Alphabetical Index

Note: Italicized links lead to the Glossary; boldface links lead to the bibliography, and will take a while to load, as it's about 2 megabytes. To see why I am trying this system, see the discussion of typographical conventions.

For a more organized guide to these Web pages, see the overview page or the contents page. If you can't find what you are looking for, please let me know.


A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

A

accuracy of sunset predictions

acknowledgments

Adams, J. C.

ADSL on Debian

advice on observing green flashes

aerosol effects on colors of inferior-mirage and mock-mirage flashes

afterimages and green flashes:
explanation refuted by Mulder
detailed explanation of actual visual effects

air, refractivity and dispersion of

airmass

Airy, G. B.

aliases of journals

altitudes of distant objects

angular units

animations of green flashes

Arago: (many bibliography entries; start with his paper with Biot)

artifacts in pictures

astronomical refraction (see also the refraction physics page).

atoptics website

avoiding eye injury in observing green flashes

award from the Griffith Observatory (follow their “Star Awards” link, and look for March 12-18, 2000)

B

Banat, the

basename replacement

bash scripting tricks

bending of refracted rays in air

bibliography:
introduction to
full bibliography (over 2 MB, so slow to load!)

bilingual spell-checking

binoculars

Biot, J. B.:
adventures in Spain with Arago
astronomy textbook
dispute with Faye about the use of terrestrial refraction measurements
magnification theorem
mirage monograph
papers on refraction theory (see the Connaissance des Tems paper for full details)

blank strips, Wegener's

bleaching, retinal

blindness, Galileo's

blinking pairs of simulations

blue flashes:
examples and interpretation of color

blue sky:
simple and more technical explanations

blurring and un-blurring scanned images

books about the green flash

browser problems with animations

BSAF history

C

calculator for altitudes of distant objects

calculating time of sunset

calculation of refraction

calibration images for laser printers

case conversions in bash scripts

Cassini's refraction model derived

Cassini's model, errors near the horizon

centesimal angular measure

Challis, James

circulating rays [cf. Kummer]

classification of . . .
green flashes
mirages
refraction phenomena

Clemence-Smiley (1950) fight

color explained simply

color explained technically

color-blindness and green flashes

color rendition on monitors

colors of green flashes explained; see also the real and simulated inferior-mirage and mock-mirage examples

common misconceptions about . . .
green flashes
mirages

contacting the maintainer of this site

contents, tables of

converting PS to other file formats

cookie problems

correcting mistakes here

Cowley, Les

crepuscular rays

curvature of refracted rays in air

D

debian pages

derivation of . . .
Cassini's refraction model
the differential of refraction
the refractive invariant

Dietze's GF paper

diffraction

digital halftoning

Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) on Debian

dip calculator

the dip diagram

dip of the horizon

dirname replacement

discovery of . . .
atmospheric dispersion
the law of refraction

dispersion

dispersion and refractivity of air

dispersion at a prism face

distance effects in:
mirages in general;
simulated inferior mirages,
in both ordinary and ducted mock mirages, and
superior mirage models, with discontinuous, zigzag, and realistic temperature profiles

distance to the horizon

dot-overlap problems in laser printing

ducts:
and ducted mock mirage simulations
and superior mirages
effects on sunsets
in general (with raytraces)

E

e-mail address of the maintainer

earliest . . .
observation of a GF
scientific paper on GFs
photographs of green flashes

engravings, how to reproduce

errata:
in Feenstra Kuiper's references
in Fisher's references
in Minnaert's references
in Mulder's book
in O'Connell's references

errors in this website

Evershed, John
suggests mirages as cause of green flashes

explanations of green flashes:
detailed explanations, type by type
general explanation page
other explanations on the Web

extinction, atmospheric:
elementary description
technical exposition

extinction effects on colors of
inferior-mirage and
mock-mirage flashes

extinction theorem, Laplace's

eye height effects in mirage simulations

eye safety at sunset

F

fallacies about green flashes

Fata Morgana mirages

Fechner, Gustav Theodor

Feenstra Kuiper, Pieter:
thesis on GFs
story about

figure conversions:
PS to EPS
PS to PNG
to and from other graphics formats

figure placement in LaTeX

firsts:
first mirage photograph
first photographs of green flashes
first published account of a GF
first red flash observed
first scientific paper on green flashes, and how it was found
first review article on green flashes

Fisher, Willard J.:
Type A and B sunsets described
GF review article

flat-Earth model

flattening of the setting Sun

floats in LaTeX (i.e., figures and tables)

