne. Grüne Strahlung und chromosphärisches Netz,”
Phys. Z. 11, 645–648 (1910).

* KREBS's crank connection of green rims with solar activity
* ". . . eine grüne Umrandung besonders des Ostrandes der untergehenden
* Sonne . . .      der Westrand, solange es sichtbar war, gewöhnlich nicht die
* gleiche Erscheinung erkennen ließ." He seems to have used the low
* Sun simply to make use of the atmospheric extinction to render it
* observable in a 3-inch telescope. The reappearance of an active
* region "am Ostrande der Sonne war . . . begleitet von ausgeprägter
* grüner Strahlung. Besonders deutlich trat sie auf bei dem ersten
* Akte des Sonnenunterganges hinter einer 3° hohen bleigrauen Bank.
* Diese erwies sich in der Folge als der total reflektierende Teil einer
* Sprungfläche der Atmosphäre. Denn unterhalb des etwa gradbreiten
* dunklen Bandes, hinter dem die Sonne verschwunden war, trat sie wieder
* hervor. Doch war die Scheibe erheblich breiter und kirschrot statt, wie
* vorher, orangefarbig.  . . .      die grüne Berandung stellt sich vor und
* nach dem Passieren des dunklen Bandes, das sein Auftreten der
* Totalreflexion verdankte, am natürlichen Ostrande der Sonne ein, während
* sie an dem künstlich von diesem Bande geschnitteten Ostrande ausblieb."
* Nov. issue.

A. Kühl
“Optische Erscheinungen in der Atmosphäre. Der grüne Sonnenstrahl,”
Jahrb. Astron. Geophys. (1910) 21, 345–347 (1911).

* Kühl's "Nachbilderscheinung" with nice colored plate (Tafel V)
* He starts off by quoting Flöckher's account in full, and argues
* (correctly) that the green rim is too narrow and faint to be visible:
* ". . . durch die Absorption der Atmosphäre . . . muß schon der Farbrand
* wegen des Auseinanderziehens der Spektrum erheblich lichtschwächer
* als das Sonnenbild erscheinen und erleidet zudem eine vom Gelb zum Blau
* wachsende Absorption. Schon aus diesem Grunde scheint es zweifelhaft, ob
* die Dispersion die auffällige Erscheinung des grünen Strahles erklären
* kann." [A nice prefiguring of Dietze's quantitative demonstration!]
* But, strangely, ". . . der grüne Strahl, wenn er objektiv vorhanden
* wäre, doch leicht in einem Fernrohre bei niedrigem Sonnenstande . . . in
* Erscheinung treten müßte --- was nie beobachtet ist."
* So he knows nothing of Winstanley, Rambaut, Whitmell, etc.
* Finally, he admits that, in choosing between the two explanations, "Man
* könnte z. B. auch an eine Kombination beider denken, derart, daß die
* Nachbilderscheinung durch einen schwachen vorhandenen Farbring noch
* verstärkt erscheint." Which comes pretty close to the truth.
* His reference to p.56 of Arrhenius's "Kosm.Physik" makes no sense.
* Note that the date is 1910, but the actual publication date is 1911

T. B. Blathwayt
“Optical [reply to query 488],”
English Mechanic 93, 409 (1911).

* Blathwayt's DEMONSTRATION of GF
* About the middle third of this long paragraph deals with GF:
* "I find you can imitate it well by holding a little above your eye, and
* between it and a candle, an ordinary hand magnifying-glass, in such a way
* that the candle rays strike it at a very great angle on the upper surface
* of the glass. This produces two or three discs of light, and if you then
* turn the glass so that it lies nearly edge-on to the candle, the discs
* disappear, and at the instant of vanishing the last rays are all green."
* He also has the screwey notion that "in the usual condition of weather
* the various layers of air are of very different refractive powers, and
* thus act as a compound lens, and are free from colour." [!]
* But (maybe from dumb luck), he also says, "Perhaps it depends also on
* the height one is above the sea-level."
* Theodore B. Blathwayt was a noted discoverer and observer of comets;
* see his brief obituary in JBAA 45, 249 (1935)
* No. 2410, June 2, 1911

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash [letter 481],”
English Mechanic 93, 432 (1911).

* Whitmell corrects Blathwayt's notion that the sea acts as a lens; adding,
* ". . . the sea horizon, being more definite, is apparently more favourable.
* It is possible also that the condition of the air over a water surface may
* be more favourable."
* No. 2411, June 9, 1911
* Fisher #155

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash and the earth's shadow,”
Yorkshire Post , 9 (July 24, 1911).

* Whitmell reports a CLOUD-TOP flash
* "This is the celebrated Green Flash, so often looked for, but, for some
* mysterious reason, so seldom seen."
* (Letter dated 22 July 1911, published on Monday the 24th.)
* The previous page contains a note on "The Intense Heat", reporting that
* "Temperatures of over 90 degrees in the shade were recorded at several
* places in England on Saturday [i.e., the day of Whitmell's observation].
* Saturday was the tenth day during July on which the general level of
* shade temperature has been above 80 degrees, and the 23rd day in
* succession on which no rain fell on London."
* The letter following Whitmell's is amusing. . .