Floyd-Steinberg halftoning

“fog” in mirages

fold line in mirages

French journals

Friedrich Wilhelms, all the

G

Galileo:
blindness not due to observing Sun
observing technique described

Gallica cookie problem

gamma problems with scanned images

geometrical optics

gif animations of green flashes

glossary

grazing incidence

green flashes:
home page
how to see
my explanation page
other explanations
pictures
range of observed colors
reading list
simulated
types summarized

green ray:
described in a separate page of its own
defined
depicted in Feenstra Kuiper's thesis
in Mulder's classification
(see also green flashes and crepuscular rays)

green rim simulations

Grub

H

Habsburg story

halftoning problems

halos

Harriot, Thomas
discovery of law of refraction
eye injury, from observing Sun

heat transfer and mirages

height of homogeneous atmosphere

height of the eye, effects in:
ducted sunsets, or
simulated mock mirages, and
superior mirages, with discontinuous, zigzag, or realistic temperature profiles

help finding things here

hierarchical table of contents

homogeneous atmosphere

horizon:
dip of
distance to
pages related to
strange appearance due to inferior mirage

horizontal-ray paradox

how . . .
far can you see?
to calculate refraction
to find stuff in all these pages
to see green flashes
gif animations of sunsets were made
realistic sunset simulations were made
simulations of mirages were made

HTML, why NOT to use it in e-mail

Huygens, Christiaan

hydrostatic equilibrium

I

illuminance: see also luminance and irradiance

Illusions mis-perceived in mirages
[see also optical illusions]

inferior mirage:
defined
produces Omega form of Sun at the horizon
ray paths
simulations
GF simulations

infinite refraction [cf. Kummer]

integrating the refraction

invariant, refractive

inversions, thermal

irradiance

ispell

J

JavaScript calculator for altitudes of distant objects

JavaScript calculator for converting between sexagesimal and centesimal angles

JOSA paper on visual effects

Joule, James Prescott:
early GF description
1869 paper with woodcut

journal names and aliases

junkbuster problem

K

Kaplan, George: Omega-sunset photos

Kelvin, Lord:
his improbable estimate of GF duration

kinds of green flashes

kinds of mirages

Kosmos:
Mulder's hard-to-find reference in
story behind it

Kummer:
his 1860 paper in original German, or in French translation;
see also entries for circulating rays, and infinite refraction

L

Johann Heinrich Lambert

Laplace's extinction theorem

laser-printer problems and calibration images

LaTeX formatting on Debian systems

Les Cowley's website

library, adventures in:
mine
Tait's

lights seen at night

LINK-tag hierarchy

links to other GF websites

literature, GF in

looming

Lord Kelvin:
his improbable estimate of GF duration

Lord Rayleigh:
GF paper by 4th Baron
molecular scattering theory of 3rd Baron

luminance

M

magazine articles with GF photos

magnification theorem

Matthias, B. T.: see Taylor

Mécanique Céleste

Michie Smith, Charles:
see the bibliography

Minnaert, Marcel:
classic book on natural phenomena; see also the bibliography

minutes of arc

mirages:
general information
simulations
see also entries for inferior, superior, mock, etc.

misconceptions about . . .
green flashes
mirages

missing references

mistakes here, to correct

mock mirage:
defined
ray diagram
simulations
technical paper
sunset animations and realistic color simulations

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Moon illusion

movies of green flashes:
real ones
simulations

Mulder, Marten Edsge:
biography
GF book by
remarks on Galileo and eye safety
index to works cited by

multi-lingual spell-checking

N

Nachspiegelung, Wegener's

navigating this website

needed references

Netgear DG834G DSL modem/router on Debian

Newton, Isaac

nocturnal lights

O

Wollaston's bent oar on a barge in the Thames

observed colors of green flashes

observing green flashes

O'Connell, D. J. K.:
book on GF
errata in
phenomena explained
reviews of
Scientific American article on GF