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash and the earth's shadow,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 19, 51 (1911).

* Whitmell reports a CLOUD-TOP flash
* "This is the celebrated Green Flash, so often looked for, but, for some
* mysterious reason, so seldom seen."
* (Letter dated 22 July 1911)
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash, 1911,”
Leeds Astron. Soc. Journal & Trans. 19, 51 (1911).

* Whitmell's scoreboard for 1911
* Useful for magnifications: "Binocular 9, Opera Glass 3".
* "Of 13 observations, only four . . . were satisfactory."
* The last observation was Sept. 6.
* Thanks to Ray Emery for supplying this!

E. E. Markwick
[letter 250]
English Mechanic 94, 186 (1911).

* Col. Markwick comments on his Mediterranean cruise:
* "This appears quite well known to many naval officers, one of whom
* called it the ``green spot.'' He had been acquainted with it for years."
* Only the 2nd paragraph of this long letter is headed "The Green Flash".
* No. 2426, Sept.22, 1911
* Fisher #86

T. B. Blathwayt
[letter 360]
English Mechanic 94, 278 (1911).

* Blathwayt thanks Whitmell, and adds, "I saw a brilliant Prussian-blue
* flash some time ago."
* Only the first short paragraph of this long letter deals with GF.
* No. 2430, Oct.20, 1911
* Fisher #9

E. E. Markwick
[letter 796]
English Mechanic 94, 582 (1912).

* Not a GF observation, but relevant comment on CONTRAST EFFECTS:
* "Gold, orange, and carmine were the prevailing hues . . . ."
* "The street lamps looked quite green by contrast with the sky."
* (properly, this belongs in the Vision File, but is here as an observation.)
* No. 2443, 19 Jan. 1912 (note change of year near end of even-numbered
* volumes!)

BSAF 26, 9 (1912).

* Brief account of paper presented at meeting of 6 Dec. 1911
* "M.Monte . . . présente une étude sur le rayon vert. Il en a recherché
* l'explication dans de nombreux ouvrages, où l'on avance, parfois, des
* hypothèses invraisemblables, et montre que l'explication par la
* dispersion atmosphérique seule rend un compte exact du phénomène."

Dr. B(raak)
[De groene straal]
De Natuur 32, 160 (1912).

* Braak replies to an earlier question from "G.L.T. te A."
* cites the article in H&D 4, Maart 1904.
* "I have read" the standard explanation, but can't judge its worth.

J. W. Scholes
Nature 89, 351 (1912).

* BEADS again
* "About one or two seconds after the sun had set, Mr. Scholes noticed
* some ``blue-beads'' above the point where the rim had been; these remained
* visible for two or three seconds, and the green flash was seen when they
* disappeared." Could that have been a GREEN RAY?
* (This item is next to Wilbur Wright's obituary in the previous column.)
* Fisher #133

A. Carpenter
[account of meeting of the B.A.A.]
Observatory 35, 264–265 (1912).

* Captain Carpenter's presentation at B.A.A. reported

A. Carpenter
“The green flash at sunrise or sunset,”
J. B. A. A. 22, 372–378 (1912).

* SYSTEMATIC SUNRISE OBSERVATIONS at Taormina, Sicily, 700 ft above sea
* Capt. Alfred Carpenter, R.N., D.S.O. (see Who's Who)
* "I observed every sunrise except four from the 10th December 1911 to
* the 14th March 1912. . . . Out of 91 mornings' observations the
* phenomenon of the Green Flash was observed on 21 occasions. Of the
* other 70 days about 45 sunrises were hidden by clouds low down on the
* horizon or by rain, and on the other 25 mornings, owing to mist or dust,
* the Sun rose out of the water a dull red, or gold, or white."
* ". . . I feel confident that, with a horizon clear of cloud or mist, the
* Sun will always show the Blue-green Flash on rising."
* "The prevailing wind was . . . blowing off shore."
* (These seem to be mostly inferior-mirage flashes, despite the altitude.)
* O'C #12
* Fisher #12

A. Carpenter
“The green flash at sunrise and sunset,”
Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 38, 236 (1912).

* summary of Carpenter's JBAA paper, citing Rambaut's 1906 review as motive;
* possibly this is what incited Lippincott's 1913 return in QJRMS?
* Fisher #13

C. T. Whitmell
“The green flash,”
JBAA 22, 433–434 (1912).

* useful lists of earlier refs. in JBAA
* O'C #297

(unsigned editorial)
“The ``Green Flash'',”
Scientific American Supplement 74, 139 (1912).

* Second-hand review of Kühl's paper and Rambaut's review
* Ram