Omega form of the low Sun:
discussed; effects of eye height and wave height
animated simulation
photographed

optical illusions:
differ from mirages
examples on other websites:
in Japan
in England

optics, basics explained

Oriani's theorem:
derived
discussed

overlapping dots and laser printers

P

paradox of horizontal rays

parallactic refraction

Pekka Parviainen's website:
green flashes
mirages

periodicity effect

Pernter & Exner's book

phenomena due to refraction

photographing green flashes (and other mirage phenomena)

photographs:
of green flashes
earliest of GF
of Omega sunset

pictures of green flashes:
on the Web
published in books
published in magazines

placement of floats in LaTeX (i.e., figures and tables)

plane-parallel model

Pola

Poland

polytropes

PostScript file conversions:
to EPS
to PNG
to and from other graphics formats

prediction of sunset time

principles behind refraction phenomena

printer calibration tests

printing problems with engravings

prisms

proxy server problem

PS file conversions:
to EPS
to PNG
to and from other graphics formats

publications:
about green flashes, recommended
full bibliography of

purple flashes:
examples and interpretation of color

Q

quasi- reflection

R

radiance

rainbows
links to pictures of

Rambaut, Arthur
review article by

ray bending of refracted rays in air

ray diagrams:
for ducts
for mirages
(see also the mirage simulation pages)

Rayleigh, Lord
GF paper by 4th Baron Rayleigh
molecular scattering theory by 3rd Baron Rayleigh

rays:
a fiction of optics

recommended reading about green flashes

realistic simulations, how made

red flash:
first observed red flash
second observed red flash
simulations of, at

red rim

reduced height of the atmosphere

references
general bibliography on refraction (see also its introduction)
on green flashes
on mirages

refraction at a prism face

refraction, law of
discovered
explained

refraction phenomena, table of

refractive invariant explained

refractivity and dispersion of air

rendering spectra on monitors

reproducing scanned engravings

retinal bleaching

RGB and colors

red rim

Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices

Ruthenia

S

safety, eye

scanned images

scattering, atmospheric:
simple description
fuller description
technical exposition

Scientific American:
article by O'Connell

Scripta Clarissimi Mathematici

sed, shell alternatives to

seconds of arc

sexagesimal angular measure

simulations of:
green flashes
green rims
mirages
spectra

sinking

site map for these Web pages

Sky & Telescope magazine:
GF pictures published in
home page of

Smiley-Clemence fight

smoothness of temperature profiles

Snel, Willebrord

spectra

spell-checking multiple languages

sRGB

Standard Atmosphere
sunset simulation
temperature profile
terrestrial refraction simulations

stooping

stories:
about adventures in the library
about Taylor and Matthias
about a much-travelled copy of Pernter & Exner
about a surfer
about tracking down a reference
about why libraries are irreplaceable

sub-duct green flashes

sunset time calculations

superior mirage:
defined
ray diagrams
simulations

surfer story

symmetry considerations

systematic exposition of atmospheric refraction

T

table of . . .
green flash types
refraction phenomena

Tables of Contents

P. G. Tait's library adventure

target used in simulations

Taylor and Matthias:
paper in Nature
story about

technical details of atmospheric . . .
extinction
refraction
scattering

temperature profiles

terrestrial refraction

textbook errors:
about green flashes
about Galileo's blindness

textbook explanation of GF

thanks to everyone who has helped

theorems of atmospheric refraction:
horizontal rays required for mirages
magnification at the horizon
Oriani's theorem

thermal inversions:
defined

thermal structure

time of sunset

toolbar, site-specific

towering

tr replacement in shell scripts

transfer functions

trapping of rays in ducts

types of . . .
green flashes
mirages
refraction phenomena

U

un-blurring scanned images

understanding refraction in detail

unsolved mysteries of GFs

V

Vatican Observatory green flashes explained

Verudella

videos of green flashes:
real ones
simulations

violet flashes:
examples and interpretation of color

visual effects in green flashes

W

Wallachia

wanted references

waves on the water and dip of the horizon

waves on the water and green flashes

waves on the water and Omega sunsets

wc, shell alternatives to

Wegener, Alfred
papers on mirages
periodicity effect
Wegener's principle
blank strips and Nachspiegelung

Welser, Mark

Whitmell, Charles:
second to see a red flash
dozens of items in the bibliography, from 1897 to 1919
obituaries

who's responsible for all this?

Wollaston's bent oar on a barge in the Thames

wood engravings, how to reproduce

Wood, Robert W.:
comments on GF and afterimages in “Physical Optics”
GF observation and incorrect explanation
early mirage photograph

X

Y

yellow flashes:
how to avoid them in photographs of green flashes
technical details of why most sunset green flashes turn out yellow on color film

Young, A. T.:
e-mail address
how I got into this business
GF publications

Z

Zenit:
English version of GF paper in
home page of this Dutch magazine

Zirknitz, Lake

Copyright © 2000 – 2017 Andrew T. Young


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